Isaiah 11

Isaiah 11 is the eleventh chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains prophesies attributed to the prophet Isaiah. This chapter can be divided into two main parts, verses 1–9 and verses 11–16, with verse 10 as a connecting statement between them.[1] The New International Version entitles the chapter "The Branch from Jesse".

Isaiah 11
Great Isaiah Scroll.jpg
The Great Isaiah Scroll, the best preserved of the biblical scrolls found at Qumran from the second century BC, contains all the verses in this chapter.
BookBook of Isaiah
Hebrew Bible partNevi'im
Order in the Hebrew part5
CategoryLatter Prophets
Christian Bible partOld Testament
Order in the Christian part23

TextEdit

The original text was written in Hebrew language. This chapter is divided into 16 verses.

Textual witnessesEdit

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century), Codex Leningradensis (1008).[2]

Some fragments containing parts of this chapter were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls (2nd century BC or later):[3]

  • 1QIsaa: complete
  • 4QIsaa (4Q55): extant verses 12-15
  • 4QIsab (4Q56): extant verses 7-9
  • 4QIsac (4Q57): extant verses 4-11
  • 4QIsal (4Q65): extant verses 14-15

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B;  B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK:  S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A;  A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q;  Q; 6th century).[4]

ParashotEdit

The parashah sections listed here are based on the Aleppo Codex.[5] Isaiah 11 is a part of the Prophecies about Judah and Israel (Isaiah 1–12). {P}: open parashah; {S}: closed parashah.

{S} 11:1-9 {S} 11:10 {P} 11:11-16 [12:1-6 {S}]

Verses 1–9Edit

This part deals with the unbroken continuity between the house of David with the coming messianic king, although the Davidic dynasty was 'cut off to only a stump' because of its pride and corruption.[6]

Verse 1Edit

And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse,
and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:[7]

Cross reference: Isaiah 11:10

  • "Rod" (חטר khoṭır; also in Proverbs 14:3: or "branch" (צמח tsemach) in Isaiah 4:2 (a twig, a shoot); these words "are messianic terms."[8]
  • "Jesse": the father of king David (1 Samuel 16:1–20).[9] The naming assures the continuity of the messianic line, but serves as a reminder of David's humble beginnings and divine election rather than on royal pretension and human pride (2 Samuel 7).[6]
  • "Branch" - (נצר nêtser). A twig, branch, sprout or shoot; a word of "messianic terms."[8] The word occurs four times in the Hebrew Bible including this verse; the other three are Isaiah 60:21 : 'They shall inherit the land forever, the branch of my planting;' Isaiah 14:19 : 'But thou art cast out of thy grave as an abominable branch;' Daniel 11:7: 'But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate.' There is another word rendered "branch" (צמח tsemach) in Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15, although it means substantially the same thing. The word "branch" is also used in rendering several other Hebrew words, but here the word is synonymous with that which is rendered "rod" in the previous part of the verse - a shoot, or twig, from the root of a decayed tree.[10] The word "netser" or "netzer" is the name of the city of Nazareth;[11] which perhaps called like that because of the trees, plants, and grass, which grew here. Jesus Christ's dwelling in this city fulfilled a prophecy, that he should be called a "Nazarene"; or an inhabitant of Netzer (Matthew 2:23). The Jews speak of one Ben Netzer, who they say was a robber, took cities, and reigned over them, and became the head of robbers;[12] and make him to be the little horn in Daniel 7:8,[13] which some implied that he was Jesus;[14] at the same time it tacitly acknowledges that Jesus of Nazareth is the "Netzer" this prophecy speaks of, but in a negative way, that he should be as "a root out of a dry ground" (Isaiah 53:2) or as "a rod and branch out of a dry root".[15]
  • "Roots": from a decayed tree where a shoot starts up. The Septuagint renders this, 'And a flower (ἄνθος anthos) shall arise from the root'.[10] Chaldee version states 'And a king shall proceed from the sons of Jesse, and the Messiah from his sons' sons shall arise', showing conclusively that the ancient Jews referred this to the Messiah.[10] In the Book of Revelation it is applied to Jesus Christ (Revelation 22:16).[10]

Verses 3–4Edit

3 And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord.
He shall not judge by what his eyes see,
or decide disputes by what his ears hear,
4 but with righteousness he shall judge the poor,
and decide with equity for the meek of the earth;
and he shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth,
and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked.[16]

Verse 6Edit

 
"A world in perplexity" by Arthur Grosvenor Daniells (1918).
“The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb,
The leopard shall lie down with the young goat,
The calf and the young lion and the fatling together;
And a little child shall lead them.[18]

This verse and subsequent verses until verse 9 describe the peace of the Messiah's kingdom, which is also described in the Targum: "in the days of the Messiah of Israel, peace shall be multiplied in the earth" and referred to the times of the Messiah in various Jewish literature, such as in Tzeror Hammor[19] and Maimonides[20] when the Israelites will dwell safely among 'the wicked of the nations of the world' (comparable to 'the wild beasts of the field').[15]

  • "A little child": Bohlius interprets this with Jesus Christ[21] (cf. Isaiah 9:6) in particular observes, that they are not to be understood literally, as if the custom and order of things in the world would cease, or that things would be renewed as at the creation, but in a parabolical and enigmatical sense; and interprets them of[15]

Verse 9Edit

They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea.[22]

The message in this verse is echoed in chapter 65.[6]

Verse 10Edit

“And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse,
Who shall stand as a banner to the people;
For the Gentiles shall seek Him,
And His resting place shall be glorious.”[23]

Verses 11–16Edit

This part contains an eschatological prophecy (starting with "in that day") about the restoration of Israel's remnant who were scattered to the ends of the earth.[24]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Childs 2001, p. 99.
  2. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
  3. ^ Ulrich 2010, p. 353-354.
  4. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
  5. ^ As reflected in the Jewish Publication Society's 1917 edition of the Hebrew Bible in English.
  6. ^ a b c Childs 2001, p. 102.
  7. ^ Isaiah 11:1 KJV
  8. ^ a b The Nelson Study Bible. Thomas Nelson, Inc. 1997. ISBN 9780840715999. pp. 1111-1114.
  9. ^ Coogan 2007, pp. 994-996 Hebrew Bible.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Bible - Isaiah 11. James Murphy (ed). London: Blackie & Son, 1884.
  11. ^ David de Pomis Lexic. p. 141.
  12. ^ T. Bab. Cetubot, fol. 51. 2. & Gloss. in ib.
  13. ^ Bereshit Rabba, sect. 76. fol. 67. 2.
  14. ^ Abarbinel in Daniel 7.8. fol. 44. 1.
  15. ^ a b c Gill, John. Exposition of the Entire Bible. Isaiah 11. Accessed 24 April 2019.
  16. ^ Isaiah 11:3–4 ESV
  17. ^ Hebrew Text Analysis: Isaiah 11:3. Biblehub
  18. ^ Isaiah 11:6 NKJV
  19. ^ Tzeror Hammor, fol. 25. 3. Baal Hatturim in Deuteronomy 11. 25.
  20. ^ Maimonides, Hilchot Melachim, c. 12. sect. 1. & Moreh Nevochim, par 3. c. 11. p. 354.
  21. ^ Bohlius, Comment. Bibl. Rab. in Thesaur. Dissert. Philolog. par. 1. p. 752. apud Gill. Isaiah 11
  22. ^ Isaiah 11:9 KJV
  23. ^ Isaiah 11:10
  24. ^ Childs 2001, p. 104.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit

JewishEdit

ChristianEdit