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The spiny river snail, scientific name Io fluvialis, is a species of freshwater snail, an aquatic mollusk in the family Pleuroceridae. This is the only species in the genus Io.[3] This species is endemic to the USA.

Spiny river snail
Io fluvialis.jpg
A live individual of Io fluvialis
Io fluvialis 2.jpg
A live individual of Io fluvialis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
(unranked):
Superfamily:
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Io

Lea, 1831[2]
Species:
I. fluvialis
Binomial name
Io fluvialis
(Say, 1825)

Contents

EcologyEdit

DistributionEdit

This species is endemic to the Tennessee River and its larger tributaries, but it has been largely extirpated due to pollution and the construction of dams.

HabitatEdit

These snails live in rapidly flowing, well-oxygenated waters of shoals and riffles of rivers, but not in slack water below shoals. The preferred water depth for this species is up to 1.5 m.

BehaviorEdit

These snails feed on the algal coating on rocks. Females lay between 20-100 eggs, which begin to hatch after 15 days.

DescriptionEdit

The shell morphology is very variable, with some individuals totally lacking spines. For this reason it was formerly thought that many species existed within this genus.

Human relevanceEdit

This snail has served as the emblem for the American Malacological Society since 1960.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Bogan, A.E. & Seddon, M.B. 1996. Io fluvialis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  2. ^ Lea I. (1831). Trans. Amer. phil. Soc. (N.S.) 4(1): 122.
  3. ^ Holznagel E. W. & Lydeard Ch. (2000). "A Molecular Phylogeny of North American Pleuroceridae (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea) Based on Mitochondrial 16S rDNA Sequences". Journal of Molluscan Studies 66(2): 233-257. doi:10.1093/mollus/66.2.233, abstract
  4. ^ http://www.malacological.org/about/75_years_of_molluscs.pdf