Irish Squadron (Royal Navy)

The Irish Squadron [1] originally known as the Irish Fleet [2] was a series of temporary naval formations assembled for specific military campaigns of the English Navy, the Navy Royal and later the Royal Navy from 1297 to 1731.

Irish Squadron
Blue Ensign English navy 1625 to 1707.png
Blue Ensign of the English Navy (1625-1707)
Active1297 - 1731
Country United Kingdom
BranchRoyal Navy
TypeDetached Squadron
RoleConvoy Protection, Transportation, Patrol
Garrison/HQMilford Haven, Wales
Greenock, Scotland

HistoryEdit

The Irish Squadron was a series of temporary formations assembled for particular naval campaigns of various English Monarch's from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century. The formation was commanded by senior officers whose title changed a number of times during its existence. In 1298 the first Admiral appointed by a state document issued by Edward I of England was Sir William de Leybourne who was titled as Admiral of the Irish Sea he was given responsibility to command all English ships operating in the Irish Sea.[3]

In the fourteenth century the squadron was formed on four occasions. In 1356 during the reign of Edward III it was assembled for the protection of troop convoy ships that were being attacked by the Royal Scottish Navy.[4] In 1382 during Richard II of England first expedition to Ireland it was formed under the command of Sir William Spalding. At the start Richards's second expedition to Ireland it was reformed again in 1397 under the command of Sir John Beaufort. In January 1399 it was assembled once more under the command of Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester until September 1399.

From the thirteenth until the beginning of the fifteenth century, the English Navy was divided into subsidiary fleets of which the Irish Fleet was a part of it along with the Western Fleet, the Northern Fleet and the Aquitaine Fleet each of these fleets had their own independent commanders. In 1406 these fleets came under the unified command of the High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine.[5] In the Tudor period the squadron was established again during Anglo-Scottish Wars (1539-1545). In 1571 the Irish Squadron operated during Desmond Rebellions (1569–1573) and again in (1579–1583), its commander during these periods was Admiral Sir William Wynter in 1579 he was authorized to cut off all sea routes into Ireland and seize all ships of the pending papal invasion force.[6] In 1616 it was formed again under the command of Sir Thomas Button.

At the start English Civil War in 1642 the Royal Navy came under the control of Parliament of England its squadron operating from Milford Haven was renamed the Irish Guard Naval Squadron of Parliament (1642-1653) it was active during Oliver Cromwell's expedition to Ireland in 1649.[7] It operated only during two specific time periods three months during the summer and three months during the winter. The strength of the squadron varied in size but did reach a peak of 56 ships in 1645 making it the navy's second-largest squadron.[8] In July 1689 the squadron was engaged at the Battle of Bantry Bay under the command George Rooke he remained in control of the squadron until early 1690. The squadron then reformed in June 1690 when it took part in the Capture of Waterford under the command of Rear-Admiral Cloudesley Shovell until June 1690. In 1691 it was part of a larger naval force assembled to transfer King William III to Ireland.[9][10]

As the Irish Squadron entered the eighteenth century it was formed in July 1727 and again in July 1731 but it was gradually wound down in terms of ship numbers assigned to it before being disbanded.[11] It would not be until 1797 that the Royal Navy established a permanent naval formation for the Irish Sea known as the Cork Station.

The squadrons operating base for the majority of its existence was from Milford Haven, Wales for operations in the Irish Sea and off the Coast of Ireland. By the end of the 1680s it was stationed at Greenock, Scotland.[12] Its repair and resupply bases in Ireland included Kinsale Dockyard in County Cork.

In commandEdit

Note:Incomplete list of post holders include.

No. rank name date/s appointed as ref
1. Admiral Sir William de Leybourne 1297 Admiral of the Irish Sea and Admiral of the West [13]
2. Admiral Sir Gervase Alard 1304 Admiral of the Irish Sea [14]
3. Admiral John of Argyll 1311 Admiral of the Irish Sea [15]
4. Admiral John of Argyll 1314 Admiral of the Irish Sea [16]
5. Admiral Sir William Cray 1315 Admiral of the Irish Sea [17]
6. Admiral Sir John d'Athy 1318 Admiral of the Irish Sea [18]
7. Admiral Sir Simon Driby 1319 Admiral of the Irish Sea [19]
8. Admiral Sir Robert Leyburn 1322 Admiral of the Irish Sea [20]
9. Admiral Robert Bataill 1323 Admiral of the Irish Sea [21]
10. Admirals Sir Robert Bendyn and Stephen Alard 1324 Admiral of the Irish Sea (jointly) [22]
11. Admirals Sir Richard Holand 1335 Admiral of the Irish Sea [23]
12. Admiral Sir John d'Athy 1336 Admiral of the Kings Fleet in Ireland [24]
13. Admiral Robert Drouss, of Cork 1356 Admiral of the Irish Fleet [25]
14. Admiral Sir William Spalding 1382 Admiral of the Kings Fleet in Ireland [26]
15. Admiral Sir John Beaufort 1397 Admiral of the Irish Fleet [27]
16. Admiral Thomas Percy, 1st Earl of Worcester 1399 Admiral of the Kings Fleet in Ireland [28]
17. Admiral Sir James Dartasoo 1404 Admiral of the Kings Fleet in Ireland [29]
18. Admiral Sir Patrick Cotterell 1414 Admiral of the Kings Fleet in Ireland [30]
19. Admiral James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormonde 1539-1545 Admiral of Ireland [31]
20. Vice-Admiral Sir William Wynter 1560 Admiral of the Irish Squadron [32]
21. Admiral Sir Thomas Button 1616-1634 Admiral of the Irish Seas/Admiral of the Irish Coasts [33]
22. Vice-Admiral Sir John Pennington 1642-1643 Admiral of the Irish Guard [34]
23. Vice-Admiral William Smith 1643 summer Vice-Admiral, Commander Irish Guard [35]
24. Vice-Admiral Richard Swanley 1643-1647 Admiral of the Irish Seas/Commander Irish Guard [36][37]
25. Vice-Admiral Thomas Rainsborough 1647-1648 Admiral of the Irish Seas/Commander Irish Guard [38]
26. Vice-Admiral Sir George Ayscue 1648-1650 Admiral of the Irish Seas [39]
27. Rear-Admiral George Rooke 1689-1690 Commanding the Irish Squadron as Rear-Admiral of the Red [40]
28. Rear-Admiral Cloudesley Shovell 1690-1691 Commanding the Irish Squadron as Rear-Admiral of the Blue [41]

Squadron compositionEdit

The Irish Squadron as 1 September 1689.[42]

# type notes ref
7 Fourth-rate Ships of the Line, 46-60 guns [43]
2 Fifth-rate Frigates, 40 guns [44]
15 Sixth-rate Frigates, 28 guns [45]
Total Ships: 24

FootnoteEdit

  1. ^ Davies, J. D. (2008). "Convoys, Cruisers and Station Ships". Pepys Navy, Ships, Men and Warfare 1649 to 1689. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 245. ISBN 9781848320147.
  2. ^ Fortescue, Sir John; Plummer, Charles (1999). The Governance of England, Otherwise Called, The Difference Between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy. Clark, New Jersey, USA: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. p. 238. ISBN 9781886363793.
  3. ^ Gardiner, Leslie (March 1968). The British Admiralty. Edinburgh, Scotland: Blackwood. p. 20. ISBN 9780851580012.
  4. ^ Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). The Royal Navy, a History from the Earliest Times to the Present (I ed.). London: Sampson Low Marston and Company. p. 275.
  5. ^ Fortescue. p.238.
  6. ^ Joyce, Patrick Weston (1910). "The Geraldine Rebellion - Concise History of Ireland". libraryireland.com. National Library of Ireland. p. 404. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  7. ^ Lenihan, Pádraig (2000). Conquest and Resistance: War in Seventeenth-Century Ireland. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishing. p. 174. ISBN 9789004117433.
  8. ^ Murphy, Elaine (2012). Ireland and the War at Sea, 1641-1653. Woodbridge, England: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 91–92. ISBN 9780861933181.
  9. ^ Meredith, Jon (January 2009). "The English Navy in an Irish War: Captain George Rooke's Squadron and the Jacobite War in Ireland, Summer 1689". The Mariner's Mirror. 95 (2): 179–193. doi:10.1080/00253359.2009.10657095. S2CID 162364531.
  10. ^ Yonge, Charles Duke (1863). The History of the British Navy: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. London, England: Richard Bentley. p. 106.
  11. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (7 September 2006). "Appendix III: Fleets". The command of the ocean : a naval history of Britain 1649-1815 (1st ed.). London, England: Penguin. pp. 610–617. ISBN 9780141026909.
  12. ^ Meredith, Jon (January 2009). "The English Navy in an Irish War: George Rookes Squadron and the Jacobite War in Ireland, Summer 1689". The Mariner's Mirror. 95 (2): 179–193. doi:10.1080/00253359.2009.10657095. S2CID 162364531.
  13. ^ Godolphin, John (1661). Synēgoros thalassios, A view of the admiral jurisdiction wherein the most material points concerning that jurisdiction are fairly and submissively discussed : as also divers of the laws, customes, rights, and priviledges of the high admiralty of England by ancient records, and other arguments of law asserted : whereunto is added by way of appendix an extract of the ancient laws of Oleron / by John Godolphin ... University of Michigan, An Arbour, MI, USA: W. Godbid for Edmund Paxton and John Sherley. pp. 197–207.
  14. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). "Appendix V Admirals and Officials". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain. Vol 1., 660-1649. London, England: Penguin. pp. 504–509. ISBN 9780140297249.
  15. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  16. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  17. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  18. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  19. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  20. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  21. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  22. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  23. ^ Rodger pp. 504-509.
  24. ^ Townsend, George Henry (1877). The Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to All the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. London, England: Frederick Warne. p. 16.
  25. ^ Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris (1847). A History of the Royal Navy: 1327-1422. London: R. Bentley. pp. 524–534.
  26. ^ Townsend, George Henry (1877). The Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to All the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. London, England: Frederick Warne. p. 16.
  27. ^ Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby', 23.
  28. ^ Harris pp.524-534.
  29. ^ Harris pp.524-534.
  30. ^ Harris pp.524-534.
  31. ^ Lundy, Darryl (19 September 2018). "Person Page: James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormonde". thepeerage.com. The Peerage. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  32. ^ Corbett, Julian Stafford (1917). "The Navy of Elizabeth". Drake and the Tudor navy, with a history of the rise of England as a maritime power. London, England: London : Longmans, Green. p. 347.
  33. ^ Pearson, Karl (2011). The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 9781108072403.
  34. ^ Murphy, Elaine (2012). Ireland and the War at Sea, 1641-1653. Woodbridge, England: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 9780861933181.
  35. ^ Manganiello, Stephen C. (2004). "Appendix:The Navy". The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639-1660. Scarecrow Press. pp. 597–602. ISBN 9780810851009.
  36. ^ KEYMER, E. W.L.; REED, ADRIAN; GRAINGER, J. D.; WELCH, JOHN C.; LEE, C. D.; OWEN, HUGH (January 1996). "NOTES:Richard Swanley (c 1592-1650), Admiral of the Fleet on the Irish Coast". The Mariner's Mirror. 82 (4): 461–476. doi:10.1080/00253359.1996.10656619.
  37. ^ Laughton, John Knox. "Swanley Richard". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900. Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 55. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  38. ^ Manganiello.pp.597-602.
  39. ^ Le Fevre, Peter (January 1982). "Sir George Ayscue, Commonwealth and Restoration Admiral". The Mariner's Mirror. 68 (2): 189–202. doi:10.1080/00253359.1982.10655858.
  40. ^ Meredith. pp.179-193.
  41. ^ Meredith. pp.179-193.
  42. ^ Meredith, Jon (January 2009). "The English Navy in an Irish War: Captain George Rooke's Squadron and the Jacobite War in Ireland, Summer 1689". The Mariner's Mirror. 95 (2): 183. doi:10.1080/00253359.2009.10657095. S2CID 162364531.
  43. ^ Meredith. p.183.
  44. ^ Meredith. p.183.
  45. ^ Meredith. p.183.

BibliographyEdit

  1. Clark, New Jersey, USA: The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN 9781886363793.
  2. Clowes, Sir William Laird (1897). The Royal Navy, a History from the Earliest Times to the Present (I ed.). London: Sampson Low Marston and Company.
  3. Corbett, Julian Stafford (1917). "The Navy of Elizabeth". Drake and the Tudor navy, with a history of the rise of England as a maritime power. London, England: London : Longmans, Green.
  4. Davies, J. D. (2008). "Convoys, Cruisers and Station Ships". Pepys Navy, Ships, Men and Warfare 1649 to 1689. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781848320147
  5. Fortescue, Sir John; Plummer, Charles (1999). The Governance of England, Otherwise Called, The Difference Between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy.
  6. Godolphin, John (1661). Synēgoros thalassios, A view of the admiral jurisdiction wherein the most material points concerning that jurisdiction are fairly and submissively discussed : as also divers of the laws, customes, rights, and privileges of the high admiralty of England by ancient records, and other arguments of law asserted: whereunto is added by way of appendix an extract of the ancient laws of Oleron / by John Godolphin ... University of Michigan, An Arbour, MI, USA: W. Godbid for Edmund Paxton and John Sherley.
  7. Harris, Sir Nicholas. (1847). A History of the Royal Navy: 1327-1422. London: R. Bentley
  8. Joyce, Patrick Weston (1910). "The Geraldine Rebellion - Concise History of Ireland". www.libraryireland.com. National Library of Ireland.
  9. KEYMER, E. W.L.; REED, ADRIAN; GRAINGER, J. D.; WELCH, JOHN C.; LEE, C. D.; OWEN, HUGH (January 1996). "NOTES:Richard Swanley (c 1592-1650), Admiral of the Fleet on the Irish Coast". The Mariner's Mirror. 82 (4): 461–476. doi:10.1080/00253359.1996.10656619.
  10. Laughton, John Knox. "Swanley Richard". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900. Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 55.
  11. Le Fevre, Peter (January 1982). "SIR GEORGE AYSCUE, COMMONWEALTH AND RESTORATION ADMIRAL". The Mariner's Mirror. 68 (2): 189–202. doi:10.1080/00253359.1982.10655858.
  12. Lenihan, Pádraig (2000). Conquest and Resistance: War in Seventeenth-Century Ireland. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishing. ISBN 9789004117433.
  13. Lundy, Darryl (19 September 2018). "Person Page: James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormonde". www.thepeerage.com. The Peerage. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  14. Manganiello, Stephen C. (2004). "Appendix: The Navy". The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 1639-1660. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810851009.
  15. Meredith, Jon (2009). "THE ENGLISH NAVY IN AN IRISH WAR: CAPTAIN GEORGE ROOKE'S SQUADRON AND THE JACOBITE WAR IN IRELAND, SUMMER 1689". The Mariner's Mirror. 95 (2): 179–193. doi:10.1080/00253359.2009.10657095.
  16. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, The King's Mother: Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby', 23.
  17. Murphy, Elaine (2012). Ireland and the War at Sea, 1641-1653. Woodbridge, England: Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 9780861933181.
  18. Rodger, N.A.M. (2006). "Appendix III: Fleets". The command of the ocean: a naval history of Britain 1649-1815 (1st ed.). London, England: Penguin. ISBN 9780141026909.
  19. Rodger, N.A.M. (1997). "Appendix V Admirals and Officials". The safeguard of the sea: a naval history of Britain. Vol 1., 660-1649. London, England: Penguin. ISBN 9780140297249.
  20. Townsend, George Henry (1877). The Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to All the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. London, England: Frederick Warne.
  21. Yonge, Charles Duke (1863). The History of the British Navy: From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. London, England: Richard Bentley.