Irish language outside Ireland

The Irish language originated in Ireland and has historically been the dominant language of the Irish people. They took it with them to a number of other countries, and in Scotland and the Isle of Man it gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx.

In the late 19th century English became widespread in Ireland, but Irish speakers had already shown their ability to deal with modern political and social changes through their own language at a time when emigration was strongest.[1] Irish was the language that a large number of emigrants took with them from the 17th century (when large-scale emigration, forced or otherwise, became noticeable) to the 19th century, when emigration reached new levels.[2]

The Irish diaspora mainly settled in English-speaking countries, chiefly Britain and North America. In some instances the Irish language was retained for several generations. Argentina was the only non-English-speaking country to which the Irish went in large numbers,[3][4] and those emigrants came in the 19th century from areas where Irish was already in retreat.

An interest in the language has persisted among a minority in the diaspora countries, and even in countries where there was never a significant Irish presence. This has been shown in the founding of language classes (including some at tertiary level), in the use of the Internet, and in contributions to journalism and literature.


Multilingual phrase book in Irish, Latin and English compiled for Elizabeth I of England by Christopher, Baron Delvin.

Irish speakers of all social classes were to be found in early modern Britain. Irish beggars were common in 16th century England, and from the late 16th century many unskilled Irish labourers settled in Liverpool, Bristol and London.[5] Aristocratic Irish speakers included the Nugent brothers, members of Ireland's "Old English" community: Christopher, 9th Baron Delvin, who wrote an Irish-language primer for Elizabeth I, and William, an Irish language poet who is known to have been at Oxford in 1571.[6] Shakespeare's plays contain one line in Irish, "Caleno custore me" in Act IV Scene 4 of Henry V. This was the title of a popular song, "Cailín ó chois tSiúir mé" (I'm a girl from near the river Suir).

Irish speakers were among the Royalist contingents brought over from Ireland during the English Civil War. Language and cultural differences were partly responsible for the great hostility they encountered in England. Among them were troops commanded by Murrough O'Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin, who took them with him when he later sided with Parliament.[7]

Large-scale Irish immigration, including many Irish speakers, began with the building of canals from the 1780s and of railways in the nineteenth century. More Irish settled in industrial towns in Lancashire in the late eighteenth century than in any other county. Many Irish were attracted to Birmingham in the mid-1820s by rapid industrial expansion. The city had large households of Irish speakers, often from the same parts of Mayo, Roscommon, Galway and Sligo. In Manchester a sixth of the family heads were Irish by 1835. By the 1830s Irish speakers were to be found in Manchester, Glasgow and the larger towns of South Wales. Friedrich Engels heard Irish being spoken in the most crowded areas of Manchester in 1842.[8] Irish speakers from Roscommon, Galway and Mayo were also to be found in Stafford from the 1830s.[9]

The Great Famine of the later 1840s brought an influx of Irish speakers to England, Wales and Scotland. Many arrived from such counties as Mayo, Cork, Waterford and Limerick to Liverpool, Bristol, and the towns of South Wales and Lancashire, and often moved on to London. Navvies found work on the South Wales Railway. There are reports of Irish-speaking communities in some quarters of Liverpool in the Famine years (1845–52).[10] Irish speakers from Munster were common among London immigrants, with many women speaking little or no English. Around 100,000 Irish had arrived in London by 1851.[9] The Irish Nationalist politician and lawyer A.M. Sullivan described an 1856 visit to the industrial "Black Country" of the West Midlands where "in very many of the houses not one of the women could speak English, and I doubt that in a single house the Irish was not the prevalent language".[11]

The Gaelic Revival in Ireland at the turn of the 20th century led to formation of branches of the Gaelic League abroad, including British cities. There were three branches of the Gaelic League in Glasgow by 1902[12] and a branch was also founded in Manchester.[13]

In the aftermath of the Second World War there were a large number of Irish working in Britain in the construction industry and as nurses. Many of them, both in provincial towns and in London, were Irish speakers from Conamara and other Gaeltacht areas, and Irish was commonly heard on building sites and in dance halls.[14]


St Giles in the Fields in the 1730s, as depicted by William Hogarth

Irish immigrants were a notable element of London life from the early seventeenth century. They engaged in seasonal labour and street selling, and became common around St Giles in the Fields during the eighteenth century, being prominent among the London poor. Many of them were discharged soldiers. The Old Bailey trial records give a glimpse of the use of Irish in London backstreets, including an instance where a court interpreter was required (1768).[15]

The first Irish colony was in St Giles in the Fields and Seven Dials. By the early nineteenth century Irish communities existed in Whitechapel, Saffron Hill, Poplar and Southwark, and especially in Marylebone. Typical occupations were hawking and costermongering. Henry Mayhew estimated in the 1850s that around 10,000 Irish men and women were so employed. The writer and linguist George Borrow gives an account (1851) of his father venturing into the Irish-speaking slums of London in the early years of the nineteenth century.[16]

The use of the language was affected by a decline in the number of immigrants. By the middle of the nineteenth century the Irish-born numbered around 109,000 individuals (4.5% of Londoners). By 1861 their number had fallen to 107,000, in 1871 to 91,000, and in 1901 to 60,000.[17]

The Gaelic League was active in London as elsewhere. The London branch had a number of notable London Irish figures as members, and it was a pioneer in the publication of Irish-language material.[18][19]

Irish language in contemporary BritainEdit

The current estimate of fluent Irish speakers permanently resident in Britain is 9,000.[20]

The Gaelic League retains a presence in Britain (the current Glasgow branch was founded in 1895),[21] and the Irish-language organization Coláiste na nGael and its allies run language classes and other events all over Britain. The areas concerned include London, Essex, Leicestershire and Somerset. There is an active Irish language scene in Manchester with two groups, Conradh na Gaeilge (Manchester branch) and the Manchester Irish Language Group, who have organised an annual arts festival since 2007. The British Association for Irish Studies (established 1985) aims to support Irish cultural activities and the study of Ireland in Britain. This includes promotion of the Irish language.[22]

North AmericaEdit

Irish people brought the language with them to North America as early as the 17th century (when it is first mentioned). In the 18th century it had many speakers in Pennsylvania. Immigration from Irish-speaking counties to America was strong throughout the 19th century, particularly after the Great Famine of 1840's, and many manuscripts in Irish came with the immigrants.[23]

In the oral tradition of County Waterford, the poet Donnchadh Ruadh Mac Conmara, a former hedge school teacher and notorious rake from the district of Sliabh gCua, is said to have sailed for Newfoundland around 1743, allegedly to escape the wrath of a man whose daughter the poet had impregnated.[24]

For a long time, it was doubted whether the poet ever made the trip. During the 21st century, however, linguists discovered that several of Donnchadh Ruadh's poems in the Irish language contain multiple Gaelicized words and terms known to be unique to Newfoundland English. For this reason, Donnchadh Ruadh's poems are considered the earliest solid evidence of the Irish language in Newfoundland.[25]

The Irish language poet and monoglot speaker Pádraig Phiarais Cúndún (1777-1856), a native of Ballymacoda, County Cork, emigrated to America around 1826 and settled with his family on a homestead near Deerfield, New York. Cúndún's many subsequent works of poetry in Munster Irish survive through the letters he wrote to his relatives and former neighbors in Ballymacoda and due to the fact that his son arranged for two of his father's poems to be published by the Irish-American in 1858. The first collection of Cúndún's poetry was edited by Risteárd Ó Foghludha and published in 1932.[26]

1881 saw the founding of “ An Gaodhal [ga]”, the first newspaper anywhere which was largely in Irish. It continued to be published into the 20th century,[27] and now has an on-line successor in An Gael.[28] In addition to "An Gaodhal", many Irish immigrant newspapers in the English language in the 19th and 20th century added Irish language columns. This could most recently be seen with the weekly articles of Barra Ó Donnabháin in New York's Irish Echo. Some Irish-speaking Blasket Islanders moved to Springfield, Massachusetts following the islands' evacuation in 1953.

Irish has retained some cultural importance in the northeast United States. According to the 2000 Census, 25,661 people in the U.S. spoke Irish at home.[29] The 2005 Census reports 18,815.[30]

The Irish language was introduced into Newfoundland in the late 17th century and was widely spoken there up until the early 20th century.[31] It remains the only place outside Europe that can claim a unique Irish name (Talamh an Éisc, meaning Land of the Fish).

In 2007 a number of Canadian speakers founded the first officially designated "Gaeltacht" outside Ireland in an area near Kingston, Ontario (see main article Permanent North American Gaeltacht). Despite its designation, the area has no permanent Irish-speaking inhabitants. The site (named Gaeltacht Bhaile na hÉireann) is located in Tamworth, Ontario, and is to be a retreat centre for Irish-speaking Canadians and Americans.[32][33]

The Irish Government provides funding for suitably qualified Irish speakers to travel to Canada and the United States to teach the language at universities. This program has been coordinated by the Fulbright Commission in the United States and the Ireland Canada University Foundation in Canada.

A number of North American universities have full-time lecturers in Modern Irish. These include Boston College, Harvard University, Lehman College-CUNY, New York University, Saint Mary's University in Halifax, the University of Pittsburgh, Concordia University in Montreal, Elms College, Catholic University of America and most notably the University of Notre Dame. Two of these institutions offer undergraduate degrees with advanced Irish language coursework, the University of Notre Dame with a BA in Irish Language and Literature and Lehman College-CUNY with a BA in Comparative Literature, while the University of Pittsburgh offers an undergraduate Irish Minor.[34] Irish language courses are also offered at St Michael's College in the University of Toronto, at Cape Breton University, and at Memorial University in Newfoundland.


Newman College, University of Melbourne: holder of the O'Donnell Collection, an important collection of Irish-language material.

The Irish language reached Australia in 1788, along with English. Irish, when used by convicts in the early colonial period, was seen as a language of covert opposition, and was therefore viewed with suspicion by colonial authorities.[35]

The Irish constituted a larger proportion of the European population than in any other British colony, and there has been debate about the extent to which Irish was used in Australia.[36][37] The historian Patrick O'Farrell argued that the language was soon discarded; other historians, including Dymphna Lonergan and Val Noone, have argued that its use was widespread among the first generation, with some transmission to the second and occasional evidence of literacy. Most Irish immigrants came from counties in the west and south-west where Irish was strong (e.g. County Clare and County Galway). It has been argued that at least half the approximately 150,000 Irish emigrants to Victoria in the 19th century spoke Irish,[38] helping to make Irish the most widely used European language in Australia after English.

English was essential to the Irish for their integration into public life. Irish, however, retained some cultural and symbolic importance, and the Gaelic revival was reflected in Australia in the work of local students and scholars.[39] The language was taught in several Catholic schools in Melbourne in the 1920s, and a bilingual magazine called An Gael was published.[40] In the following years a small group of enthusiasts in the major cities continued to cultivate the language.

In the 1970s there was a more general renewal of interest, supported by both local and immigrant activists.[41][42] The Irish National Association, with support from the Sydney branch of the Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge), ran free classes in Sydney from the 1960s through to 2007, when the language group became independent.[43] In 1993 Máirtín Ó Dubhlaigh, a Sydney-based Irish speaker, founded the first Irish language summer school, Scoil Samhraidh na hAstráile. This brought together for the first time Irish speakers and teachers from all over the country. The language also attracted some wider public attention.[44]

The Irish language poet Louis De Paor lived with his family in Melbourne from 1987 to 1996 and published his first two poetry collections during his residence there. De Paor also gave poetry readings and other broadcasts in Irish on the Special Broadcasting Service (a network set up for speakers of minority languages). He was given scholarships by the Australia Council in 1990, 1991 and 1995.

There is presently a network of Irish learners and users spread out across the country. The primary organised groups are the Irish Language Association of Australia (Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile), Sydney Irish School and the Canberra Irish Language Association (Cumann Gaeilge Canberra).[45] Multiple day courses are available twice a year in the states of Victoria and New South Wales. The association has won several prestigious prizes (the last in 2009 in a global competition run by Glór na nGael and sponsored by the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs).[46][47]

The 2011 census indicated that 1,895 people used Irish as a household language in Australia.[48] This marks an increase from the 2001 census, which gave a figure of 828.[49] The census does not count those who use Irish or other languages outside the household context.

The Department of Celtic Studies at the University of Sydney offers courses in Modern Irish linguistics, Old Irish and Modern Irish language.[50] The University of Melbourne houses a valuable collection of nineteenth and early twentieth century books and manuscripts in Irish, frequently used by specialists in the field.[citation needed][51]

Australians contribute fiction and journalism to Irish-language magazines, both in print and on-line.[52] There is also a widely distributed electronic newsletter in Irish called An Lúibín.[53]

New ZealandEdit

Irish migration to New Zealand was strongest in the 1840s, the 1860s (at the time of the gold rush) and the 1870s. These immigrants arrived at a time when the language was still widely spoken in Ireland, particularly in the south-west and west.[54] In the 1840s the New Zealand Irish included many discharged soldiers: over half those released in Auckland (the capital) in the period 1845-1846 were Irish, as were 56.8% of those released in the 1860s. There was, however, a fall in Irish immigration from the 1880s.[55] At first the Irish clustered in certain occupations, with single women in domestic service and men working as navvies or miners. By the 1930s Irish Catholics were to be found in government service, in transport and in the liquor industry, and assimilation was well advanced.[56]

The use of Irish was influenced by immigrants' local origins, the time of their arrival and the degree to which a sense of Irishness survived. In 1894 the New Zealand Tablet, a Catholic newspaper, published articles on the study of Irish. In 1895 it was resolved at a meeting in the city of Dunedin that an Irish-language society on the lines of the Philo-Celtic Society of New York should be established in New Zealand.[57] Gaelic League branches were formed in two New Zealand localities (Milton and Balclutha) and items in Irish were published by the Southern Cross of Invercargill.[58] In 1903 Fr William Ganly, a native speaker from the Aran Islands prominent in Gaelic Revival circles in Melbourne, visited Milton, where he met a large number of Irish speakers.[59]

The dwindling of Irish immigration, the decay of the Gaeltacht in Ireland and the passing of earlier generations were accompanied by a loss of the language. Interest is maintained among an activist minority.


Between 40,000 and 45,000 Irish emigrants went to Argentina in the 19th century. Of these, only about 20,000 settled in the country, the remainder returning to Ireland or re-emigrating to North America, Australia and other destinations.[60] Of the 20,000 that remained, between 10,000 and 15,000 left no descendants or lost any link they had to the local Irish community. The nucleus of the Irish-Argentine community therefore consisted of only four to five thousand settlers.[61]

Many came from a quadrangle on the Longford/Westmeath border, its perimeter marked by Athlone, Edgeworthstown, Mullingar and Kilbeggan.[62] It has been estimated that 43.35% of emigrants were from Westmeath, 14.57% from Longford and 15.51% from Wexford.[62] Such migrants tended to be younger sons and daughters of the larger tenant farmers and leaseholders, but labourers also came, their fares paid by sheep-farmers seeking skilled shepherds.[63]

Irish census figures for the 19th century give an indication of the percentage of Irish speakers in the areas in question. Allowing for underestimation, it is clear that most immigrants would have been English speakers.[64] Census figures for Westmeath, a major source of Argentinian immigrants, show the following percentages of Irish speakers: 17% in the period 1831-41, 12% in 1841-51, and 8% in 1851-61.

In the 1920s, there came a new wave of immigrants from Ireland, most being educated urban professionals who included a high proportion of Protestants.[65] It is unlikely that there were many Irish speakers among them.

The persistence of an interest in Irish is indicated by the fact that the Buenos Aires branch of the Gaelic League was founded as early as 1899.[66] It continued to be active for several decades thereafter, but evidence is lacking for organised attempts at language maintenance into the present day, though the Fahy Club in Buenos Aires continues to host Irish classes.[67][68][69]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Evidence of Irish speakers participating in the shaping of eighteenth- and nineteenth century cultural and political processes demonstrates to the contrary that this was a speech community that, so long as it existed, was fully capable of negotiating the changes shaping the Ireland that emerged at century’s end". Wolf, Nicholas M.. An Irish-Speaking Island: State, Religion, Community, and the Linguistic Landscape in Ireland, 1770-1870. The University of Wisconsin Press (2014): p. 273. ISBN 978-0-299-30274-0
  2. ^ A detailed view of the linguistic geography may be found in Fitzgerald, Garret, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117-1781 to 1861-1871,’ pp.117-155, Volume 84, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. His analysis of the 19th century census figures relating to Irish shows that the language remained very strong in the south-west (Munster) and west (Connacht) until towards the end of the century. He remarks, furthermore, that for the decennial periods of 1841-51, 1851-61 and 1861-71, the results are in all likelihood an underestimate (extrapolations included): p.118.
  3. ^ Viva Irlanda! Exploring the Irish in Argentina
  4. ^ Irlandeses en la Argentina: una verde pasión (in Spanish)
  5. ^ Camp, Anthony (2003). "'The Irish in England', in Family Tree Magazine". pp. 8–10.
  6. ^ De Brún, Pádraig; Ó Buachalla, Breandán; Ó Concheanainn, Tomás (eds.). Nua-Dhuanaire: Cuid 1. Institiúid Ardléinn Bhaile Átha Cliath 1975, p. 179.
  7. ^ Stoyle, Mark. Soldiers and Strangers: An Ethnic History of the English Civil War. Yale University Press 2005, pp. 62-70. ISBN 9780300107005
  8. ^ Engels, Friedrich. The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845: Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987), p. 124
  9. ^ a b Camp, pp. 8-10
  10. ^ Nic Craith, Máiréad; Leyland, Janet, 'The Irish language in Britain: A case study of North West England,’ Language, Culture and Curriculum, Volume 10, Issue 3, 1997, pp. 171-185. DOI: 10.1080/07908319709525250
  11. ^ Quoted by Denis Gwynn, "The Irish Immigration", in The English Catholics—1850–1950, ed. G. Andrew Beck (London: Burns Oates, 1950), pp. 267–68.
  12. ^ "Gaelic Revival". The Sacred Heart Review. 15 November 1902. ”The Gaelic League is making rapid headway in Glasgow. There were only three branches in the city twelve months ago".
  13. ^ "Irish Manchester". Irish Manchester. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  14. ^ Mac Amhlaigh, Dónall. Dialann Deoraí. An Clóchomhar Tta 1960. The standard autobiographical account of an Irish navvy’s life in the period in question.
  15. ^ "Old Bailey Proceedings Online: Margaret Flanady, William Flanady, Deception and perjury". 19 October 1768. Reference Number: t17681019-45
  16. ^ Lavengro. 15 May 2006. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  17. ^ "Communities - Irish London - Central Criminal Court". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  18. ^ "Introduction" (PDF). Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  19. ^ Gaelic League of London [Author] (23 July 2007). "Programme for Feis Lonndan, 1907. - UCD Digital Library". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  20. ^ "Cad Chuige An Ghaeilge sa Bhreatain?". 2011: 6. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ "Conradh Na Gaeilge". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ The cultural and linguistic contexts are discussed in: Ó hAnnracháin, Stiofán (ed.), 1979. Go Meiriceá Siar. An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath; Ihde, Thomas W. (ed.), 1994. The Irish Language in the United States: a historical, sociolinguistic and applied linguistic survey. Bergin & Garvey. ISBN 0-89789-331-X
  24. ^ Donnchadh Ruadh
  25. ^ Edited by Natasha Sumner and Aidan Doyle (2020), North American Gaels: Speech, Song, and Story in the Diaspora, McGill-Queen's University Press. Pages 73-91.
  26. ^ Edited by Natasha Sumner and Aidan Doyle (2020), North American Gaels: Speech, Song, and Story in the Diaspora, McGill-Queen's University Press. Pages 108-136.
  27. ^ The paper and its context are discussed by Fionnuala Uí Fhlannagáin in: Uí Fhlannagáin, Fionnuala, 1990. Mícheál Ó Lócháin agus An Gaodhal. An Clóchomhar Tta, Baile Átha Cliath.
  28. ^ Jim Norton. "An Gael - Baile". Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  29. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center, Irish Gaelic. Retrieved on 7 January 2010
  30. ^ MLA Language Map Data Center, Irish Gaelic. Retrieved on 7 January 2010
  31. ^ "Language". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ [3]
  34. ^ "Irish Minor | Less-Commonly-Taught Languages Center | University of Pittsburgh". Retrieved 22 May 2019.
  35. ^ Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile. The Irish Language in Australia. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
  36. ^ O’Farrell, Patrick (1986). The Irish in Australia: 1788 to the present. New South Wales University Press. ISBN 0-86840-234-6.
  37. ^ Lonergan, Dymphna (2004). Sounds Irish: The Irish Language in Australia. South Australia: Lythrum Press. ISBN 1-921013-00-1.
  38. ^ Noone, Val (2012). Hidden Ireland in Victoria. Ballarat Heritage Services, p.12. ISBN 978-1-876478-83-4.
  39. ^ McConville, Chris. "O'Donnell, Nicholas Michael (1862–1920)". Biography - Nicholas Michael O'Donnell - Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  40. ^ Noone, pp. 123-129.
  41. ^ Noone, pp. 148-163.
  42. ^ See an autobiographical account by Muiris Ó Scanláin: An Mám Ó Dheas. An Sagart 2009. ISBN 1-903896-55-X.
  43. ^ "Irish Language School Sydney". Irish Language School Sydney. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  44. ^ Transcript of Lingua Franca of 26 September 1998, Why Learn Irish?. Retrieved 13 October 2007. Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Canberra Irish Language Association Retrieved 18 August 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  46. ^ "Fáilte | Glór na nGael". Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  47. ^ "Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile". Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  48. ^ "Census Explorer | SBS World News". 17 May 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  49. ^ [4]
  50. ^ "Undergraduate Units of Study for Celtic Studies : Celtic Studies : Faculty of Arts : University of Sydney Australia". 15 February 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  51. ^ This is known as the O’Donnell Collection, after Dr Nicholas O’Donnell, the Gaelic scholar who amassed it: "Collections". St Mary’s Newman Academic Centre. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
  52. ^ Examples can be found in Feasta, Beo and Nós.
  53. ^ "Cumann Gaeilge na hAstráile". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  54. ^ Fitzgerald, Garret, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117-1781 to 1861-1871,’ Volume 84, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1984
  55. ^ Phillips, Jack and Hearn, Terry (2008), Settlers: New Zealand Immigrants from England, Ireland and Scotland 1800-1945, Auckland University Press, pp.60-61.
  56. ^ "Irish - Culture and politics before 1911 - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". 4 March 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  57. ^ Gaelic Journal, 1 June 1894, 1 May 1895, and 1 June 1895; Irish Australian, 16 February 1895; cited in Greg Byrnes, 'The Gaelic League in Australasia, 1893-1993', in Rebecca Pelan, assisted by Mark Finnane and Noel Quirke (eds), Irish-Australian Studies: Papers delivered at the Seventh Irish-Australian Conference, July 1993, Sydney, Crossing Press, 1994, 244-5.
  58. ^ Kevin Molloy, 'Victorians, historians and Irish history: a reading of the New Zealand Tablet 1873-1942,’ pp.153-170 in Brad Patterson (ed.), The Irish in New Zealand: Historical Contexts and Perspectives, Wellington, Stout Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2002, p.166.
  59. ^ 'Rev. W. Ganly in New Zealand,’ The Advocate, 14 February 1903, p.19, reprinted from New Zealand Tablet, 5 February 1903.
  60. ^ Murray, Edmundo (2006). "The Irish Road to South America: Nineteenth-Century Travel Patterns from Ireland to the River Plate". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America: 1.
  61. ^ "Irish Settlers in Argentina". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  62. ^ a b Murray, 'The Irish Road to South America', p.1, from McKenna, Patrick (1992), 'Irish Migration to Argentina' in: O’Sullivan, Patrick (ed.) The Irish World Wide: History, Heritage, Identity, Vol. 1, London and Washington: Leicester University Press.
  63. ^ Murray,'The Irish Road to South America', p.6.
  64. ^ Fitzgerald, Garret, 'Estimates for baronies of minimal level of Irish-speaking amongst successive decennial cohorts, 117-1781 to 1861-1871,’ pp.153-4. He suggests that, in the light of the Statistical Surveys made in the early 19th century, the observations of reliable contemporary observers and the known deficiencies of the census figures, the percentage figures for Irish speakers may need to be revised upwards.
  65. ^ Murray, The Irish Road to South America, p.8.
  66. ^ "See '19th Century Irish Emigration to Argentina,' a lecture by Prof. David Barnwell, Department of Spanish & Portuguese, Columbia University New York, given at a Columbia University Irish Studies Seminar (undated)" (PDF). Irish Migration Studies in Latin America. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  67. ^ "'A la comunidad irlandesa le falta más cohesión,' an interview by Julián Doyle with Fernando (Ferry) O'Killian for The Southern Cross". Mayo. 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  68. ^ "Ferry O´Killian". Retrieved 8 March 2017.
  69. ^ "Irish Language Meetups - Meetup". Retrieved 8 March 2017.