Ischia (/ˈɪskiə/ ISK-ee-ə, Italian: [ˈiskja]) is an Italian island in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples, about 30 km (19 mi) from Naples. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands. Roughly trapezoidal in shape, it measures approximately 10 km (6 mi) east to west and 7 km (4 mi) north to south and has about 34 km (21 mi) of coastline and a surface area of 46.3 km2 (17.9 sq mi). It is volcanic and almost entirely mountainous; the highest peak is Mount Epomeo, at 788 m (2,585 ft).[2] The island is very densely populated, with 62,000 residents (more than 1,300 inhabitants per square km).[3]

View from Procida
Highest point
Elevation789 m (2,589 ft)
Coordinates40°43′52″N 13°53′44″E / 40.73111°N 13.89556°E / 40.73111; 13.89556
Ischia is located in Campania
Ischia is located in Italy
Ischia (Italy)
Mountain typeComplex volcano
Last eruptionJanuary to March 1302[1]
Native name:
Pithekousai (Greek)
LocationTyrrhenian Sea
Area46.3 km2 (17.9 sq mi)
Highest elevation789 m (2589 ft)
Highest pointMount Epomeo
Metropolitan CityNaples
Largest settlementIschia (pop. 18,253)
Population62,027 (2009)
Pop. density1,339.7/km2 (3469.8/sq mi)

Ischia is also well known for its thermal water[4] and thermal gardens used since ancient times. Its volcanic nature makes Ischia one of the largest spas in Europe. Ischia's thermal waters are alkaline. Already the first Euboic settlers (8th century BC), as evidenced by the numerous archaeological finds found in the site of Pithecusa and preserved in the Archaeological Museum of Villa Arbusto[5] in Lacco Ameno, appreciated and used the waters of the island's thermal springs. The Greeks, in fact, used the thermal waters to restore the spirit and the body and as a remedy for the healing of the after-effects of war wounds (in the pre-antibiotic era), attributing supernatural powers to the waters and vapors that gushed from the earth; it is no coincidence that temples dedicated to divinities such as that of Apollo in Delphi rose in every spa town. Strabo, a Greek historian and geographer, mentions the island of Ischia and the virtues of its thermal springs in his monumental geographical work (Geograph. Lib. V). If the Greeks were the first peoples to learn about the powers of thermal waters, the Romans exalted them as an instrument of care and relaxation through the creation of public Thermae and they used the numerous springs of the island surely and profitably (as evidenced by the votive tablets found at the Source of Nitrodi in Barano d'Ischia, where there was a small temple dedicated to Apollo and to the Nitrodie Nymphs, guardians of the waters) even without lavish settlements; In fact, on the island, as in Rome and in other ancient thermal centres, no impressive vestiges of thermal buildings have been found, probably due to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes that frequently violently shook the crags. The decline of the power of Rome coincided with the abandonment of the use of bath rooms also in Ischia: in fact, there are no traces of the use of water in the Middle Ages.

Ischia is the name of the main comune of the island. The other comuni of the island are Barano d'Ischia, Casamicciola Terme, Forio, Lacco Ameno and Serrara Fontana.

Geology and geography Edit

The roughly trapezoidal island is formed by a complex volcano immediately southwest of the Campi Flegrei area at the western side of the Bay of Naples. The eruption of the trachytic Green Tuff Ignimbrite about 56,000 years ago was followed by the formation of a caldera comprising almost the entire island and some of the surrounding seabed.[6] The highest point of the island, Monte Epomeo (788 m (2,585 ft)), is a volcanic horst consisting of green tuff that was submerged after its eruption and then uplifted. Volcanism on the island has been significantly affected by tectonism that formed a series of horsts and grabens; resurgent doming produced at least 800 m (2,600 ft) of uplift during the past 33,000 years.[7] Many small monogenetic volcanoes formed around the uplifted block. Volcanism during the Holocene produced a series of pumiceous tephras, tuff rings, lava domes, and lava flows.[8] The last eruption of Ischia, in 1302, produced a spatter cone and the Arso lava flow, which reached the NE coast.[1]

The surrounding waters, including gulfs of Gaeta,[9][10] Naples and Pozzuoli are both rich and healthy, providing habitat to around seven species of whales and dolphins, including massive fin and sperm whales. Special research programmes on local cetaceans have been conducted to monitor and protect this bio-diversity.[11][12]

Name Edit

Maronti beach, east of the spit of St. Angelo

Virgil poetically referred to it as Inarime and still later as Arime.[13] Martianus Capella followed Virgil in this allusive name, which was never in common circulation: the Romans called it Aenaria, the Greeks, Πιθηκοῦσαι, Pithekoūsai.[14]

(In)arime and Pithekousai both appear to derive from words for "monkey" (Etruscan arimos,[15] Ancient Greek πίθηκος, píthēkos, "monkey"). However, Pliny derives the Greek name from the local clay deposits, not from píthēkos; he explains the Latin name Aenaria as connected to a landing by Aeneas (Princeton Encyclopedia). If the island actually was, like Gibraltar, home to a population of monkeys, they were already extinct by historical times as no record of them is mentioned in ancient sources.[citation needed]

The current name appears for the first time in a letter from Pope Leo III to Charlemagne in 813: the name iscla mentioned there would allegedly derive from insula, though there is an argument made for a Semitic origin in I-schra, "black island".[citation needed]

History Edit

Ancient times Edit

An acropolis site of the Monte Vico area was inhabited from the Bronze Age, as Mycenaean and Iron Age pottery findings attest. Euboean Greeks from Eretria and Chalcis arrived in the 8th century BC to establish an emporium for trade with the Etruscans of the mainland. This settlement was home to a mixed population of Greeks of Magna Graecia, Etruscans, and Phoenicians. Because of its fine harbor and the safety from raids afforded by the sea, the settlement of Pithecusae became successful through trade in iron and with mainland Italy; in 700 BC, Pithecusae was home to 5,000–10,000 people.[16]

The ceramic Euboean artifact inscribed with a reference to "Nestor's Cup" was discovered in a grave on the island in 1953. Engraved upon the cup are a few lines written in the Greek alphabet. Dating from c. 730 BC, it is one of the most important testimonies of the early Greek alphabet, from which the Latin alphabet descended via the Etruscan alphabet. According to certain scholars,[citation needed] the inscription also might be the oldest written reference to the Iliad.[17]

In 474 BC, Hiero I of Syracuse came to the aid of the Cumaeans, who lived on the mainland opposite Ischia, against the Etruscans and defeated them on the sea. He occupied Ischia and the surrounding Parthenopean islands and left behind a garrison to build a fortress before the city of Ischia itself. This was still extant in the Middle Ages, but the original garrison fled before the eruptions of 470 BC and the island was taken over by Neapolitans. The Romans seized Ischia (and Naples) in 322 BC.[citation needed]

From 1st century AD to 16th century Edit

Local view of Il Fungo (The Mushroom)

In 6 AD, Augustus restored the island to Naples in exchange for Capri. Ischia suffered from the barbarian invasions, being taken first by the Heruli and then by the Ostrogoths, being ultimately absorbed into the Eastern Roman Empire.[citation needed] The Byzantines gave the island over to Naples in 588, and by 661, it was being administered by a Count liege to the Duke of Naples.[citation needed] The area was devastated by the Saracens in 813 and 847; in 1004 it was occupied by Henry II of Germany; the Norman Roger II of Sicily took it in 1130 granting the island to the Norman Aldoyn de Candida created Count d'Ischia; the island was raided by the Pisans in 1135 and 1137 and subsequently fell under the Hohenstaufen and then Angevin rule.[citation needed] After the Sicilian Vespers in 1282, the island rebelled, recognizing Peter III of Aragon, but was retaken by the Angevins the following year.[citation needed] It was conquered in 1284 by the forces of Aragon, and Charles II of Anjou was unable to successfully retake it until 1299.[citation needed]

As a consequence of the island's last eruption in 1302, the population fled to Baia, where they remained for 4 years.[citation needed] In 1320 Robert of Anjou and his wife Sancia visited the island and were hosted by Cesare Sterlich, who had been sent by Charles II from the Holy See to govern the island in 1306 and was by this time nearly 100 years of age.[citation needed]

Ischia suffered greatly in the struggles between the Angevin and Durazzo dynasties.[citation needed] It was taken by Carlo Durazzo in 1382, retaken by Louis II of Anjou in 1385 and captured yet again by Ladislaus of Naples in 1386; it was sacked by the fleet of the Antipope John XXIII under the command of Gaspare Cossa in 1410 only to be retaken by Ladislaus the following year.[citation needed] In 1422 Joan II gave the island to her adoptive son Alfonso V of Aragon, though, when he fell into disgrace, she retook it with the help of Genoa in 1424.[citation needed] In 1438 Alfonso reoccupied the castle, kicking out all the men and proclaiming it an Aragonese colony, marrying to his garrison the wives and daughters of the expelled.[citation needed] He set about building a bridge linking the castle to the rest of the island, and he carved out a large gallery, both of which are still to be seen today.[citation needed] In 1442, he gave the island to one of his favorites, Lucretia d'Alagno, who in turn entrusted the island's governance to her brother-in-law, Giovanni Torella.[citation needed] Upon the death of Alfonso in 1458, they returned the island to the Angevin side.[citation needed] Ferdinand I of Naples ordered Alessandro Sforza to chase Torella out of the castle and gave the island over, in 1462, to Garceraldo Requesens. In 1464, after a brief Torellan insurrection, Marino Caracciolo was set up as governor.[citation needed]

In February 1495, with the arrival of Charles VIII, Ferdinand II landed on the island and took possession of the castle, and, after having killed the disloyal castellan Giusto di Candida with his own hands, left the island under the control of Innico d'Avalos, marquis of Pescara and Vasto, who ably defended the place from the French flotilla.[citation needed] With him came his sister Costanza and through them, they founded the D'Avalos dynasty, which would last on the island into the 18th century.[citation needed]

16th–18th centuries Edit

Throughout the 16th century, the island suffered the incursions of pirates and Barbary privateers from North Africa: in 1543 and 1544 Hayreddin Barbarossa laid waste to the island, taking 4,000 prisoners in the process. In 1548 and 1552, Ischia was beset by his successor Dragut Rais. With the increasing rarity and diminishing severity of the piratical attacks later in the century and the construction of better defences, the islanders began to venture out of the castle, and it was then that the historic centre of the town of Ischia was begun. Even so, many inhabitants still ended up slaves to the pirates, the last known being taken in 1796.

During the 1647 revolution of Masaniello, there was an attempted rebellion against the feudal landowners.

Since the 18th century Edit

Thomas Ender, Ischian landscape (1832), National Museum, Warsaw
Tableau topographiques et historiques des isles d'Ischia, de Ponza, de Vandotena (1825)

With the extinction of the D'Avalos line in 1729, the island reverted to state property. In March 1734, it was taken by the Bourbons and administered by a royal governor seated within the castle. The island participated in the short-lived Republic of Naples starting in March 1799, but by 3 April, Commodore Thomas Troubridge under the command of Lord Nelson had put down the revolt on Ischia as well as on neighboring Procida. By decree of the governor, many of the rebels were hanged in a square on Procida, now Piazza dei Martiri (Square of the Martyrs). Among these was Francesco Buonocore, who had received the island to administer from the French Championnet in Naples. On 13 February 1806, the island was occupied by the French, and on the 24th was unsuccessfully attacked by the British.

On 21 and 22 June 1809, the islands of Ischia and Procida were attacked by an Anglo-Bourbon fleet. Procida surrendered on 24 June and Ischia soon afterwards. However, the British soon returned to their bases in Sicily and Malta.[18] In the 19th century Ischia was a popular travel destination for European nobility.[citation needed]

On 28 July 1883, an earthquake destroyed the villages of Casamicciola Terme and Lacco Ameno.

Ischia developed into a well-known artist colony at the beginning of the 20th century. Writers and painters from all over the world were attracted. Eduard Bargheer, Hans Purrmann and Arrigo Wittler lived on the island. Rudolf Levy, Werner Gilles, Max Peiffer Watenphul with Kurt Craemer and Vincent Weber stayed in the fishing village of Sant'Angelo on the southern tip of the island shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1936 Ischia had a population of 30,418.[19]

Spa tourism did not resume again until the early 1950s. At that time, a quite remarkable artist colony of writers, composers and visual artists lived in Forio, including Ingeborg Bachmann. Elizabeth Taylor and Luchino Visconti stayed here for filming.

On 21 August 2017 Ischia experienced a 4.2 magnitude earthquake[20] which killed two people and injured 42 more.[21][22]

On 26 November 2022, a storm and resulting landslide killed 12 people.[23]

In literature and the arts Edit

The view from the Waltons' house - La Mortella

Events Edit

The island is home to the Ischia Film Festival, an international cinema competition celebrated in June or July, dedicated to all the works that have promoted the value of the local territory.

Notable guests and works Edit

Film setting Edit

In addition to the works noted above, multiple media works have been set or filmed on the island. For example:

Wines Edit

The island of Ischia is home to the eponymous Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) that produces both red and white wines though white wines account for nearly 80% of the island's wine production. Vineyards planted within the 179 ha (440 acres) boundaries of the DOC tend to be on volcanic soils with high pumice, phosphorus and potassium content.[31]

The white wines of the island are composed primarily of Forastera (at least 65% according to DOC regulation) and Biancolella (up to 20%) with up to 15% of other local grape varieties such as Arilla and San Lunardo. Grapes are limited to a harvest yield of no more than 10 tonnes/ha with a finished minimum alcohol level of at least 11%. For wines labeled as Bianco Superiore, the yield is further restricted to a maximum of 8 tonnes/ha with a minimum alcohol level of 12%. Only certain subareas of the Ischia DOC can produce Bianco Superiore with the blend needing to contain 50% Forastera, 40% Biancolella and 10% San Lunardo.[31]

Red wines produced under the Ischia DOC are composed of 50% Guarnaccia, 40% Piedirosso (known under the local synonym of Per'e Palummo) and 10% Barbera. Like the white wines, red grapes destined for DOC production are limited to a harvest yield of no more than 10 tonnes/ha though the minimum finished alcohol level is higher at 11.5% ABV.[31]

Tourism Edit

Ischia is a popular tourist destination, welcoming up to 6 million visitors per year, mainly from the Italian mainland as well as other European countries like Germany and the United Kingdom (approximately 5,000 Germans are resident on the island), although it has become an increasingly popular destination for Eastern Europeans. The number of Russian guests rose steadily from the 2000s onwards,[32] before the number came to an almost complete standstill due to the currency depreciation of the ruble and COVID-19 pandemic.

From Ischia, various destinations such as Naples, Vesuvius, Amalfi Coast, Capri, Herculaneum, Paestum and the neighboring island Procida can be booked. Ischia is easily reached by ferry from Naples.The number of thermal spas on the islands makes it particularly popular with tourists seeking "wellness" holidays. A regular visitor was Angela Merkel, the former German chancellor.

Main sights Edit

Castello Aragonese
Lacco Ameno
S. Angelo d'Ischia
View From La Mortella
Ancient Olive tree in La Mortella

Aragonese Castle Edit

The Aragonese Castle (Castello Aragonese, Ischia Ponte) was built on a rock near the island in 474 BC, by Hiero I of Syracuse.[citation needed] At the same time, two towers were built to control enemy fleets' movements. The rock was then occupied by Parthenopeans (the ancient inhabitants of Naples).[citation needed] In 326 BC, the fortress was captured by Romans and then again by the Parthenopeans.[citation needed] In 1441 Alfonso V of Aragon connected the rock to the island with a stone bridge instead of the prior wood bridge and fortified the walls in order to defend the inhabitants against the raids of pirates.[citation needed] Around 1700, approximately 2000 families lived on the islet, including a Poor Clares convent, an abbey of Basilian monks (of the Greek Orthodox Church), the bishop and the seminar, and the prince, with a military garrison.[citation needed] There were also thirteen churches. In 1912, the castle was sold to a private owner. Today the castle is the most visited monument on the island. It is accessed through a tunnel with large openings which let the light enter. Along the tunnel, there is a small chapel consecrated to Saint John Joseph of the Cross (San Giovan Giuseppe della Croce), the patron saint of the island. More comfortable access is also possible with a modern lift. After arriving outside, it is possible to visit the Church of the Immacolata and the Cathedral of Assunta. The first was built in 1737 on the location of a smaller chapel dedicated to Saint Francis and closed after the suppression of convents in 1806, as well as the Poor Clares convent.

Gardens of La Mortella Edit

The gardens, located in Forio-San Francesco, were originally the property of the English composer William Walton. Walton lived in the villa next to the gardens with his Argentinian wife Susana. When the composer arrived on the island in 1946, he immediately called Russell Page from England to lay out the garden. Wonderful tropical and Mediterranean plants were planted, and some have now reached amazing proportions. The gardens include wonderful views over the city and the harbour of Forio. A museum dedicated to the life and work of William Walton now comprises part of the garden complex. There's also a recital room where renowned musical artists perform on a regular schedule.[citation needed]

Villa La Colombaia Edit

Villa La Colombaia is located in Lacco Ameno and Forio territories. Surrounded by a park, the villa (called "The Dovecote") was commissioned by Luigi Patalano, a famous local socialist and journalist. It is now the seat of a cultural institution and museum dedicated to Luchino Visconti. The institution promotes cultural activities such as music, cinema, theatre, art exhibitions, workshops and cinema reviews. The villa and the park are open to the public.

Others Edit

Voluntary associations Edit

Committees and associations work to promote tourism on the island and provide services and activities for residents. Among these are:

  • Il coniglio di Rocco Alfarano, associazione per la protezione del quadrupede sull'isola
  • Accaparlante Società Cooperativa Sociale, Via Sant'Alessandro
  • Associazione Donatori Volontari di Sangue, Via Iasolino, 1
  • Associazione Nemo per la Diffusione della Cultura del Mare, via Regina Elena, 75 Cellulare: 366-1270197
  • Associazione Progetto Emmaus, Via Acquedotto, 65
  • A.V.I. Associazione Volontariato e Protezione Civile Isola D'Ischia, Via Delle Terme, 88
  • Cooperativa Sociale Arkè onlus, Via delle Terme, 76/R Telefono: 081-981342
  • Cooperativa Sociale Asat Ischia onlus, Via delle Terme, 76/R Telefono: 081-3334228
  • Cooperativa Sociale kairòs onlus, Via delle Terme, 76/R
  • Kalimera Società Cooperativa Sociale, Via Fondo Bosso, 20
  • Pan Assoverdi Salvanatura, Via Delle Terme, 53/C
  • Prima Ischia – Onlus, Via Iasolino, 102

Town twinning Edit

Environmental problems Edit

The sharp increase in population between the 1950s and 1980s and the growing inflow of tourists (in 2010, over 4 million tourists visited the island for at least one day) have increased the anthropic pressure on the island. Significant acreage of land previously used for agriculture has been developed for the construction of houses and residential structures. Most of this development has taken place without any planning and building permission.[38] As at the end of 2011, the island lacked the most basic system for sewage treatment; sewage is sent directly to the sea.[citation needed] In 2004 one of the five communities of the island commenced civil works to build a sewage treatment plant, but the construction has not been completed since, and is currently stalled.

On 14 June 2007, one of the four high-voltage underwater cables connecting the island to the mainland grid became damaged. The line is maintained by Enel S.p.A., although never authorized by Italian authorities.[39] The incident released pressurised oil into the sea resulting in pollution from polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, the use of which was banned by the Italian authorities since 1984), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkyl benzenes (aromatic hydrocarbons). The incident damaged the "Regno di Nettuno" protected marine area, the largest ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea,[citation needed] designated as a "priority habitat" in Annex I to the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and comprising oceanic posidonia beds.[citation needed]

In order to reduce pollution due to cars, Ischia has been the place of the first complete sustainable mobility project applied to an urban centre, created in 2017 with Enel in collaboration with Aldo Arcangioli under the name of "Green Island".[citation needed]

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ a b "Ischia: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  2. ^ "Mount Epomeo". Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites.
  3. ^ "Isola d'Ischia", Wikipedia (in Italian), 2022-05-03, retrieved 2022-05-08
  4. ^ "Hot spring", Wikipedia, 2022-04-28, retrieved 2022-05-08
  5. ^ Ameno, Redazione Lacco. "Villa Arbusto". Comune di Lacco Ameno (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  6. ^ Marmoni, G.M.; Martino, S.; Heap, M.J.; Reuschlé, T. (2017). "Gravitational slope-deformation of a resurgent caldera: New insights from the mechanical behaviour of Mt. Nuovo tuffs (Ischia Island, Italy)". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 345: 1–20. doi:10.1016/J.JVOLGEORES.2017.07.019. S2CID 134849098.
  7. ^ "Ischia: General Information". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
  8. ^ "Ischia: Synonyms & Subfeatures". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  9. ^ 2016. Orca avvistata (Orca sighted) Archived 2017-10-05 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 21 September 2019
  10. ^ D'Alelio D.. 2016. Laggiu soffia! Cronaca di una "caccia" al capodoglio nelle acque tra Ischia e Ventotene – Leviatani, nascosti e preziosi Archived 2017-03-30 at the Wayback Machine. The Scienza Live. Retrieved on March 29, 2017
  11. ^ Mussi B.. Miragliuolo A.. Monzini E.. Battaglia M.. 1999. Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) feeding ground in the coastal waters of Ischia (Archipelago Campano) Archived 2020-11-23 at the Wayback Machine (pdf). The European Cetacean Society. Retrieved on March 28, 2017
  12. ^ RAICALDO P.. 2014. Delfini e capodogli tra Ischia e Procida. Retrieved on March 29, 2017
  13. ^ His poetical allusion was apparently to the mention in Iliad (ii.783) of Typhoeus being chained down ein Arimois
  14. ^ The plural likely so as to include nearby Procida as well.
  15. ^ Robinson, Andrew (2002). Lost Languages: The Enigma of the World's Undechiphered Scripts. Nevraumont Publishing.
  16. ^ Jonathan M. Hall (2013). A History of the Archaic Greek World, ca. 1200–479 BCE. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-118-34046-2.
  17. ^ Michael Grant (1987). The Rise of the Greeks, ca. 2000–492 BCE. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 220. ISBN 0-684-18536-9.
  18. ^ "ISCHIA - A brief history of Ischia - Austrians and Bourbons - HOTEL ISCHIA - OFFERTE HOTEL ISCHIA". Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  19. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazetteer, p. 849
  20. ^ Terremoto di magnitudo Mw 3.9 del 21-08-2017 ore 20:57:51 (Italia) in zona: 1 km SW Casamicciola Terme (NA), accessed 21 September 2019
  21. ^ Terremoto a Ischia, due morti e 52 feriti. Salvati i fratelli rimasti sepolti Borrelli: 'Case con materiali scadenti' Archived 2018-09-12 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 21 September 2019
  22. ^ Forte terremoto a Ischia, crolli a Casamicciola. Due morti e almeno 39 feriti. Salvi tutti e tre i fratelli rimasti imprigionati sotto le macerie Archived 2017-08-29 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 21 September 2019
  23. ^ "Frana Casamicciola: sono tre le vittime individuate, due uomini e una donna". Rai News 24 (in Italian). 1 December 2022.
  24. ^ "Auden, Wystan Hugh (1907–1973), poet and writer". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. 2004. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30775. Retrieved 16 June 2019. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  25. ^ Kennedy, pp. 208–209
  26. ^ Kennedy, pp. 75, 140, 143, 144 and 208
  27. ^ "Lancaster already in Italy". Screenland. Henry Publishing. October 1951. p. 74. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
  28. ^ The Talented Mr Ripley (1999) film locations, Retrieved November 1, 2019
  29. ^ Fred Topel- Exclusive Interview: Kat Coiro on And While We Were Here 17 September 2013,, accessed 21 September 2019
  30. ^ Men In Black International (2019) film locations] Retrieved November 1, 2019
  31. ^ a b c Saunders, P. (2004). Wine Label Language. Firefly Books. pp. 169–170. ISBN 1-55297-720-X.
  32. ^ "Italy: Land of the rich Russian".
  33. ^ a b "Museo Angelo Rizzoli – Museums – Ischia – Napoli". InCampania. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  34. ^ Ravino, Residence Villa. " english - Ravino Gardens". Giardini Ravino, Parks and gardens, Forio d'Ischia, Isola d'Ischia. The Ravino Gardens born from the passion of natural captain... Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  35. ^ "Sister Cities of Los Angeles". Retrieved 2017-01-09.
  36. ^ "A Message from the Peace Commission: Information on Cambridge's Sister Cities," Archived 2017-06-30 at the Wayback Machine 15 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  37. ^ Richard Thompson. "Looking to strengthen family ties with "sister cities"," Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine Boston Globe, October 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  38. ^ Pleijel, Christian (2015-10-22). "ENERGY AUDIT ON ISCHIA" (PDF).
  39. ^ "Written question - Environmental catastrophe in Ischia - E-3253/2008". Retrieved 8 March 2018.

Bibliography Edit

External links Edit