Island in the Sun (film)
Island in the Sun is a 1957 De Luxe in CinemaScope drama film produced by Darryl F. Zanuck and directed by Robert Rossen. It features an ensemble cast including James Mason, Harry Belafonte, Joan Fontaine, Joan Collins, Dorothy Dandridge, Michael Rennie, Stephen Boyd, Patricia Owens, John Justin, Diana Wynyard, and Basil Sydney. The film is about race relations and interracial romance set in the fictitious island of Santa Marta. Barbados and Grenada were selected as the sites for the movie based on the 1955 novel by Alec Waugh. The film was controversial at the time of its release for its portrayal of an interracial romance.
|Island in the Sun|
Film poster by Jock Hinchliffe
|Directed by||Robert Rossen|
|Produced by||Darryl F. Zanuck|
|Written by||Alfred Hayes|
|Based on||Island in the Sun|
by Alec Waugh
|Music by||Malcolm Arnold|
|Edited by||Reginald Beck|
|Distributed by||20th Century Fox|
|Budget||$2,250,000 or $3 million|
|Box office||$5 million (US and Canada rentals)|
The film follows several characters, black, white and mixed race, and their relationships. It also chronicles the social inequality between the British who colonized the island and the native population. Maxwell Fleury (James Mason) is a white plantation owner's son who suffers from an inferiority complex and makes rash decisions to prove his worth. He is tormented by jealousy of his wife Sylvia (Patricia Owens), and he is envious of his younger sister Jocelyn (Joan Collins), who is being courted by the Oxford-bound Euan Templeton (Stephen Boyd), a war hero visiting the governor of the island, his father Lord Templeton (Ronald Squire).
David Boyeur (Harry Belafonte), a young black man emerging as a powerful politician, represents the common people and is seen by some as a threat to the white ruling class. Mavis Norman (Joan Fontaine), a woman from the elite white class, strikes up a romantic interest in Boyeur and much of the story explores the tension between these two.
Maxwell believes that Hilary Carson (Michael Rennie) is having an affair with his wife. He strangles Carson during a quarrel, then tries to make it look like a robbery. Colonel Whittingham (John Williams), the head of police, investigates the murder.
A journalist named Bradshaw (Hartley Power) writes an exposé revealing that Maxwell's grandmother was part black. Maxwell has decided to run for the legislature, but is jeered by the crowd, then insults everyone there.
Jocelyn learns she is pregnant, but does not wish to burden Euan with a child of mixed race. Her mother reveals that Jocelyn's father was actually a white man, the result of an undisclosed affair. She and Euan board a plane to England, as do Margot and Denis, to begin new lives.
Maxwell, a broken man, contemplates suicide, then decides to go to Whittingham to confess. Mavis wishes to marry Boyeur and begin a new life of her own, but he decides the needs of the island and his people must come first.
- James Mason as Maxwell Fleury, the family's son, who is a successful, but hot-tempered plantation owner.
- Harry Belafonte as David Boyeur, a black politician representing the common people, who falls in love with Mavis Norman.
- Joan Fontaine as Mavis Norman, an upper class white woman, who is a member of the richest family on the island and wants to marry David Boyeur.
- Joan Collins as Jocelyn Fleury, the alluring sister of Maxwell, who is the romancer of Euan Templeton.
- Dorothy Dandridge as Margot Seaton, the beautiful Indian drug store clerk, who is pursued by governor-aide Denis Archer.
- Michael Rennie as Hilary Carson, a retired war hero, who is assumed to be having an affair with Sylvia Fleury.
- Patricia Owens as Sylvia Fleury, the wife of Maxwell, who Maxwell assumes is having an affair with Hilary Carson.
- John Justin as Denis Archer, the governor's aide, and the romancer of Margot Seaton.
- Stephen Boyd as Euan Templeton, the governor's young son, who is also courting Jocelyn Fleury.
- Diana Wynyard as Mrs. Fleury, the mother of Maxwell and Jocelyn, who is hiding things from her children.
- Basil Sydney as Julian Fleury, the husband of Mrs. Fleury and father of Maxwell and Jocelyn, who also is hiding things.
- John Williams as Colonel Whittingham, the head of police, who investigates Hilary Carson's murder.
- Ronald Squire as Governor Templeton, the governor of the island, and Euan's father.
- Hartley Power as Bradshaw, an American journalist visiting Santa Marta.
The novel was published in January 1956. The New York Times called it an "absorbing good reading and a considerable achievement in its own right." The Los Angeles Times called it "strong, suspenseful." The book sold over 900,000 copies.
Darryl F. Zanuck purchased screen rights to the novel for 20th Century Fox in May 1955, prior to publication. However by that stage it had already been accepted for serialization and was the Literary Guild and Reader's Digest Guild choice. Waugh received $140,000 for the rights.
Zanuck said he was attracted to the novel because it contained multiple stories. "I like multiple stories," he said. "Either a story should concentrate on two people or it should for me at least have a number of people dramatically integrated. I don't mean the Grand Hotel type of story but people whose lives and emotions - the drama of the story - are knit together."
Zanuck said there were fourteen major parts, "and six of them it would be difficult to say who was the most important."
Zanuck also liked the fact the book had "a novel and attractive background" which would suit filming in color and CinemaScope. And he said the novel tackled miscegenation.
"Our picture is highly controversial, but then I've made controversial pictures before," said Zanuck, who had made Grapes of Wrath, Gentleman's Agreement and Pinky. "I don't know whether I'll ever be able to show the film in the south and it may be objected to in other areas but I am taking my chances because I believe this great story... If a picture has real significance and genuine theme and purpose, my contention is that it can be made no matter how controversial."
Zanuck said "it is not basically a picture about the color problem but it would not be possible to make a film about the West Indies without dealing with the color question. It is the essence of the life of the place."
In July 1955 Alfred Hayes was signed to do the script.
Zanuck eventually left Fox to return to producing. As part of his agreement with Fox, he took the rights to Island in the Sun. It was going to be the second of three films he was going to produce, the first being The Sun Also Rises and the third being The Secret Crimes of Josef Stalin. In the end Island would be made before Sun Also Rises and the Stalin project was never filmed.
In July 1956 Robert Rossen was hired to direct. Zanuck said Rossen's "reputation was largely made on offbeat, unorthodox subjects - which this is - and I had confidence, which for a producer is absolutely essential, that he was the man."
This was Dorothy Dandridge's "comeback" movie, as she hadn't made a film since 1954's Carmen Jones, in which she played the lead. In 1955, she had been offered supporting roles in The King and I and The Lieutenant Wore Skirts but Otto Preminger, her lover and Carmen Jones' director, advised her to turn down the roles. This was Dandridge's first film role in three years: She was billed third, but appeared in only a supporting role.
Many of the lead actors were under contract to Fox, including Joan Collins, Michael Rennie, John Justin and Stephen Boyd.
Zanuck said in October 1956 "Ridding myself of the obligation of conducting a large film establishment like 20th Century Fox hasn't meant any cessation of work. I have seldom done as much travelling as I expect to do in the next few weeks and that's because we are really trying to make this picture really come alive as a big tropical island exploit."
Filming started 15 October in the West Indies. The film was shot on location in Barbados and Grenada then in late November the unit shifted to London for studio work. The budget was $3 million.
As a result of playing interracial love scenes with Harry Belafonte, Joan Fontaine received poison pen mail, including some purported threats from the Ku Klux Klan. Fontaine turned the letters over to the FBI.
The film received mixed reviews and its interracial themes meant it found initial difficulty in being booked in theaters in the Southern United States. The film also received protests prior to its opening in the North in St Paul-Minneapolis. Zanuck had previously said he would pay the fines of any theatre owners fined for showing the film.
Premiering in June 1957, Island in the Sun was a major box office success, opening at number one in the country with a first week gross of almost $500,000 in the 16 cities that Variety reported. The film earned $5,550,000 worldwide, and finished as the sixth highest-grossing film of 1957.
It was the 8th most popular movie in Britain of that year.
A proposal was floated in 2009 to demolish the remains of the real mansion used in the film. The mansion is located at Farley Hill, Barbados. The mansion was gutted by fire in the mid-1960s, and all that remains are the foundations and exterior walls of the building.
The title song "Island in the Sun" was written by Harry Belafonte and Irving Burgie. There are now over 40 cover versions recorded by various artist such as The Merrymen, José Carreras, Caterina Valente in German, Henri Salvador in French ("Une île au soleil") and The Righteous Brothers, just to name a few. It briefly was featured (and parodied) in the 1992 film The Muppet Christmas Carol.
- Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p250
- ZANUCK FILM PLANS: Fox to Release 'Island in Sun, His First as Independent New York Times 21 Feb 1957: 30.
- Cohn, Lawrence (October 15, 1990). "All-Time Film Rental Champs". Variety. p. M166.
- Books of The Times: A Study of Color Well-Drawn Characters By ORVILLE PRESCOTT. New York Times 03 Jan 1956: 29.
- THE BOOK REPORT Kirsch, Robert R. Los Angeles Times 16 Jan 1956: A5.
- 'Life has always been such fun, and Waugh was blessed with such a capacity for enjoyment, This is why, he thinks, he never became a Balzac... Too many shuttered afternoons, too much cricket, too many parties.' Linda Christmas interviews Alec Waugh The Guardian 30 June 1975: 8.
- Zanuck Captures Alec Waugh Manuscript; Film Slate for Tucker Heavy Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 2 May 1955: B9.
- HOVE TO ON 'ISLAND IN THE SUN': Relaxed Darryl Zanuck Shapes Waugh Novel To the Screen Happy Crew Pre-Sold Realistic View "Brutes" Abroad By STEPHEN WATTS. New York Times 20 Jan 1957: 101.
- Independent's Role Gives Zanuck Lift: Darryl Zanuck Gets Big Lift From Role as Independent Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 14 Oct 1956: E1.
- KRAMER AND U. A. SIGN 2-FILM PACT: Producer-Director's Contract Goes Into Effect in Spring After 'Pride and Passion' By THOMAS M. PRYOR New York Times 25 July 1955: 16.
- ZANUCK WILL FILM 'CRIMES OF STALIN': Life of Late Soviet Dictator Will Include Data From Speech by Khrushchev On the Story Front Of Local Origin By OSCAR GODBOUT Special to The New York Times. 21 June 1956: 33.
- Drama: Robert Keith to Play Strange Silent Role; O'Connor to Test Drama Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 3 July 1956: 13.
- Government of Barbados: Places of Interest - Farley Hill National Park Archived March 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- FILM EVENTS: Kozlenko Tale Aimed at Douglas Los Angeles Times 15 Sep 1956: B8.
- Higham, Charles (1984). Sisters: The Story of Olivia de Havilland and Joan Fontaine. Dell Publishing. p. 228. ISBN 0-440-17866-5.
- "Prior to Release of Film, Joan Fontaine Gets Filthy Mail on 'Island' Role". Variety. June 19, 1957. p. 1. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- "South Wavering on 'Island in the Sun'? L'ville Clicks Despite Race Angles". Variety. June 19, 1957. p. 1. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- "Unidentified Protests Hit 'Island in the Sun' in St Paul-Minneapolis". Variety. June 19, 1957. p. 3. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- FILM ATTACK SCORED: Zanuck Would Pay Fines for Showing 'Island in Sun' New York Times 11 May 1957: 24.
- "National Box Office Survey". Variety. June 19, 1957. p. 3. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- LINDSAY ANDERSON, and DAVID DENT. "Time For New Ideas." Times [London, England] January 8, 1958: 9. The Times Digital Archive. Web. July 11, 2012.
- Goddard, Richard (March 22, 2009). "Farley Hill Great House National Theatre for the Performing Arts". Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved June 5, 2010.