Irgen Gioro

Irgen Gioro[3] (Manchu: ᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨ
ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
; Möllendorff: irgen gioro[6]) is a Manchu clan and family name, which was officially categorized as a "notable clan",[7] and member of the eight great houses of the Manchu nobility in Manchu Empire.[8][9][10][11][12][13] Sibe and Nanai people also has Irgen Gioro as their family name.[14][15]

Irgen Gioro
ᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨ
ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ
Clan
《通谱》-觉罗氏.jpg
Irgen Gioro in Complete Genealogies of the Clans and Families of the Manchu Eight Banners
Place of originMuki, Yehe, Jamuhu, Singgan, Sarkū, Hunehe, Yarhū, Girin Ula, Sunggari Ula, Akuri, Fe Ala, Hada, etc.
FounderEmperor Huizong and Qinzong of Song?
Connected membersChang Shuhong
Cadet branches
  • Donggo
  • Bayara
  • Monggero
  • Laibu
  • Siburu

HistoryEdit

The origin of Irgen Gioro does not have a decisive conclusion. According to a famous anecdote, the ancestors of Irgen Gioro were the emperors Huizong, Qinzong, and other imperial family members of Song dynasty who were captured by the Jurchens in the Jingkang Incident of the Jin–Song wars.[16][17] The Manchu emperors had also bestowed their family name to the founding ministers or generals who rendered outstanding service to the empire.[18] In order to differentiate from Aisin Gioro the Manchu imperial family,[19] "Irgen" was added with the meaning of "regular citizen" or "common people" and the implication of "non-imperial".[20][21]

At the early period of Manchu Empire, Irgen Gioro were recorded as 340 households.[22] They mainly distributed in Muki, Yehe, Jamuhu, Singgan, Sarkū, Hunehe, Yarhū, Girin Ula, Sunggari Ula, Akuri, Fe Ala, Hada, etc.[23] The whole clan had many famous hereditary noblemen in the empire, such as Viscount First Class Arjin and Asan of Muki; Viscount Third Class Turusi, Baron Second Class Fiyangū of Yehe and so on.[24] Among these noble families, Muki Irgen Gioro (also known as "Muki Gioro"[25]) was considered as the most politically influential one because of their important contribution to the Manchu Empire's establishment.[26] Irgen Gioro also earned numerous titles of minor nobility and 40 hereditary peers as captains (Manchu: ᠨᡳᡵᡠ

ᠵᠠᠩᡤᡳᠨ
; Möllendorff: nirui janggin[27]) in Banner Armies.[28]

There were few instance of name change of the clan (e.g. The Manchu clan of Bayara, Monggero, Donggo, Laibu, and Siburu came from the Irgen Gioro who settled in these places.) at the early Qing Dynasty because of migration.[29] Due to the adoption of Chinese culture during the mid to late Qing dynasty, most of Irgen Gioro chose Zhao (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: Manchu: ᠵᠣᡠ; Möllendorff: Joo[30]), the first surname in the famous Hundred Family Surnames, as their Chinese family name. It was according to the Chinese homophone and their anecdote of origin.[31][32][33] Other utilization of Chinese family names, such as Tong, Gu, Yi, Sa, Gong, Zhao (兆), Cao, Bao, Zhe, Xi, Yu, Ge, Ma, Gao, Hu, Bai, and Chen, are also reported.[34]

Notable figuresEdit

 
Emperor Huizong of Song, allegedly the ancestor of Irgen Gioro clan
 
A statue of Chang Shuhong

MalesEdit

Ministers and GeneralsEdit

Name Sub-clan Remarks
Arjin Muki Hereditary Viscount First Class
Asan Muki Arjin's elder cousin, hereditary Viscount First Class
Fiyangū Yehe Hereditary Baron Second Class
Fulata Neyin Viceroy of Liangjiang and Minister of Justice
G'ag'ai[35] Hunehe a main creator of Manchu alphabet
Gūbadai Sunggari Ula Hereditary Master Commandant of Light Chariot, Minister of Rites
Isangga Warka Grand Secretariat of the Empire
Jinšun Girin Ula Ili General, earned a minor noble title of Knight Commandant of Cavalry and a warrior title of "Tulgeci Baturu"
Turusi Yehe Fiyangū's older brother, hereditary Viscount Third Class

Prince ConsortEdit

Date Prince Consort Background Princess
1583 Gahašan Hashū Taksi's daughter (d. 1624) by Empress Xuan (Hitara Emeci)
1644 or 1645 Kuazha Hong Taiji's sixth daughter (1633–1649) by secondary consort (Jarud Borjigit)
1723 Fusengge Yinxiang's second daughter (1707–1726) by primary consort (Joogiya)

ModernEdit

Name Remarks
Chang Shuhong the head of Dunhuang Research Academy
Zhao Ermi Herpetologist and a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

FemalesEdit

Imperial ConsortEdit

Imperial Consort Background Emperor Sons Daughters
Secondary consort Father: Zhaqin (札親), a wealthy man Nurhaci 7. Abatai, Prince Raoyumin (1589–1646) 2. Princess (Yanzhe; 1587–1646)
Mistress Father: Chabi (察弼) 7. Lady (1604–1685)
Father: Antaxi (安塔錫) Hong Taiji 7. Duke Cangšu (1637–1700)
Noble Consort Xun (1758–1798) Qianlong Emperor
Concubine Rong (1837–1869) Xianfeng Emperor

Princess ConsortEdit

Princess Consort Background Prince Sons Daughters
Primary consort Fiyanggū 1. Natai (1632–1674)
2. Caigui (1636–1684)
Mistress Hooge, Prince Suwu 7. Shushu (1645–1685)
Primary consort Prince Yunzhi 1. Hongyu (1696–1718) 1. Princess (1688–1711)
2. Princess (1689–1716)
3. Lady (1691–1723)
4. Lady (1692–1711)
Mistress Yunzhi, Prince Chengyin 3. Princess (1702–1746)
Yunyou, Prince Chundu
Secondary consort Yunti, Prince Xunqin 3. Hongying (1707–1771) 1. (b. 1705)
4. Lady (b. 1706)
Mistress 7. Princess (b. 1753)
Primary consort Prince Yunhu 1. Prince Honglong (1727–1784) 1. Princess (1730–1775)
2. Princess (1731–1785)
Secondary consort Yonghuang, Prince Ding'an 2. Mian'en, Prince Dinggong (1747–1822)
Primary consort Yongcheng, Prince Lüduan
General Huazhuang
Zhaolian
Secondary consort Chuntai, Prince Kangdao Chong'an, Prince Kangxiu
Chong'an, Prince Kangxiu Yongkui, Prince Li (禮)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ International Arts and Sciences Press 1982, p. 21
  2. ^ 中国関係論說資料保存会 2004, p. 101
  3. ^ Sometimes transliterated as IrgenGioro.[1][2]
  4. ^ Vargyas 2015, p. 270)
  5. ^ Hu 1994, p. 347
  6. ^ Sometimes alternatively spelled "Irgen Giyoro"(ᡳᡵᡤᡝᠨ
    ᡤᡳᠶᠣᡵᠣ
    [4][5]) in Manchu.
  7. ^ Hungjeo 2002, p. 181
  8. ^ Rawski 1998, p. 66
  9. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 398
  10. ^ Chen 1997, pp. 229–230
  11. ^ Xu 1986, pp. 2144–2145
  12. ^ Yang 1933, pp. 1–2
  13. ^ Jooliyan 1980, p. 316
  14. ^ "Xibe Language Association of Xinjiang: Brief Introduction of Xibe Family Names (simplified Chinese)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  15. ^ Zhao & Yao 1997, p. 76(Zhuyeting Various Notes)
  16. ^ Zhao 2012, p. 5
  17. ^ American Geographical Society of New York 1940, p. 116
  18. ^ Liu 2012, p. 4
  19. ^ Zheng 2009, p. 44
  20. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 133
  21. ^ Norman 2013, p. 199
  22. ^ Zhao 2012, p. 380
  23. ^ Hungjeo 2002, pp. 179, 180, 189, 190, 199, 200, 207, 208, 209
  24. ^ Zhao 2012, pp. 381–383
  25. ^ 中国社会科学院近代史研究所政治史研究室 2011, p. 62
  26. ^ Du 2008, p. 75
  27. ^ Elliott 2001, p. 59
  28. ^ Zhao 2012, pp. 491–519
  29. ^ Zhao 2012, pp. 372, 373, 383, 384, 385
  30. ^ Hu 1994, p. 876
  31. ^ Jin, Jin & Ulhicun 1996, p. 207
  32. ^ Jin 2009, pp. 118, 126
  33. ^ Zhao 2012, pp. 5, 381
  34. ^ Zhao 2012, p. 381
  35. ^ Kanda 1956, p. 752

SourcesEdit