Iris bulleyana is a species in the genus Iris, also the subgenus Limniris and in the series Sibiricae. It is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial, from South west China, including Myanmar (or Burma) and Tibet. It has long thin green leaves,
|Subgenus:||Iris subg. Limniris|
|Section:||Iris sect. Limniris|
|Series:||Iris ser. Sibiricae|
It has hollow, flower stems that grow up to 10–70 cm (4–27 inches) long and 4–6 mm wide, which are unbranched and have 1–2 flowers (at the terminal ends) per stem. The stem has 2 or 3 leaves and 2 or 3 spathes, which are green (with a red-brown margin) and measure 5.5–12 cm (2–5 inches) long and 0.8–1.2 cm wide. It blooms between June and July.
It has 3 drooping falls, that have a violet tip and a wide blade with a white or yellow patch, that has purple or blue-violet markings, stripes or veins. It also has 3 smaller, narrower, paler, lanceolate, upright standards.
It develops seeds and capsules between August and October. The capsule is 3 angled, cylindric (in form), with highly visible 6-veins and measures 4–5.5 cm long and 1.5–1.8 cm wide. The seeds are roundish in shape, flat and brown.
As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has a chromosome count: 2n=40. (Shen et al., 2007). (Simonet, 1932)
It is pronounced as (Iris) EYE-ris (bulleyana) bul-ee-YAH-nuh.
It was first published and described by William Rickatson Dykes in The Gardeners' Chronicle Volume 47, (p. 418), in 1910. Dykes has made his description on plants that were raised by Mr Arthur Bulley, that been collected in 1908 by George Forrest when he had found Iris forrestii. Later, George Forrest had stated that he had never seen the plant in the wild, it was then thought (by Dykes) that the plant was a hybrid. Not a garden hybrid as not enough time had passed from seed collecting and flowering. So it was thought to be a 'naturalised' hybrid of Iris forrestii and Iris chrysographes. He later raised plants from seeds that had been presented to him, by Sir David Prain, director of the Royal Botanic Garden. Which turned out to be similar forms (but with more yellow) to his description. In 1994, during an expedition by the Alpine Garden Society and Royal Botanic Garden to China, the true species was found. Large colonies were found in North WestYunnan.
It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 4 April 2003, then updated on 1 December 2004. Iris bulleyana is an accepted name by the RHS.
Distribution and habitatEdit
Iris bulleyana grows in moist areas on hillsides and mountainsides, and in meadows (alpine or sub-alpine meadows,), and river flats (in similar habitats to Iris forrestii and Iris wilsonii), and beside stream sides.
The Sino-siberian irises all generally have similar cultivation requirements.
They are not as hardy as the other group of Siberian irises. They also don't like very hot conditions either. Preferring the northern parts of America and United States to the over warm southern America. They will tolerate temperatures of up to −10 degrees C. But may survive lower if protected or well mulched in winter.
They prefer soils with a ph level of 5.5 to 7 (acidic to neutral ) and more moisture tolerant. They do not like free-draining soils (or sandy soils). They are also tolerant of windy conditions.
They can be divided after flowering (in early summer) if the clumps become too big and congested. Also propagation is best carried out by division of the rhizomes. They then should be replanted 25 cm (10ins) apart and 10 cm (4inches) deep, into weed free conditions. New plants can be planted in spring or autumn. But the ground needs to be prepared before planting. New plants need to be well watered during the first season. New plants also take at least 2 years to become established.
They can be used in gardens, at waterside locations beside pools or streams.
Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.
Iris bulleyana has long been used as a remedy for detoxification and detumescence in China. Hydro-distillation has been used to extract the essential oil from its rhizomes. It was also tested for its antifungal and antioxidant activities.
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