Irene Dunne

Irene Dunne DHS (born Irene Marie Dunn;[Note 1] December 20, 1898 – September 4, 1990) was an American actress and singer who appeared in films during the Golden Age of Hollywood. She is best known for her comedic roles, though she performed in films of other genres.

Irene Dunne

Studio photograph of Irene Dunne.jpg
Studio headshot of Dunne, c. 1938
Born
Irene Marie Dunn

(1898-12-20)December 20, 1898[1][2]
DiedSeptember 4, 1990(1990-09-04) (aged 91)
Other names
  • The First Lady of Hollywood
  • Irene Dunne Griffin
Alma mater
Occupation
  • Actress
  • singer
  • philanthropist
  • businesswoman
Years active1922–1962
Title
Board member of
Spouse(s)
Francis Dennis Griffin
(m. 1927; died 1965)
Children1
AwardsSee list
Musical career
Genres
Instruments
  • Vocals
  • piano
LabelsDecca Records
WebsiteIrene Dunne Guild

After her father died when she was 14, Dunne's family relocated from Kentucky to Indiana, and she became determined to become an opera singer, but when she was rejected by The Met, she performed in musicals on Broadway until she was scouted by RKO and made her Hollywood film debut in the musical Leathernecking (1930). She starred in 42 movies and in popular anthology television, and made guest appearances on radio until 1962; she was nominated five times for the Academy Award for Best Actress—for her performances in Cimarron (1931), Theodora Goes Wild (1936), The Awful Truth (1937), Love Affair (1939), and I Remember Mama (1948)—and was one of the top 25 highest-paid actors of her time.

Until this present day, Dunne is considered one of the finest actresses never to have won an Academy Award. Some critics feel that her performances have been underappreciated and largely forgotten, overshadowed by movie remakes and her better-known co-stars. Dunne once fled across the Atlantic Ocean to avoid starring in a comedy, but she has been praised by many during her career, and after her death, as one of the best comedic actresses in the screwball genre. She was nicknamed "The First Lady of Hollywood" for her regal manner despite being proud of her Irish-American, country-girl roots.

Dunne devoted her retirement to philanthropy and was chosen by President Dwight D. Eisenhower as a delegate for the United States to the United Nations, in which she advocated for world peace and highlighted refugee-relief programs. She also used the time to be with her family—her husband, dentist Dr. Francis Griffin, and their daughter Mary Frances, whom they adopted in 1938. She received numerous awards for her philanthropy, including honorary doctorates, a Laetare Medal from the University of Notre Dame, and a papal knighthood—Dame of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre. In 1985, she was awarded a Kennedy Center Honor for her services to the arts.

Early lifeEdit

Irene Marie Dunn was born on December 20, 1898,[1][2] at 507 East Gray Street in Louisville, Kentucky,[9] to Joseph John Dunn, an Irish-American steamboat engineer/inspector for the United States government,[10] and Adelaide Antoinette Dunn (née Henry), a concert pianist/music teacher of German descent from Newport, Kentucky.[11] She was their second child and second daughter,[12] and had a younger brother named Charles;[13][14] Dunne's elder sister died soon after her birth.[12] The family alternated between living in Kentucky and St. Louis,[12] due to her father's job offers, but he died in April 1913[15][16] from a kidney infection[17] when she was fourteen.[Note 2] She saved all of his letters and both remembered and lived by what he told her the night before he died: "Happiness is never an accident. It is the prize we get when we choose wisely from life's great stores."[Note 3][20]

Following her father's death, Dunne's family moved to her mother's hometown of Madison, Indiana,[22] living on W. Second St.,[23] in the same neighborhood as Dunne's grandparents.[24] Dunne's mother taught her to play the piano as a very small girl — according to Dunne, "Music was as natural as breathing in our house,"[20] — but unfortunately for her, music lessons frequently prevented her from playing with the neighborhood kids.[12] Her first school production of A Midsummer Night's Dream began her interest in drama,[25] so she took singing lessons as well, and sang in local churches and high school plays before her graduation in 1916.[26] Wanting to become a music teacher,[27] she studied at the Indianapolis Conservatory of Music,[28][23] earning a diploma in 1918. Later, she auditioned for the Chicago Musical College when she visited friends during a journey to Gary, Indiana, and won a college scholarship, officially graduating in 1926.[29] Hoping to become a soprano opera singer, she moved to New York after finishing her second year in 1920, but failed two auditions with the Metropolitan Opera Company due to her inexperience and her "slight" voice.[30][31]

CareerEdit

1920–1929: Acting beginnings, Broadway debutEdit

 
Dunne dressed as a rabbit for a Broadway show, mid-1920s

Dunne took more singing lessons and then dancing lessons to prepare for a possible career in musical theater.[12] On a New York vacation to visit family friends, she was recommended to audition for a stage musical,[20] eventually starring as the leading role in the popular play Irene,[12] which toured major cities as a roadshow throughout 1921.[3][32] "Back in New York," Dunne reflected, "I thought that with my experience on the road and musical education it would be easy to win a role. It wasn't."[20] Her Broadway debut was December 25 the following year as Tessie in Zelda Sears's The Clinging Vine.[33] She then obtained the leading role when the original actress took a leave of absence in 1924.[20] Supporting roles in musical theater productions followed in the shows The City Chap (1925),[34][35] Yours Truly (1927)[36] and She's My Baby (1928).[37][38] Her first top-billing, leading role Luckee Girl (1928)[39] was not as successful as her previous projects.[12] She would later call her career beginnings "not great furor."[20] At this time, Dunne added the extra "e" to her surname,[Note 4][5] which had ironically been misspelled as "Dunne" at times throughout her life until this point;[41][42] until her death, "Dunne" would then occasionally be misspelled as "Dunn".[43][44] Starring as Magnolia Hawks in a road company adaptation of Show Boat was the result of a chance meeting with its director Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.[Note 5] in an elevator the day she returned from her honeymoon,[46] when he mistook her for his next potential client, eventually sending his secretary to chase after her.[20][Note 6] A talent scout for RKO Pictures attended a performance,[12] and Dunne signed the studio's contract, appearing in her first movie, Leathernecking (1930),[49] an adaptation of the musical Present Arms.[50] Already in her 30s when she made her first film, she would be in competition with younger actresses for roles, and found it advantageous to evade questions that would reveal her age, so publicists encouraged the belief that she was born in 1901 or 1904;[5][51] the former is the date engraved on her tombstone.[52][12]

Dunne starred in three films each with Charles Boyer and Cary Grant. These pairings were popular with audiences and critics alike.

1930–1949: Hollywood leading ladyEdit

The "Hollywood musical" era had fizzled out, so Dunne moved to dramatic roles during the Pre-Code era, leading a successful campaign for the role of Sabra in Cimarron (1931) with her soon-to-be co-star Richard Dix,[53] earning her first Best Actress nomination.[54] A Photoplay review declared, "[This movie] starts Irene Dunne off as one of our greatest screen artists."[55] Other dramas included Back Street (1932)[56] and No Other Woman (1933);[57] for Magnificent Obsession (1935),[58] she reportedly studied Braille and focused on her posture with blind consultant Ruby Fruth.[59] This was after she and Dix reunited for Stingaree (1934),[60] where overall consensus from critics was that Dunne had usurped Dix's star power.[61][62][63] Under a new contract with Warner Bros.,[64] the remake of Sweet Adeline (1934)[64][65] and Roberta (1935)[66] were Dunne's first two musicals since Leathernecking; Roberta also starred dancing partners Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, and she sang "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes".[Note 7] In 1936, she starred as Magnolia Hawks in Show Boat (1936), directed by James Whale.[68] Dunne had concerns about Whale's directing decisions,[69] but she later admitted that her favorite scene to film was "Make Believe" with Allan Jones because the blocking reminded her of Romeo and Juliet.[70] It was during this year that Dunne's Warner Bros. contract had expired and she had decided to become a freelance actor,[5] with the power to choose studios and directors.[71] She was apprehensive about attempting her first comedy role as the title character in Theodora Goes Wild (1936),[72] but discovered that she enjoyed the production process,[73] and received her second Best Actress Oscar nomination for the performance.[72]

 
Magnolia singing "Make Believe" with Gaylord Ravenal made Dunne fantasize she was in Romeo and Juliet. She later said, "Allan and I put our hearts (and lungs) into it [as] if we had really been doing a Shakespearean play."[70]

Dunne followed Theodora Goes Wild with other romantic and comedic roles. The Awful Truth (1937)[74] was the first of three films also starring Cary Grant and was later voted the 68th best comedy in American cinema history by the American Film Institute.[75] Their screwball comedy My Favorite Wife (1940)[76] was praised as an excellent spiritual successor,[77][78] whereas Penny Serenade (1941)[79] was a "romantic comedy that frequently embraced melodrama."[80] Dunne also starred in three films with Charles Boyer: Love Affair (1939),[81] When Tomorrow Comes (1939),[82] and Together Again (1944).[83] Love Affair was such an unexpected critical and financial success that the rest of Dunne and Boyer's films were judged against it;[84][85] When Tomorrow Comes was considered the most disappointing of the "trilogy,"[86][85] and the advertising for Together Again promoted the actors' reunion more than the movie.[87] Dunne and Grant were praised as one of the best romantic comedy couples,[88] while the Dunne and Boyer pairing was praised as the most romantic in Hollywood.[89]

On her own, Dunne showed versatility through many film genres. Critics praised her comedic skills in Unfinished Business (1941)[90] and Lady in a Jam (1942),[91] despite both movies' negative reception.[92][93] When the United States entered the Second World War, Dunne participated in celebrity war bond tours around the country,[94] announcing at a rally in 1942, "This is no time for comedy. I'm now a saleswoman, I sell bonds."[95] She followed the tour with her only two war films: A Guy Named Joe (1943)[Note 8] and The White Cliffs of Dover (1944).[98] Despite A Guy Named Joe's troubled production and mixed reviews, it was one of the most successful films of the year.[99] Over 21 (1945)[100] was Dunne's return to comedy but the themes of war (such as her character's husband enlisting in the army) immediately dated the story,[101][102] which may have contributed to its lack of success.[103] Strong but ladylike motherly roles in the vein of Cimarron's Sabra would follow throughout her next films,[104] such as Anna Leonowens in the fictionalized biopic Anna and the King of Siam (1946),[105] and mothers Vinnie Day in Life with Father (1947),[106] and Marta Hanson in I Remember Mama (1948).[107] Dunne openly disliked Vinnie's ditziness and had rejected Life with Father numerous times,[108] eventually taking the role because "it seemed to be rewarding enough to be in a good picture that everyone will see."[109] For I Remember Mama, Dunne worked on her Norwegian accent with dialect coach Judith Sater,[110] and wore body padding to appear heavier;[30][111] Marta Hanson was her fifth and final Best Actress nomination.

1950–1962: Declining movie-star powerEdit

Dunne's last three films were box-office failures.[112] The comedy Never a Dull Moment (1950) was accused of trying too hard.[113][114] Dunne was excited to portray Queen Victoria in The Mudlark (1950)[115] for a chance to "hide" behind a role with heavy makeup and latex prosthetics.[30][116] It was a success in the UK, despite initial critical concern over the only foreigner in a British film starring as a well-known British monarch,[117] but her American fans disapproved of the prosthetic decisions.[30] The comedy It Grows on Trees (1952) became Dunne's last movie performance,[118] although she remained on the lookout for suitable film scripts for years afterwards.[119] She filmed a television pilot based on Cheaper by the Dozen that was not picked up.[30] On the radio, she and Fred MacMurray respectively played a feuding editor and reporter of a struggling newspaper in the 52-episode comedy-drama Bright Star, which aired in syndication between 1952 and 1953 by the Ziv Company.[120][121] She also starred in and hosted episodes of television anthologies, such as Ford Theatre, General Electric Theater, and the Schlitz Playhouse of Stars. Faye Emerson wrote in 1954, "I hope we see much more of Miss Dunne on TV,"[122] and Nick Adams called Dunne's performance in Saints and Sinners worthy of an Emmy nomination.[123] Dunne's last acting credit was in 1962, but she was once rumored to star in unmaterialized movies named Heaven Train[124] and The Wisdom of the Serpent,[125] and rejected an offer to cameo in Airport '77.[126] In 1954, Hedda Hopper reported a rumor that Dunne would star alongside Robert Mitchum in Charles Laughton's stage adaptation of The Web and the Rock.[127] "I never formally retired," Dunne later explained, "but an awful lot of the girls my age soldiered on in bad vehicles. [I] couldn't run around with an ax in my hand like Bette [Davis] and Joan [Crawford] did to keep things going."[30]

Hollywood retirementEdit

 
Dunne christens SS Carole Lombard next to Louis B. Mayer. Standing behind her is Clark Gable, Carole Lombard's widower, and Lombard's secretary Madalynne Field.

Dunne was a presenter at the 1950 BAFTAs when she was in London filming The Mudlark,[128] and then represented Hollywood for the 12th Venice International Film Festival in 1951.[129] She later appeared at 1953's March of Dimes showcase in New York City to introduce two little girls nicknamed the Poster Children, who performed a dramatization about polio research.[130]

She accepted Walt Disney's offer to present at Disneyland's "Dedication Day" in 1955, and christened the Mark Twain Riverboat with a bottle containing water from several major rivers across the United States.[9][131][132] Years before, Dunne had also christened the SS Carole Lombard.[133][134]

Dunne was the only actress to be appointed a member of the California Arts Commission between 1967 and 1970.[135][136][137] The three years were spent developing a museum exhibit called "Dimension" for visually impaired visitors[138] which officially opened on January 12, 1970,[136] in the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum,[139][136] and toured California for eleven months.[140] Dunne recorded a talking booklet,[141] explaining the history of the 30 sculptures on display and inviting guests to touch.[140]

ActivismEdit

During the Second World War, Dunne joined the Beverly Hills United Service Organization,[142] and co-founded the Clark Gable's Hollywood Victory Committee.[94] It organized servicemen entertainment and war-bond sales tours on behalf of willing Hollywood participants.[Note 9] The National War Savings Program awarded her a certificate for her work from their Treasury Department.[142]

In her retirement, she devoted herself primarily to humanitarianism.[143] Some of the organizations she worked with include the Sister Kenny Foundation,[144] the American Cancer Society[9] (becoming Chairwoman of its Field Army in 1948),[145][146] the Los Angeles Orphanage,[147] the Archdiocesan Council of Catholic Women,[135] and was Co-Chairman of the American Red Cross.[146][9][148] She was elected president of Santa Monica's St. John's Hospital and Health Clinic[147] in 1950[149] (she resigned in 1966 to work in the developing council)[150] and became a board member of Technicolor in 1965, the first woman ever elected to the board of directors.[151][152] She established an African American school for Los Angeles,[153] negotiated donations to St. John's through box office results,[154][155] and Hebrew University Rebuilding Fun's sponsors committee.[135][156] Harold E. Stassen appointed her chairwoman for the American Heart Association's[157][9] women's committee in February 7, 1949,[135][153][158] and she held the position until February 28.[159] She appeared in a celebrity-rostered television special Benefit Show for Retarded Children (1955)[43] with Jack Benny as host.[160] Dunne also donated to refurbishments in Madison, Indiana, funding the manufacture of Camp Louis Ernst Boy Scout's gate in 1939[161] and the Broadway Fountain's 1976 restoration.[9][162] In 1987, she founded the Irene Dunne Guild, a foundation which remains "instrumental in raising funds to support programs and services at St. John's."[163] It was reported that the Guild had raised $20 million by the time of her death.[164]

Dunne reflected in 1951: "If I began living in Hollywood today, I would certainly do one thing that I did when I arrived, and that is to be active in charity. If one is going to take something out of a community—any community—one must put something in, too."[165] She also hoped that charity would encourage submissive women to find independence: "I wish women would be more direct. [...] I was amazed when some quiet little mouse of a woman was given a job which seemed to be out of all proportion to her capabilities. Then I saw the drive with which she undertook that job and put it through to a great finish. It was both inspiring and surprising. I want women to be individuals. They should not lean on their husbands' opinions and be merely echoes of the men of the family[.]"[166]

American delegate to the United NationsEdit

In 1957, President Eisenhower appointed Dunne one of five alternative U.S. delegates to the United Nations in recognition of her interest in international affairs and Roman Catholic and Republican causes.[167] Dunne admired the U.N.'s dedication to creating world peace,[168][169] and was inspired by colleagues' beliefs that Hollywood influenced the world.[170] On September 12, she was sworn in with Herman B. Wells, Walter H. Judd, A. S. J. Carnahan, Philip M. Klutznick and George Meany.[171] She held delegacy for two years and addressed the General Assembly twice.[172] She gave her delegacy its own anthem: "Getting to Know You" because "it's so simple, and yet so fundamental in international relations today."[173] Dunne later described her Assembly request for $21 million to help Palestinian refugees as her "biggest thrill,"[174] and called her delegacy career the "highlight of my life."[175] She also concluded, "I came away greatly impressed with the work the U.N. does in its limited field—and it does have certain limits. I think we averted a serious situation in Syria, which might have been much more worse without a forum to hear it... And I'm much impressed with the work the U.N. agencies do. I'm especially interested in UNICEF's work with children[,] and the health organization [.]"[176]

Political viewsEdit

Dunne was a lifelong Republican and served as a member of the Californian delegation in 1948's Republican National Convention.[177] She accepted the U.N. delegacy offer because she viewed the U.N. as apolitical.[178][179] She later explained: "I'm a Nixon Republican, not a Goldwater one.[Note 10] I don't like extremism in any case. The extreme rights do as much harm as the extreme lefts."[181] Her large input in politics created an assumption that she was a member of the "Hollywood right-wing fringe," which Dunne denied, calling herself "foolish" for being involved years before other celebrities did.[178]

Personal lifeEdit

 
Dunne with James Stewart and Loretta Young at Samuel Goldwyn's party (August 30, 1962)

Dunne's father frequently told Dunne about his memories of traveling on bayous and lazy rivers.[182] Dunne's favorite family vacations were riverboat rides and parades, later recalling a voyage from St. Louis to New Orleans,[183] and watching boats on the Ohio River from the hillside.[184][182] She admitted, "No triumph of either my stage or screen career has ever rivaled the excitement of trips down the Mississippi on the riverboats with my father."[20]

Dunne was an avid golfer, playing the sport since high-school graduation;[12] her husband and she often played against each other and she made a hole in one in two different games.[153] They often socialized with Californian business people,[185][126] but she was good friends with Loretta Young,[186] Jimmy Stewart,[186] Bob Hope,[186] Rosalind Russell,[187][185] Van Johnson,[187] Ronald Reagan,[126] Carole Lombard,[188][189] and George Stevens Jr.,[126] and became godmother to Young's son, Peter.[190] She and Charles Boyer's blossoming friendship in Love Affair seeped through the movie so strongly,[191] they both wrote essays about each other in the October issue of Photoplay.[192][193] Dunne also bonded with Leo McCarey over numerous similar interests, such as their Irish ancestry, music, religious backgrounds,[Note 11] and humor.[195] School friends nicknamed her "Dunnie"[25] and she was referred to as this in Madison High School's 1916 yearbook, along with the description "divinely tall and most divinely fair."[12] John Cromwell, however, reportedly described her as "always [having] the look of a cat who had swallowed the canary."[196]

Dunne was popular with co-workers off-camera, earning a reputation as warm and approachable, and having a "poised, gracious manner"[197] like royalty,[132] which spilled into her persona in movies. On observing life behind the scenes of a typical day of filming in Hollywood, Jimmie Fidler noted, "There is something about Irene Dunne that makes every man in the room unconsciously straighten his tie."[198] Dunne earned the nickname "The First Lady of Hollywood"[132] because "she was the first real lady Hollywood has ever seen," said Leo McCarey,[199] with Gregory La Cava adding, "If Irene Dunne isn't the first lady of Hollywood, then she's the last one."[200] Ironically, this title had been bestowed on her when she was a little girl when an aunt cooed "What a little lady!"[197] When approached about the nickname in 1936, Dunne admitted it had grown tiresome but approved if it was meant as "the feminine counterpart of 'gentleman'";[201] a later interview she did have with the Los Angeles Times would ironically be titled "Irene Dunne, Gentlewoman."[169]

Her fashion tastes were often the talk of newspapers,[202][203] and Best Dressed lists featured her as one of the most stylish celebrities in the world.[204][205] Dunne explained in a 1939 fashion-advice interview that her husband was partially responsible because he was equally stylish, but also chooses outfits based on personality, color scheme and the context of where the outfits will be worn.[203] McCall's magazine later revealed Dunne chose outfits specifically designed for her by Mainbocher and Jean Louis because she did not like buying clothes in stores.[185]

One of Dunne's later public appearances was in April 1985, when she attended the unveiling of a bronze bust in her honor at St. John's Hospital and Health Clinic. The artwork, commissioned by the hospital from artist Artis Lane, has a plaque reading "IRENE DUNNE First Lady Of Saint John's Hospital and Health Center Foundation."[206][207]

RelationshipsEdit

Between 1919 and 1922, Dunne was close to Fritz Ernst, a businessman based in Chicago who was 20 years older than she, and a member of one of the richest families in Madison, Indiana.[208] They frequently corresponded while Dunne was training for musical theater but when Fritz proposed, Dunne declined, due to pressure from her mother and wanting to focus on acting.[208] They remained friends and continued writing letters until Ernst died in 1959.[209]

 
Dunne with husband, Dr. Francis Griffin

At a New York, Biltmore Hotel supper party in 1924, Dunne met Northampton-born dentist[210] Francis Griffin.[20][211] According to Dunne, he preferred being a bachelor, yet tried everything he could to meet her.[20] To her frustration, he did not telephone her until over a month later, but the relationship had strengthened and they married in Manhattan on July 13, 1927.[212] They had constantly argued about the state of their careers if they ever got married,[20] with Dunne agreeing to consider theater retirement sometime in the future and Griffin agreeing to support Dunne's acting.[213] Griffin later explained: "I didn't like the moral tone of show business. [...] Then Ziegfeld signed her for Show Boat and it looked like she was due for big things. Next came Hollywood and [she] was catapulted to the top. Then I didn't feel I could ask her to drop her career. [I] really didn't think marriage and the stage were compatible but we loved each other and we were both determined to make our marriage work."[214]

When Dunne decided to star in Leathernecking, it was meant to be her only Hollywood project, but when it was a box-office bomb, she took an interest in Cimarron.[20] Soon after, she and her mother moved to Hollywood and maintained a long-distance relationship with her husband and brother in New York until they joined her in California in 1936.[215] A family friend described their dynamic as "like two pixies together,"[185] and they remained married until Griffin's death on October 14, 1965,[216][217] living in the Holmby Hills in a "kind of French Chateau"[218] they designed.[219][Note 12] A hobby they both shared was astronomy.[220][221] Griffin explained the marriage had lasted so long because: "When she had to go on location for a film I arranged my schedule so I could go with her. When I had to go out of town she arranged her schedule so she could be with me. We co-operate in everything. [...] I think a man married to a career woman in show business has to be convinced that his wife's talent is too strong to be dimmed or put out. Then, he can be just as proud of her success as she is and, inside he can take a bow himself for whatever help he's been."[214] Due to Dunne's privacy,[Note 13] Hollywood columnists struggled to find scandals to write about her—an eventual interview with Photoplay included the disclaimer, "I can guarantee no juicy bits of intimate gossip. Unless, perhaps she lies awake nights heartsick about the kitchen sink in her new home. She's afraid it's too near to the door. Or would you call that juicy? No? No, I thought not."[222] When the magazines alleged that Dunne and Griffin would divorce, Griffin released a statement denying any marital issues.[223]

After retiring from dentistry, Griffin became Dunne's business manager,[126] and helped negotiate her first contract.[224] The couple became interested in real estate, later investing in the Beverly Wilshire[126] and throughout Las Vegas[225] (including co-founding and chairing the board of Huntridge Corporation),[226][227][228][229] and partnering with Griffin's family's businesses (Griffin Equipment Company and The Griffin Wellpoint Company.)[214] Griffin sat as a board member of numerous banks,[214] but his offices were relocated from Century City to their home after his death, when Dunne took over as president.[181] They had one daughter, Mary Frances (née Anna Mary Bush; 1935[Note 14] – 2020),[231] who was adopted by the couple in 1936 (finalized in 1938) from the New York Foundling Hospital, run by the Sisters of Charity of New York.[232][230]

ReligionEdit

Dunne was a devout Catholic laywoman,[233][234] who became a daily communicant.[235] She was a member of the Church of the Good Shepherd and the Catholic Motion Picture Guild in Beverly Hills, California.[236] In 1953, Pope Pius XII[237] awarded Dunne and her husband papal knighthoods as Dame[Note 15] and Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, respectively.[239][52] Griffin also became a Knight of Malta in 1949.[240]

DeathEdit

 
Crypt of Irene Dunne at Calvary Cemetery (notice incorrect birth year)

Dunne died at the age of 91 in her Holmby Hills home on September 4, 1990,[164] and was entombed four days later[241] next to her husband in the Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles.[52] She had been unwell for a year with an irregular heartbeat, and became bedridden about a month before.[5] The funeral was private with family friend Loretta Young being the only celebrity allowed to attend.[242][241] Her personal papers are housed at the University of Southern California.[243] She was survived by her daughter, two grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.[244]

LegacyEdit

 
Dunne addresses the United Nations General Assembly[245] in 1957 about the United States' $21.8 million donation towards the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA).[246]

Dunne is considered one of the best actresses of The Golden Age of Hollywood never to win an Academy Award.[247][248][249][250] After I Remember Mama was released, Liberty magazine hoped she would "do a Truman" at the 1949 Oscars[251] whereas Erskine Johnson called her and Best Actor nominee Montgomery Clift the dark horses of that ceremony.[252] In 1985, Roger Fristoe said "a generation of filmgoers is mostly unfamiliar with her work" because eleven[253][248] of her movies had been remade, including Love Affair (remade as An Affair to Remember), Show Boat (remade in 1951), My Favorite Wife (remade as Move Over, Darling),[254][255] and Cimarron (remade in 1960).[132][248] Dunne explained she had lacked the "terrifying ambition" of some other actresses, commenting in 1977, "I drifted into acting and drifted out. Acting is not everything. Living is."[256][257]

Notable remakes of Dunne's films[253]
Cimarron1960 remake
Back Street1961 remake
RobertaLovely to Look At (1952)
Magnificent Obsession1954 remake
Show Boat1951 remake
The Awful TruthLet's Do It Again (1953)
Love AffairAn Affair to Remember (1957)
When Tomorrow ComesInterlude (1957)
My Favorite WifeMove Over, Darling (1963)
A Guy Named JoeAlways (1989)
Anna and the King of SiamThe King and I (1956)

Although known for her comedic roles, Dunne admitted that she never saw comedy as a worthy genre, even leaving the country to attend the London premiere of Show Boat[258] with her husband and James Whale to get away from being confronted with a script for Theodora Goes Wild.[45] "I never admired a comedienne," she said retrospectively, "yet it was very easy for me, very natural. It was no effort for me to do comedy at all. Maybe that's why I wasn't so appreciative of it."[73] She ascribed her sense of humor to her late father,[197] as well as her "Irish stubbornness."[17] Her screwball comedy characters have been praised for their subversions to the traditional characterisation of female leads in the genre, particularly Susan (Katharine Hepburn) in Bringing Up Baby and Irene (Carole Lombard) in My Man Godfrey. "Unlike the genre's stereotypical leading lady, who exhibits bonkers behaviour continuously, Dunne's screwball heroine [in Theodora Goes Wild] chooses when she goes wild," writes Wes D. Gehring,[259] who also described Dunne's screwball as situational because her characters often obfuscate wackiness to attract the male lead, and could turn it off when needed.[260]

Biographers and critics argue that Dunne's groundedness made her screwball characters more attractive than her contemporaries. In his review for My Favorite Wife, Bosley Crowther wrote that a "mere man is powerless" to "her luxurious and mocking laughter, her roving eyes and come-hither glances."[261] Maria DiBattista points out that Dunne is the "only comic actress working under the strictures of the Production Code" who ends both of her screwball movies alongside Cary Grant with a heavy implication of sharing a bed with him, "under the guise of keeping him at bay."[262] Frankie Teller claimed Dunne's sexiness had been overshadowed by her melodramatic movies until The Awful Truth was released.[263] Meanwhile, outside of comedy, Andrew Sarris theorized that Dunne's sex appeal is due to the common narrative in her movies about a good girl "going bad."[264] Dunne's backstage "First Lady" reputation furthered Sarris' sex appeal claims, admitting the scene when she shares a train carriage with Preston Foster in Unfinished Business was practically his "rite of passage" to a sex scene in a film,[264] theorizing that the sex appeal of Dunne came from "a good girl deciding thoughtfully to be bad."[264] On the blatant eroticism of the same train scene, Megan McGurk wrote, "The only thing that allowed this film to pass the censors was that good-girl Irene Dunne can have a one-night stand with a random because she loves him, rather than just a once-off fling. For most other women of her star magnitude, you could not imagine a heroine without a moral compass trained on true north. Irene Dunne elevates a tawdry encounter to something justifiably pure or blameless. She's just not the casual sex type, so she gets away with it."[265]

The Los Angeles Times referred to Dunne's publicity in their obituary as trailblazing, noting her as one of the first actors to become a freelancer in Hollywood during its rigid studio system through her "non-exclusive contract that gave her the right to make films at other studios and to decide who should direct them,"[71] and her involvement with the United Nations as a decision that allowed entertainers from movies and television to branch out into philanthropy and politics, such as Ronald Reagan and George Murphy.[71][266]

Dunne later said, "Cary Grant always said that I had the best timing of anybody he ever worked with."[73] Lucille Ball admitted at an American Film Institute seminar that she based her comedic skills on Dunne's performance in Joy of Living,[267] Joan Leslie called her an "outstanding example as a woman and a star."[268] Charles Boyer described her having "an irrepressible youthfulness"[192] and Ralph Bellamy described working in three films with her as "like a three-layered cake with candles[. She was] truly professional, extremely talented, and socially attractive and beautiful."[268] When asked about life after retiring from baseball, Lou Gehrig stated he would want Dunne as a screen partner if he ever became a movie actor.[269] Charles Mendl once called her one of the most attractive and fascinating women in the world "who has beauty as an accomplished actress and sophisticated conversationalist."[270] Dunne told James Bawden in 1977: "Now don't you dare call me normal. I was never a Pollyanna. There was always a lot of Theodora in me."[30]

Awards and nominationsEdit

Dunne looking at her Laetare Medal with her husband and daughter, Mary Frances, at the University of Notre Dame in 1949.
Dunne with Cardinal McIntyre at Loyola University's graduation ceremony in 1958. She attended to accept her honorary Law degree and give a commencement speech.
Dunne's handprints outside Grauman's Chinese Theatre.

Dunne received five Best Actress nominations during her career: for Cimarron (1931), Theodora Goes Wild (1936), The Awful Truth (1937), Love Affair (1939) and I Remember Mama (1948); she was the first actor to lose against the same actor in the same category twice, losing to Best Actress winner Luise Rainer in 1936 and 1937.[271] When asked if she ever resented never winning, Dunne pointed out that the nominees she was up against had strong support, believing that she would never have had a chance, especially when Love Affair was against Gone with the Wind.[30] "I don't mind at all," she told Joyce Haber, "Greta Garbo never got an Oscar either [and] she's a living legend."[4]

However, Dunne was honored numerous times for her philanthropy from Catholic organizations and schools, receiving the University of Notre Dame's Laetare Medal,[9] and the Bellarmine Medal from Bellarmine College.[3] She received numerous honorary doctorates,[272] including from Chicago Musical College (for music),[273] Loyola University and Mount St. Mary's College (both for Law).[9][71] For her film career, she was honored by the Kennedy Center,[274][275] a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6440 Hollywood Blvd,[276] and displays in the Warner Bros. Museum and Center for Motion Picture Study.[277] A two-sided marker was erected in Dunne's childhood hometown of Madison in 2006.[278][162]

Received honors
Award Year Ref(s)
American Society for the Hard of Hearing's Best Diction Award 1936 [142]
Chicago Musical College honorary Doctor of Music 1945 [279][9][27]
Grauman's Chinese Theatre Handprints 1946 [280][281]
NCCJ's American Brotherhood Award 1948 [282][156][148]
Laetare Medal 1949 [9][283]
American Heart Association Gold Medal [284][285]
Protestant Motion Picture Council Award[Note 16] [153]
American Motherhood Pictures Award [153]
Woman's Voice of the Year [146][287]
Lateran Cross 1951 [178]
Los Angeles Times Woman of the Year [178]
New York Dress Institute's International Best Dressed Women [204]
Dame of the Holy Sepulchre 1953 [52][238][288]
Honorary member of the Madison Chamber of Commerce 1954 [289]
International Best Dressed List 1958 [205]
Indiana's Woman of the Year [290]
Loyola University honorary Law degree [291]
Seattle University honorary Law degree 1959 [292][293][294]
St. Mary's College honorary Law degree 1964 [238][295]
Bellarmine Medal 1965 [3][296]
Mannequins of the Assistance League of Southern California's Golden Eve Award 1967 [297]
Colorado Women of Achievement 1968 [272]
St. John's Hospital and Health Center's Lifetime Trustee 1982 [207]
Irene Dunne Guild bust 1985 [206]
Kennedy Center Honoree [274]

FilmographyEdit

Box–office rankingEdit

  • 1936 – 17th
  • 1938 – 23rd
  • 1939 – 24th
  • 1944 – 19th
  • 1948 – 24th

DiscographyEdit

SinglesEdit

"Lovely to Look At" was the only song Dunne performed in a non-musical movie that entered the Billboard charts, peaking at number 20 in early June 1935.[298][299]

Year Single Credits Format Labels (serial number) Ref.
1935 "When I Grow Too Old to Dream"/"Lovely to Look At"
  • Performed with Nat Shilkret's orchestra
  • Recorded April 4 in New York
  • Top 20 single
78 rpm
[298]

Songs from the Pen of Jerome KernEdit

Decca Records released Dunne's only album, titled Irene Dunne in Songs from the Pen of Jerome Kern,[Note 17] which contained recordings of six show tunes composed by Jerome Kern. It was recorded between July 16 and August 24, 1941, with Victor Young's orchestra,[304] making Dunne another singing movie star to create a Jerome Kern album.[305]

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to Dunne's baptism record, her full name is "Irene Maria Dunn,"[1][3] however, some news reports (including an interview)[4] have written "Marie" instead of "Maria."[5][4][6] Her birth record does not include her middle name,[2] and the 1900 census writes "Irene M. Dunn,"[7] whereas the 1920 census only writes "Dunn, Irene."[8] Whichever is a spelling error is unknown.
  2. ^ Joseph Dunn's death has also been reported as happening in 1909 when Dunne was eleven,[18][3] but this was most likely at the time when Dunne was trying to conceal her real age from the Hollywood media.
  3. ^ The full quote: "Happiness is never an accident. It is the prize we get when we choose wisely from life's great stores. So don't reach out wildly for this and that and the other thing. You'll end up empty-handed if you do. Make up your mind what you want. Go after it. And be prepared to pay well for it.[19] I hope that you'll go after the rooted things: the self-respect that comes when we accept our share of responsibility. Satisfying work. Marriage. A home. A family. For these are the things that grow better with time, not less. These things are the bulwarks of happiness."[20] Dunne only quoted the last three sentences to American Magazine in 1944.[21]
  4. ^ Dunne later told the audience of a film retrospective that she initially considered the stage name "Irene Barkley", after an uncle.[40]
  5. ^ Ziegfeld's father founded Chicago Musical College.[45]
  6. ^ Magnolia Hawks had been a dream role for Dunne and she had bought the sheet music of the musical to practice,[47] so this story was jokingly disputed by American Magazine with the comment: "Neither you not I nor [her husband] would ever suspect that she deliberately went to Florenz Ziegfeld [Jr] and suggested that she'd like to play Magnolia in the road company."[48]
  7. ^ Credited as "(When Your Heart's on Fire) Smoke Gets in Your Eyes", according to the movie's official song sheet.[67]
  8. ^ A Guy Named Joe was released in December 1943,[96] but the AFI Catalog website writes that it was released in March 1944.[97]
  9. ^ A few video clips of Dunne during bond tours appeared in the movies Show Business at War (1943) and Follow the Boys (1944).[94]
  10. ^ Dunne supported Nixon in the 1950 United States Senate election in California and Goldwater in the 1964 United States presidential election.[180] She also seconded Earl Warren's Vice Presidential nomination in 1948.[159]
  11. ^ McCarey was a guilty lapsed Catholic,[194] however
  12. ^ Considered out-of-date, the home was demolished after Dunne's death.[23]
  13. ^ Dunne's indifference about giving interviews was revealed to be the result of shyness. She did not like attending Hollywood parties and was paranoid about interviewers asking about an uncomfortably invasive topic, describing it as like living in a glass house.[187] "There are talented people who can talk amusingly, charmingly, blithely about themselves to friends, acquaintances and strangers on the slightest provocation [and I] find myself not only enjoying but envying them," she later explained.[187] This apathy was interpreted as snobbery, at first, and is partially why her "ladylike" reputation stuck.[187]
  14. ^ Birth originally reported as 1932.[230]
  15. ^ Initially reported as "Lady",[238] the true rank is actually "Dame," but "Lady" is sometimes used colloquially. See Order of the Holy Sepulchre#Ranks for more information.
  16. ^ Shared with the cast and crew of I Remember Mama.[286]
  17. ^ Also known as Songs by Jerome Kern,[300] Jerome Kern Songs,[301] Irene Dunne in Songs by Jerome Kern,[302] and Irene Dunne Souvenir Album.[303]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Irene Maria Dunn". Baptism Record. Louisville, Kentucky: Saint Martin of Tours Church. 262. (birthdate recorded as December 20, 1898; baptism recorded as six days later)
  2. ^ a b c "[Irene] Dunn". Kentucky Birth Register. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. 3086. December [20], 1898
  3. ^ a b c d e Fristoe (1985)
  4. ^ a b c Haber, Joyce (March 16, 1975). "The Sweet Smell of Irene Dunne". Los Angeles Times. p. 33. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Bob (September 5, 1990). "Film Star Irene Dunne dies at 88". San Francisco Examiner. p. A-14. Archived from the original on September 16, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ "DUNNE, Irene Marie; 88; Louisville KY>Los Angeles CA; Albuquerque J (NM); 1990-9-5; clh". Obituary Daily Times Index, 1995–Current. Albuquerque: The Obituary Daily Times. September 5, 1990.
  7. ^ "Magisterial District 7, Precincts 26, 23 Louisville city Ward 10". Twelfth Census of the United States. National Archives and Records Administration. June 13, 1900. 36. Dunn, Irene M.
  8. ^ "Madison; Ward 3". Fourteenth Census of the United States: 1920 – Population. Department of Commence Bureau of the Census. Jefferson (Indiana): 6A. January 7, 1920. 27.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bochenek (2015).
  10. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 7.
  11. ^ Ward (2006); Pre-Hollywood Years (1898–1929), Early Childhood.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Pre-Hollywood Years (1898–1929).
  13. ^ "Death Notices". Los Angeles Times. August 17, 1981. p. 18. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  14. ^ "Charles Robert Dunne". California Death Index, 1940-1997. California Department of Public Health.
  15. ^ "Capt. J.J. Dunn". Madison Daily Herald. April 7, 1913.
  16. ^ "Joseph J. Dunn is Dead". St. Louis Globe-Democrat. April 7, 1913. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ a b Gehring (2003), p. 8.
  18. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 11; Hats, Hunches & Happiness by Irene Dunne (1945).
  19. ^ Ormiston, Roberta. "To Make You Happier". Photoplay. No. April 1944. p. 107.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hats, Hunches & Happiness by Irene Dunne (1945).
  21. ^ Jerome Beatty. "Lady Irene". American Magazine. No. November 1944. p. 117.
  22. ^ "Mother of Irene Dunne was Madison Resident". The Indianapolis Star. December 19, 1936. p. 25.
  23. ^ a b c Ward (2006).
  24. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 11; Bochenek (2015).
  25. ^ a b Gehring (2003), p. 11.
  26. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 13.
  27. ^ a b "Alma Mater to Give Irene Dunne Degree". The Central New Jersey Home News. June 11, 1945. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Irene Dunne, who once wanted to teach music but who bypassed that vocation to become a starring actress in motion pictures, will be awarded an honorary degree of doctor of music by the Chicago Musical College.
  28. ^ "Irene Dunne, Ziegfield Show Star, Looks Fondly Back to Madison Home". The Indianapolis Star. March 9, 1930. p. 38.
  29. ^ Pre-Hollywood Years (1898–1929); Gehring (2003), p. 14–15.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Bawden, James (September 10, 1977). "A Visit with Irene Dunne". American Classic Screen. p. 9.
  31. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 15.
  32. ^ "The Star of 'Irene' Coming to Luna Thursday". Logansport Pharos-Tribune. March 18, 1922. p. 5. Archived from the original on August 2, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. 
  33. ^ "The Clinging Vine – Broadway Musical – Original". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on March 11, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
  34. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 16.
  35. ^ "The City Chap – Broadway Musical". IMDB. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020. (Dunne is credited as "Irene Dunn")
  36. ^ "Yours Truly – Broadway Musical – Original". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  37. ^ "THE STAGE". The Pittsburgh Press. January 15, 1928. p. 85.
  38. ^ "She's My Baby – Broadway Musical – Original". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  39. ^ "Luckee Girl – Broadway Musical – Original". Internet Broadway Database. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  40. ^ "Irene Dunne Retrospective". Los Angeles Herald-Examiner. March 24, 1975.
  41. ^ Webb, Anah (December 4, 1918). "Bedford Girl". The Bedford Daily. p. 1. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Musical numbers on the program will be given by the following Indiana girls: Miss Wynota Cleaveland of Crawfordsville, Miss Anah Webb of Bedford, Miss Irene Dunne of Madison, Miss Lillian Prass of Lafayette...
  42. ^ "Chateau-Thierry Stage and Hoosier Girls Feature Dinner". The Indianapolis Star. December 8, 1918. p. 33. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved July 24, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. The following Hoosier girls took part: Miss Irene Dunne, Madison, represented France... 
  43. ^ a b Anderson, Jack E. (November 24, 1955). "TV-Radio Vie with Eats Today". The Miami Herald. p. 18-B. At 3:30 WITV (Ch. 17) is telecasting the National Association for Retarded Children benefit show. Jack Benny is emceeing and everybody from Irene Dunn [sic] to Art Linkletter is in it.
  44. ^ "'Together Again' With Irene Dunn [sic] Next 'Lux' Drama". Harrisburg Telegraph. December 7, 1946. p. 19. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 12, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  45. ^ a b McDonough (1985).
  46. ^ "Screen Stars Relate Their Favorite Anecdotes: Road to Fame Begins in Elevator For Irene Dunne". The Indianapolis Star. September 10, 1944. p. 21.
  47. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 23.
  48. ^ Beatty, Jerome (1944). "Lady Irene". American Magazine (November 1944). p. 118.
  49. ^ "Leathernecking". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  50. ^ "Present Arms". Shamokin News-Dispatch. May 17, 1930. p. 5. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. 
  51. ^ Charles Champlin (December 5, 1985). "Critic at Large: Irene Dunne: Always a Lady of the House". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020. Depending on which film source you read, Irene Dunne will be 81, 84 or 87 on Dec. 20. The official birth year is 1904, which makes her almost 81 and which she says sternly is correct, although in all events, "We do not think about Dec. 20. It is a day I choose to disregard."
  52. ^ a b c d Ellenberger, Allan R. (2001). "Cavalry". Celebrities in Los Angeles Cemeteries: A Directory. p. 18. ISBN 978-0786409839. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  53. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 27.
  54. ^ "Cimarron". Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020. It was nominated for Best Direction, Best Actor (Richard Dix), Best Actress (Irene Dunne) and Best Cinematography.
  55. ^ "[Cimarron review]". Photoplay. April 1931.
  56. ^ "Back Street". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  57. ^ "No Other Woman". Archived from the original on June 25, 2020.
  58. ^ "AFI|Catalog - Magnificent Obsession". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  59. ^ "Actress Prepares to Portray Blind Role". Times. November 1935.
  60. ^ "Stingaree". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  61. ^ Thornton Delehanty (May 18, 1934). "Irene Dunne and Richard Dix in 'Stingaree'". New York Post. p. 13. [Stingaree] is a preposterous tale, with Mr. Dix doing his best to prevent it from being even faintly credible.
  62. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 42.
  63. ^ "Stars of "Cimarron" Now in "Stingaree"". The Greenwood Commonwealth. July 14, 1934. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020. The role [of Stingaree] gives [Richard] Dix an opportunity to return to the adventurous, twinkly-eyed roles he enacted in the early days of his success. Miss Dunne, opposite, has her first opportunity to exploit thoroughly her beautiful voice.
  64. ^ a b "Irene Dunne Signed by Warners". New York Herald Tribune. August 21, 1934. Sweet Adeline was announced as Irene Dunne's first starring vehicle under her new Warner Bros. contract.
  65. ^ "Sweet Adeline". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  66. ^ "Roberta". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  67. ^ Schultz (1991), p. 187.
  68. ^ "Show Boat". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  69. ^ Curtis, James (1998). James Whale: A New World of Gods and Monsters. Boston: Faber and Faber. pp. 269–270. [Irene Dunne said:] James Whale wasn't the right director. He was more interested in atmosphere and lighting and he knew so little about [riverboat] life.
  70. ^ a b Livingstone, Beulah (September 21, 1936). "The Story of Irene Dunne". Table Talk. p. 14.
  71. ^ a b c d "From the Archives: Irene Dunne, Leading Star of '30s and '40s, Dies at 88". LA Times. September 5, 1990. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Theodora Goes Wild". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  73. ^ a b c James Harvey (1978).
  74. ^ "The Awful Truth". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  75. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020.
  76. ^ "My Favorite Wife". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  77. ^ Creelman, Eileen (May 31, 1940). "A Bright Farce, 'My Favorite Wife'". New York Sun. p. 22. [The plot of My Favorite Wife] has anything to do with its very obvious resemblance to another [Leo] McCarey comedy, The Awful Truth.
  78. ^ Wilson, Robert, ed. (1971). The Film Criticism of Otis Ferguson. Philadelphia Temple University Press. p. 302. [My Favorite Wife is a] no-nonsense-sequel to The Awful Truth.
  79. ^ "Penny Serenade". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  80. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 123.
  81. ^ "Love Affair". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  82. ^ "When Tomorrow Comes". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  83. ^ "Together Again". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 24, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
  84. ^ "What's What in the Movies: A Big Week As Women Fans Promised in Coming Movies". The Kansas City Times. September 28, 1939. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com. [When Tomorrow Comes] does not have as much comedy in it as when Miss Dunne and Mr. Boyer presented last season when they co-starred in Love Affair.
  85. ^ a b "Fantasies Omitted". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 21, 1939. There is something missing in When Tomorrow Comes [...] Indeed, [director John M. Stahl] has woven together the elements for a romance that is as near to actuality and as far from affection as that of the Love Affair starring effort [...] There isn't the sparkling wit of Love Affair...
  86. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 109.
  87. ^ "Knickerbocker Star Jeanne Crain; Loew's Brings Dunne, Boyer". The Tennessean. November 19, 1944. p. 16–B. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020. Billed as an exciting and hilarious love affair, [Together Again] bought forth from the publicity department with this paragraph: 'Their eyes meet again! Their lips meet again! Their hearts meet again in this year's most glorious...enchanting...daring romantic comedy. What love! What laughter!'
  88. ^ "'Favorite Wife' at Memoria". Boston Post. June 21, 1940. Miss Dunne and Mr. Grant make the perfect team for romantic comedy [and] they are both charming people.
  89. ^ Parsons, Louella O. (August 11, 1939). "Irene Dunne and Charles Boyer Engaging in Romantic Film, "When Tomorrow Comes"". Los Angeles Examiner. I don't know any more romantic pair on the screen than Irene Dunne and Charles Boyer.
  90. ^ "Unfinished Business". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020.
  91. ^ "Lady in a Jam". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  92. ^ "[Lady In a Jam review]". The New Yorker. July 22, 1942. On the whole, [Lady In a Jam] shouldn't happen to Irene Dunne.
  93. ^ Crowther, Bosley (September 2, 1941). "[Unfinished Business review]". The New York Times. p. 20. Under the circumstances, the actors do exceedingly well. Miss Dunne, even though she must combine the naivete of Cinderella with the devastating wit of a Dorothy Parker, is charming.
  94. ^ a b c Gehring (2003), p. 135.
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  96. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 194.
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  98. ^ "The White Cliffs of Dover". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  99. ^ Steinberg, Cobbett (1978). Reel Facts: The Movie Book of Records. Vintage Books. p. 342. ISBN 978-0394724164.
  100. ^ "Over 21". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 23, 2020. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  101. ^ Winsten, Archer (August 17, 1645). "Over 21 Comes Late to Radio City Music Hall". The New York Post. p. 12. [Over 21] must now get along as a film at the Music Hall without [the] benefit of timeliness.
  102. ^ Cameron, Kate (August 17, 1945). "Gaiety Is Keynote of Music Hall Film". New York Daily News. p. 34. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 28, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. With people everywhere thinking, planning, talking and breathing peace, [it] is a bit startling to [suddenly transport] back to the early days of the war.
  103. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 146.
  104. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 33.
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  108. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 156.
  109. ^ Scheuer, Philip K. (August 31, 1947). "Personality First, Irene Dunne Says". Los Angeles Times.
  110. ^ "Exits and Entrances". Oakland Tribune. June 24, 1947. p. 11.
  111. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 159.
  112. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 171.
  113. ^ Cameron, Kate (November 22, 1950). "Never a Dull Moment – A Zany Comedy". Daily News. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020. There are some engagingly-homely touches in the comedy, but for the most part, it is given over to slapstick antics and strains too hard for its comic effects.
  114. ^ Bosley Crowther (November 22, 1950). "The Screen in Review; 'Never a Dull Moment,' New Film at the Rivoli, Stars Irene Danne, Fred MacMarray". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2020. ...its sole achievement as entertainment is the presentation of Irene Dunne in a series of rustic encounters that are about as funny as stepping on a nail.
  115. ^ "AFI|Catalog – The Mudlark". American Film Institute. Archived from the original on June 25, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
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  119. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 172.
  120. ^ Dunning, John (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 119–120. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Retrieved August 31, 2019. Bright Star, comedy.
  121. ^ "2 Big Hollywood Actors in Great New Comedy Roles". The Indiana Gazette. January 5, 1952. p. 14. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  122. ^ Emerson, Faye (April 21, 1954). "Faye Emerson Writes on Radio and TV". Albuquerque Tribune.
  123. ^ Parsons, Louella (October 12, 1962). "Hollywood". Anderson Daily Bulletin. What makes me feel so bad is that Miss Dunne is so wonderful as the movie actress with an incurable disease she is sure to be in the running for an Emmy award.
  124. ^ Hedda Hopper (September 20, 1965). "Irene Can't Wait for 'Heaven Train'". Los Angeles Times. p. 21. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  125. ^ Parsons, Louella (October 18, 1952). "Inside Hollywood". The Hanford Sentinel. p. 2.
  126. ^ a b c d e f Frye (2004)
  127. ^ Hopper, Hedda (December 9, 1954). "Chandler, Baxter 'Spoilers' Co-Stars". The Los Angeles Times.
  128. ^ "Irene Dunne to present "Oscars" to Britons". The Los Angeles Times. May 31, 1950. p. 18.
  129. ^ "[Clipped From Detroit Free Press]". Detroit Free Press. September 2, 1951. p. 39. Archived from the original on December 22, 2020.
  130. ^ "Stars Shine in Gala Fashion Revue for March of the Dimes". The News and Observer. February 2, 1953. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Basil O'Connor, president of the Foundatioin, opened the show. Irene Dunne introduced the 1953 March of Dimes Poster Children...
  131. ^ Humphrey, Hal (July 11, 1955). "'Disneyland' Dedication to Draw Notables". Oakland Tribune. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020. Irene Dunne, a personal friend of [Walt] Disney, will christen the Mark Twain, a 105-foot sternwheeler which plies its way around a three-quarter mile canal in Frontierland.
  132. ^ a b c d Susan Pennington; Chris Beachum (December 20, 2019). "Irene Dunne movies: 12 greatest films ranked from worst to best". Gold Derby. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020.
  133. ^ "Launch S.S. Carole Lombard Tomorrow". The Herald-News. Passaic, New Jersey. January 14, 1944. p. 18. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Actress Irene Dunne will break the wine bottle on the S.S. Carole Lombard's steel prow...
  134. ^ "Liberty Ship Carole Lombard Sent Down Ways". The Los Angeles Times. January 16, 1944. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020. Best of Luck – Capt. Gable, Louis B. Mayer, head of M.G.M., and Irene Dunne, waving farewells as the S.S. Carole Lombard slides down ways of Calship yards.
  135. ^ a b c d McAuliffe, Martin L. (1970). Profiles of Excellence. Evansville, Indiana: University of Evansville Press. pp. 93–96.
  136. ^ a b c "Docents Do Great Job For Blind". The San Francisco Examiner. January 13, 1970. p. 17.
  137. ^ "Gov. Reagan Appoints Wife to Arts Panel". Press-Telegram. August 11, 1967. p. C-11.
  138. ^ "Art Perception through the Sense of Touch". San Francisco Chronicle-Examiner. January 4, 1970. The purpose of the show was to make art more accessible to the blind and give the sighted a new perspective.
  139. ^ M.H. de Young Memorial Museum., Sachko, D., California Arts Commission., & Touring Art Gallery for the Sighted and the Blind. (1969). Dimension, an exhibition of sculpture for the sighted and the blind. Exhibition: San Francisco, Jan. 12 – Feb. 22.
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  141. ^ A Guide to "Dimension: An Exhibition of Sculpture for the Sighted and Blind" (Spoken word (audio)). Capitol.
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  144. ^ "Irene Dunne Takes Lead in Charity Work". Los Angeles Times. December 30, 1951. p. 59.
  145. ^ "Cancer Society Names Irene Dunne to High U.S. Post". Los Angeles Evening Citizen News. April 22, 1948. p. 15.
  146. ^ a b c "Laetare Winner is Irene Dunne". The Tablet. May 2, 1949.
  147. ^ a b "Irene Dunne Returns in Television Drama". The Press Courier. February 10, 1959.
  148. ^ a b "Irene Dunne Named Top Member of Catholic Laity". The Des Moines Register. March 28, 1949. p. 3. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
  149. ^ "Irene Dunne Heads Guild of Hospital". Los Angeles Times. December 14, 1950. p. 78.
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  151. ^ "Irene Dunne: From Boards to the Board". The San Francisco Examiner. February 16, 1965. p. 28. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
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  154. ^ Irene Dunne. "If You Want Success...". Screenland. No. July 1951. More recently, I've worked with heart and cancer foundations, Red Cross and especially the St. John's Hospital for which our premiere of "The Mudlark" raised $137.000 for a new building wing.
  155. ^ "Film Premiere to Help: St. John's Hospital Addition Advanced". Los Angeles Times. February 10, 1963. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. The premiere [of How the West Was Won] is sponsored by the St. John's Hospital Foundation. [...] Irene Dunne, who became president of the St. John’s Hospital Foundation in 1951, was instrumental in arranging the benefit premiere.
  156. ^ a b "Irene Dunne Guild". Irene Dunne Guild. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020.
  157. ^ "Irene Dunne Voted Notre Dame Honor". Baltimore Sun. March 28, 1949. p. 11.
  158. ^ "Hollywood's 10 Best Citizens". Modern Screen. Vol. 40 no. 3. 1950. p. 73.
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  161. ^ "Irene Dunne Remembers Home Town Scout Camp". The Indianapolis News. June 6, 1939. p. 10. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020.
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  163. ^ "Saint John's Health Center Foundation". Saint John's Foundation. Archived from the original on May 15, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
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  165. ^ Irene Dunne. "If You Want Success...". Screenland. No. July 1951.
  166. ^ Wilson, Bess M. (April 20, 1951). "Irene Dunne Describes Charity as Key to Women's Services : 'More Direct Approach Advised'". Los Angeles Times. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020. (other half of article)
  167. ^ "Ike Appoints Irene Dunne to U.N. Post". Palm Beach Post. August 10, 1957. p. 4. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved June 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  168. ^ Bell (1958): 'Says Irene: "You never for a moment forget that war and peace and life itself are at stake. When I go back home after this session of the General Assembly, I'll be an enthusiastic saleslady for the U.N. as an essential force [for] world peace in this age of atoms and outer-space moons."'
  169. ^ a b "Irene Dunne: Gentlewoman". Los Angeles Times. March 5, 1958. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016.
  170. ^ Bell (1958): '"There are a great many thoughtful people in Hollywood," Irene says, "especially among the writers, directors, and technicians. I think they are aware of Hollywood's impact on people all over the world, but even they have no idea of how tremendous that impact is. I know now—from talking with the other U.N. delegates. And I'm going home and try to tell the people back there what an important contribution Hollywood can make, or how much harm it can do."'
  171. ^ "Meany, Many Others Take Oaths As Delegates to UN". The Sacramento Bee. September 13, 1957. p. A-8. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
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  175. ^ "Irene Dunne Finds Career in U.N. "Highlight of My Life"". New York Herald Tribune. October 16, 1957. p. 3.
  176. ^ Thomas, Bob (February 27, 1958). "Actress Found U.N. Exciting". The Evening Sun. Hanover, Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
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  179. ^ McCall's (1964): "Ever since my United Nations work, for instance, they've been saying that I've gone into politics. The United Nations is a nonpolitical body."
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  202. ^ "Irene Dunne's Suit is Notably Smart". The Indianapolis Star. July 10, 1939. p. 4.
  203. ^ a b Young, Marian (April 6, 1939). ""We like your style," Hollywood Says To Irene Dunne". Muncie Evening Press. p. 11.
  204. ^ a b "Duchess of Windsor Voted Queen Of World's Best Dressed Women". The Indianapolis Star. December 30, 1951.
  205. ^ a b "Best Dressed Women". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on July 12, 2013.
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  207. ^ a b Jacobs, Jody (April 28, 1985). "Friends of Joffery Get Bibs Ready". Los Angeles Times. p. 4. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. 
  208. ^ a b Gehring (2003), p. 22; Pre-Hollywood Years (1898–1929).
  209. ^ Pre-Hollywood Years (1898–1929); Gehring (2003), p. 22.
  210. ^ "Figures in Recent Local Weddings". The Indianapolis Star. July 31, 1927. p. 57. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  211. ^ "Frank Griffin". Massachusetts Vital Records, 1840–1911. Births Registered in the Town of Northampton for the Year Eighteen-hundred and eighty-three. Massachusetts, U.S: New England Historic Genealogical Society. 1883 – via Provo, Utah and Ancestry.com. (Griffin is listed at number 88)
  212. ^ "Manhattan". Index to Marriages. New York: New York City Municipal Archives. 8: 372, 588. Retrieved June 4, 2020 – via Ancestry.com. (Dunne and Griffin's marriage license code is 19627; Dunne's name is on page 372, and Griffin's name is on page 588)
  213. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 22.
  214. ^ a b c d Hyams, Joe (April 27, 1958). "'Be A Trailer' Irene Dunne's Husband Says". The Daily Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  215. ^ Gehring (2003), pp. 24–25, 50, 94.
  216. ^ "Francis D Griffin". California Death Index, 1940-1997. Sacramento, CA, USA: California Department of Health Services. Retrieved June 4, 2020 – via Ancestry.com.
  217. ^ "Irene Dunne's Husband Dies". The Sacramento Bee. October 16, 1965. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020. Dr. Francis D. Griffin, 79, husband of actress Irene Dunne, has died of a heart ailment. He died Thursday night in the couple's home after a long illness.
  218. ^ Orr, Robin (February 24, 1969). "Portrait of a Lady". Oakland Tribune.
  219. ^ Frye (2004): "When Irene and her husband, Frank Griffin, who was a dentist, arrived in Hollywood in 1930, they bought a lot in Holmby Hills for $10[,]000 and built a two-story house on it for $40[,]000."
  220. ^ "Irene Dunne". Picture Show Annual. No. 1940. Amalgamated Press, Ltd. 1939. p. 60.
  221. ^ "Biographical Information on RKO Radio Pictures Personalities" (periodical). RKO Pictures. April 23, 1937.
  222. ^ Hamilton, Sara (1936). "This Is Really Irene Dunne". Photoplay. No. April 1936.
  223. ^ "Press". Archived from the original on January 28, 2011. Fed up with speculations about a pending divorce, Frank finally issued a statement [...] At last Hollywood had to accept a working, happy marriage.
  224. ^ Gehring (2003), p. 24.
  225. ^ "Irene Dunne Hits It Rich". Star Tribune. Minneapolis, Minnesota. June 16, 1952. p. 24. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020.
  226. ^ Clarke, Norm (2004). Vegas Confidential: 1,000 Naked Truths. Las Vegas, Nev.: Stephens Press. p. 220. ISBN 9781932173260 – via Google Books. Huntridge Theater — It was opened on October 10, 1944, by film star Irene Dunne, and, for a brief time, Loretta Young was a partner.
  227. ^ "Mrs. Gall Writes About Las Vegas, Nev.: A Growing Town in Heart of Desert; Climate Dry and Warm". The Lathrop Optimist. January 13, 1944. p. 1.
  228. ^ Robin Orr (February 24, 1969). "Portrait Of A Lady". Oakland Tribune. p. 23. Francis W. [sic] Griffin, Miss Dunne inherited the board chairmanship of the Huntridge Corp., a real estate development firm, after her husband's death two years ago.
  229. ^ "Irene Dunne: Front Liner". The San Francisco Examiner. February 24, 1969. p. 19. She's also on the board of Technicolor, Inc., chairman of the Huntridge Corporation, a member of the Fine Arts Council of Notre Dame University.
  230. ^ a b "Irene Dunne Adopts Baby: Actress Formally Becomes Foster-Mother of Girl, 4". The New York Times. March 17, 1938. p. 17. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Irene Dunne, screen actress, and her husband, Dr. Francis Griffin, have adopted a 4-year-old girl whom they have named Mary Frances Dunne, it was learned yesterday at the County Clerk's office, where the adoption order is on file.
  231. ^ "Mary Gage Obituary - Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times. July 26, 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  232. ^ "Good Night, Irene Dunne; Hollywood Loses An Airy and Elegant Gal from Film's Golden Age". People. September 17, 1990. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  233. ^ Garber, Arlene (August 1, 1952). "She Needs TV Like a Hole in the Head" (PDF). TV-Radio Life. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2020.
  234. ^ Stafford, Jeff. "Thirteen Women". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on January 8, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2010. Irene Dunne, a devout Catholic,...
  235. ^ "Actress Irene Dunne's Grandson Is Baptized". The Catholic Advance. August 29, 1958. p. 5. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2020. Father Chase says that Miss Dunne attends Mass and receives Communion daily. "When I was stationed in Los Angeles," he declares, "she missed only two days out of an entire year." 
  236. ^ "Our History". Church of the Good Shepherd. Archived from the original on May 20, 2020. The Guild and Good Shepherd Parish itself were soon populated by such film notables as Jackie Coogan, Neil Hamilton and Ben Turpin and in later years would include the likes of Ray Bolger, Jane Wyman, Jimmy Durante, Danny Thomas, Loretta Young, Gene Kelly, Rosalind Russell, Irene Dunne, Ricardo Montalbano [sic], Bob Newhart, Jack Haley and MacDonald Carey.
  237. ^ Callan, Mary Ann (December 17, 1958). "Pope Honors Southlanders". The Los Angeles Times. Two active Catholics in the entertainment world, Irene Dunne and Dennis Day, were given the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem by Pius XII in 1953.
  238. ^ a b c "Irene Dunne Tells Graduates 'Sell What You Have And Give to the Poor'". The Leavenworth Times. May 29, 1964. Archived from the original on June 14, 2020. Retrieved June 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  239. ^ "Actress and Singer Honored by the Church". The Tablet. December 20, 1953. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2020. Honored with Miss Dunne was her husband, Dr. Francis S. [sic] Griffin...
  240. ^ Parsons, Louella O. (January 20, 1949). "Ford to Direct "Pinky"; Tale of South's Problems". San Francisco Examiner. Archived from the original on September 14, 2020.
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  242. ^ "[unknown]". Daily Variety. September 11, 1990. p. 2. Loretta Young was the only celebrity in attendance at Irene Dunne's funeral. Irene's business manager, John Larkin, said she did not want the event turned into a circus, therefore only thirty people were invited. Even President Ronald Reagan was refused when he called to request an invitation. Cite uses generic title (help)
  243. ^ "USC Cinematic Arts Library's Archives of Performing Arts: Collections List". USC Libraries Research Guides. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
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  245. ^ Bell (1958)
  246. ^ "U.S. Pledges Fund to Aid Refugees". Valley Times. October 5, 1957. p. 5.
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  249. ^ Fristoe (1985), p. 1, ARTS: "Louisville native Irene Dunne is such a good actress that she never won an Academy Award[. This] is easily explained. Like her frequent co-stars Cary Grant and Charles Boyer, Miss Dunne was so consistently splendid she was always taken for granted at Oscar time."
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  254. ^ Flynn, Hazel (December 24, 1963). ""Move Over, Darling" Is a Riotous Comedy". Los Angeles Evening Citizen News. Move Over, Darling is a remake of a hit filmed years ago. Cary Grant and Irene Dunne played it originally, I believe.
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  294. ^ "[UNTITLED]". The Windsor Star. June 8, 1959. p. 9. IRENE BOWS - The film actress, Irene Dunne kneels to kiss the ring of Most Rev. Thomas A. Connolly, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Seattle, at Seattle University commencement exercises. Archbishop Connolly conferred an honorary doctor-of-laws degree on Miss Dunne.
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