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Peltasts on the Tomb of Payava (circa 360 BC), around the time of Iphicrates. They are equipped with the exomis, the pilos with crest and cheekpiece, and the round pelte shield, and are depicted thrusting overarm with a long spear.[1][2]

Iphicrates (Greek: Ιφικράτης) (c. 418 BC – c. 353 BC) was an Athenian general, who flourished in the earlier half of the 4th century BC. He is credited with important infantry reforms that revolutionized ancient Greek warfare by regularizing light-armed peltasts.[3]


The son of a shoemaker of the deme of Rhamnous,[4] he was later married to the daughter of the Thracian King Cotys and had a son with her.[3] His son was named Menestheus, after the legendary King of Athens during the Trojan War.[3] Iphicrates' other son, who was also called Iphicrates, was sent as the Athenian ambassador to the Persian court sometime before 335 BC. He was captured by the Macedonian army along with the Persian court in the aftermath of the Battle of Issus. When Iphicrates the younger died from an unknown disease, Alexander the Great paid for the transportation of his body to his homeland, as an homage to his father.[5]


He owes his fame as much to the improvements he made in the equipment of the peltasts or light-armed mercenaries (named for their small pelte shield) as to his military successes. Historians have debated about just what kind of "peltasts" were affected by his reforms; one of the most popular positions is that he improved the performance of the Greek skirmishers so that they would be able to engage in prolonged hand-to-hand fighting as part of the main battle line, while another strong opinion posits that he worked his changes upon the mercenary hoplites that were an important factor in late 5th and early 4th century B.C. Greek land warfare.

A third possibility is that his reforms were limited to hoplites serving as marines on board ships of the Athenian navy.[6]

He also, made soldiers' boots that were easy to untie and light. These boots called afterwards, from his name, Iphicratids (Greek: Ἰφικρατίδες).[7][8]

His "Iphicratean reforms" consisted of increasing the length of their spears and swords, substituting linen cuirasses in place of heavier bronze armor, and introducing the new footwear that took his name. In addition, he replaced the heavy aspis shield with a lighter pelte that could be strapped to the forearm, freeing the left hand to help hold the lengthened spears. By these changes he greatly increased the rapidity of their movements. He also paid special attention to discipline, drill and maneuvers; the longer weapons, combined with the lighter armor and shield, forced his troops to take a more aggressive approach in tactical situations. With his peltasts Iphicrates dealt the Spartans a heavy blow in 392/390 BC by almost annihilating a mora (a battalion of about 600 men) of their famous hoplites at the Battle of Lechaeum. The Iphicratean reforms are considered to have been one of the leading influences on Philip II of Macedon, when he created the sarissa-armed Macedonian phalanx. His son, Alexander the Great, employed this new infantry formation in his many conquests.[9]

Following up success, he took city after city for the Athenians during the Corinthian War; but in consequence of a quarrel with the Argives he was transferred from Corinth to the Hellespont, where he was equally successful. After the Peace of Antalcidas (387 BC) he assisted Seuthes, king of Thracian Odrysae, to recover his kingdom, and fought against Cotys, with whom, however, he subsequently concluded an alliance.

Egyptian campaignEdit

Iphicrates was part of the Achaemenid campaign of Pharnabazus II against Egypt in 373 BC.

In about 378 BC, he was sent with a force of mercenaries to assist the Persians to reconquer Egypt, but a dispute with Pharnabazus led to the failure of the expedition. On his return to Athens he commanded an expedition in 373 BC for the relief of Corcyra, which was besieged by the Lacedaemonians.

After the peace of 371 BC, Iphicrates returned to Thrace and somewhat tarnished his fame by siding with his father-in-law Cotys in a war against Athens for the possession of the entire Thracian Chersonese. Iphicrates, however, refused to besiege the Athenian strongholds and fled to Antissa.[10] The Athenians soon pardoned him and gave him a joint command in the Social War against some of their allies from the second Athenian Empire. He and two of his colleagues were impeached by Chares, the fourth commander, because they had refused to give battle during a violent storm.

Iphicrates was acquitted but sentenced to pay a heavy fine. Afterwards, he remained at Athens until his death in about 353 BC (although according to some he retired to Thrace).


  2. ^ The Numismatic Chronicle. Royal Numismatic Society. 2005. p. 83.
  3. ^ a b c Sears, Matthew A. (March 2013). Athens, Thrace, and the Shaping of Athenian Leadership. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1107030534.
  4. ^ del Hoyo Toni, Ñaco (December 2017). War, Warlords, and Interstate Relations in the Ancient Mediterranean, Series: Impact of Empire, Volume: 28. BRILL. p. 118. ISBN 9789004354050.
  5. ^ Habicht 1998, p. 38.
  6. ^ Ueda-Sarson, Luke, The Evolution of Hellenistic Infantry, Part 1: The Reforms of Iphikrates
  7. ^ Schachter, Albert (May 2016). Boiotia in Antiquity: Selected Papers. Cambridge University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-1107053243.
  8. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library, 15.44.3
  9. ^ Mattew, C. (2015) An Invincible Beast: Understanding the Hellenistic Pike Phalanx in Action, Pen and Sword. p. 119
  10. ^ Demosthenes, Against Aristocrates


  • Habicht, Christian (1998). Ελληνιστική Αθήνα [Hellenistic Athens] (in Greek). Athens: Odysseas. ISBN 960-210-310-8.
  •   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Iphicrates". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 737–738.

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