Motivation

  (Redirected from Intrinsic motivation)

Motivation is a reason for actions, willingness, and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive, or a need that requires satisfaction. These needs, wants or desires may be acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, or may be generally innate. An individual's motivation may be inspired by outside forces (extrinsic motivation)[1] or by themselves (intrinsic motivation).[2] Motivation has been considered one of the most important reasons to move forward.[3] Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement, e.g. in elite sport, medicine, or music.[4] Motivation governs choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity.[5]

NeuroscienceEdit

Motivation as a desire to perform an action is usually defined by two parts: the directional (such as directed towards a positive stimulus or away from a negative one) and the activated "seeking phase" and consummatory "liking phase." This type of motivation has neurobiological roots in the basal ganglia and mesolimbic (dopaminergic) pathways. Activated "seeking" behaviour, such as locomotor activity, is influenced by dopaminergic drugs, and microdialysis experiments reveal that dopamine is released during the anticipation of a reward.[6] The "wanting behaviour" associated with a rewarding stimulus can be increased by microinjections of dopamine and dopaminergic drugs in the dorsorostral nucleus accumbens and posterior ventral palladum. Opioid injections in this area produce pleasure; however, outside of these hedonic hotspots they create an increased desire.[7] Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of dopamine in neurons of the nucleus accumbens decrease appetitive but not consummatory behaviour. Dopamine, further implicated in motivation as administration of amphetamine, increases the break point in a progressive ratio self-reinforcement schedule; subjects will be willing to go to greater lengths (e.g. press a lever more times) to obtain a reward.[8]

Psychological theoriesEdit

Motivation is a process in which thoughts influence behaviours. For example, drive performance affects thoughts, and these thoughts influence behaviours. Each phase of the cycle includes aspects such as attitudes, beliefs, intentions, effort, and withdrawal. All of these aspects affect an individuals motivation. Most psychological theories claim that motivation exists purely within the individual, but socio-cultural theories express motivation as an outcome of participation in actions and activities within the cultural context of social groups.[9]

Content theoriesEdit

Theories articulating the content of motivation: what kinds of things people find motivating are among the earliest theories in the history of motivation research. Because content theories focus on which categories of goal (needs) motivate people, content theories are related to need theories.

Maslow's hierarchy of needsEdit

 
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom

Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. Abraham Maslow believed that man is inherently good and argued that individuals possess a constantly growing inner drive that has great potential. The needs hierarchy system is a commonly used scheme for classifying human motives.[10]

The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow (1954) developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes. According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:[11]

The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if you have not slept or eaten adequately, you won't be interested in your self-esteem desires. Subsequently, we have the second level, which awakens a need for security. After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory can be summarized as follows:

  • Human beings have wants and desires which, when unsatisfied, may influence behavior.
  • Differing levels of importance to human life are reflected in a hierarchical structure of needs.
  • Needs at higher levels in the hierarchy are held in abeyance until lower-level needs are at least minimally satisfied.
  • Needs at higher levels of the hierarchy are associated with individuality, humanness, and psychological health.

Herzberg's two-factor theoryEdit

 
Two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction (motivators), while others (hygiene factors), if absent, lead to dissatisfaction but are not related to satisfaction. The name hygiene factors are used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration.

The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime. Some claimed motivating factors (satisfiers) were: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Some hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) were: company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security, and personal life.[12]

Alderfer's ERG theoryEdit

Alderfer, building on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, posited that needs identified by Maslow exist in three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs is those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important personal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs as an intrinsic desire for personal development. All these needs should be fulfilled to greater wholeness as a human being.[13]

Incentive theories: intrinsic and extrinsic motivationEdit

Motivation can be divided into two different theories known as intrinsic (internal or inherent) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation.

Intrinsic motivationEdit

Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Intrinsic motivation is a behavior that is driven by satisfying internal rewards. For example, an athlete may enjoy playing football for the experience, rather than for an award.[1] It is an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration. Deci (1971) explained that some activities provide their own inherent reward, meaning certain activities are not dependent on external rewards.[14] The phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behaviour. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity-driven behaviours in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development.[15] The two necessary elements for intrinsic motivation are self-determination and an increase in perceived competence.[16] In short, the cause of the behaviour must be internal, known as internal locus of causality, and the individual who engages in the behaviour must perceive that the task increases their competence.[15] According to various research reported by Deci's published findings in 1971, and 1972, tangible rewards could actually undermine the intrinsic motivation of college students. However, these studies didn't just affect college students, Kruglanski, Friedman, and Zeevi (1971) repeated this study and found that symbolic and material rewards can undermine not just high school students, but preschool students as well.

Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.[17] Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they...

  • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy or locus of control
  • believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs
  • are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades
  • don't act from pressure, but from interest

An example of intrinsic motivation is when an employee becomes an IT professional because he or she wants to learn about how computer users interact with computer networks. The employee has the intrinsic motivation to gain more knowledge, and will continue to want to learn even in the face of failure.[18] Art for art's sake is an example of intrinsic motivation in the domain of art.

Traditionally, researchers thought of motivations to use computer systems to be primarily driven by extrinsic purposes; however, many modern systems have their use driven primarily by intrinsic motivations.[19] Examples of such systems used primarily to fulfill users' intrinsic motivations, include on-line gaming, virtual worlds, online shopping,[20] learning/education, online dating, digital music repositories, social networking, online pornography, gamified systems, and general gamification. Even traditional management information systems (e.g., ERP, CRM) are being 'gamified' such that both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations must increasingly be considered. Deci's findings didn't come without controversy. Articles stretching over the span of 25 years from the perspective of behavioral theory argue there isn't enough evidence to explain intrinsic motivation and this theory would inhibit "scientific progress." As stated above, we now can see technology such as various forms of computer systems are highly intrinsic.[14]

Not only can intrinsic motivation be used in a personal setting, but it can also be implemented and utilized in a social environment. Instead of attaining mature desires, such as those presented above via the internet which can be attained on one's own, intrinsic motivation can be used to assist extrinsic motivation to attain a goal. For example, Eli, a 4-year-old with autism, wants to achieve the goal of playing with a toy train.[21] To get the toy, he must first communicate to his therapist that he wants it. His desire to play is strong enough to be considered intrinsic motivation because it is a natural feeling, and his desire to communicate with his therapist to get the train can be considered extrinsic motivation because the outside object is a reward (see incentive theory). Communicating with the therapist is the first, the slightly more challenging goal that stands in the way of achieving his larger goal of playing with the train. Achieving these goals in attainable pieces is also known as the goal-setting theory. The three elements of goal-setting (STD) are Specific, Time-bound, and Difficult. Specifically, goals should be set in the 90th percentile of difficulty.[9]

Intrinsic motivation comes from one's desire to achieve or attain a goal.[1] Pursuing challenges and goals come easier and more enjoyable when one is intrinsically motivated to complete a certain objective because the individual is more interested in learning, rather than achieving the goal.[2] Edward Deci and Richard Ryan's theory of intrinsic motivation is essentially examining the conditions that “elicit and sustain” this phenomenon.[22] Deci and Ryan coin the term “cognitive evaluation theory which concentrates on the needs of competence and autonomy. The CET essentially states that social-contextual events like feedback and reinforcement can cause feelings of competence and therefore increase intrinsic motivation. However, feelings of competence will not increase intrinsic motivation if there is no sense of autonomy. In situations where choices, feelings, and opportunities are present, intrinsic motivation is increased because people feel a greater sense of autonomy.[22] Offering people choices, responding to their feelings, and opportunities for self-direction have been reported to enhance intrinsic motivation via increased autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 1985).[23][24]

An advantage (relative to extrinsic motivation) is that intrinsic motivators can be long-lasting, self-sustaining, and satisfying.[2] For this reason, efforts in education sometimes attempt to modify intrinsic motivation with the goal of promoting future student learning performance, creativity, and learning via long-term modifications in interests.[1] Intrinsic motivators are suggested[by whom?] to involve increased feelings of reward and thus may support subjective well-being.[citation needed] By contrast, intrinsic motivation has been found to be hard to modify, and attempts to recruit existing intrinsic motivators require a non-trivially difficult individualized approach, identifying and making relevant the different motivators of needed to motivate different students,[1] possibly requiring additional skills and intrinsic motivation from the instructor.[25]

Extrinsic motivationEdit

Extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual. In extrinsic motivation, the harder question to answer is where do people get the motivation to carry out and continue to push with persistence. Usually, extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person wouldn't get from intrinsic motivation.[2] Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behaviour, and the threat of punishment following misbehaviour. Competition is an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives.[26] For example, if an individual plays the sport tennis to receive an award, that would be extrinsic motivation. VS. The individual play because he or she enjoys the game, that would be intrinsic motivation.[1]

The most simple distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is the type of reasons or goals that lead to an action. While intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable and satisfying, extrinsic motivation, refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome.[2] Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which is doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, instead of for its instrumental value.[1]

Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition.[27] This shows how if an individual expects an award they don't care about the outcome. VS. if an individual doesn't expect a reward they will care more about the task.[2] However, another study showed that third graders who were rewarded with a book showed more reading behaviour in the future, implying that some rewards do not undermine intrinsic motivation.[28] While the provision of extrinsic rewards might reduce the desirability of an activity, the use of extrinsic constraints, such as the threat of punishment, against performing an activity has actually been found to increase one's intrinsic interest in that activity. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat.[29]

Advantages of extrinsic motivators are that they easily promote motivation to work and persist to goal completion. Rewards are tangible and beneficial.[2] A disadvantage for extrinsic motivators relative to internal is that work does not persist long once external rewards are removed. As the task is completed for the reward quality of work may need to be monitored,[1] and it has been suggested that extrinsic motivators may diminish in value over time.[2]

Behaviorist theoriesEdit

While many theories on motivation have a mentalistic perspective, behaviorists focus only on observable behaviour and theories founded on experimental evidence. In the view of behaviorism, motivation is understood as a question about what factors cause, prevent, or withhold various behaviours, while the question of, for instance, conscious motives would be ignored. Where others would speculate about such things as values, drives, or needs, that may not be observed directly, behaviorists are interested in the observable variables that affect the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of observable behaviour. Through the basic research of such scientists as Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, several basic mechanisms that govern behaviour have been identified. The most important of these are classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

Classical and operant conditioningEdit

In classical (or respondent) conditioning, behaviour is understood as responses triggered by certain environmental or physical stimuli. They can be unconditioned, such as in-born reflexes, or learned through the pairing of an unconditioned stimulus with a different stimulus, which then becomes a conditioned stimulus. In relation to motivation, classical conditioning might be seen as one explanation as to why an individual performs certain responses and behaviors in certain situations.[30][31] For instance, a dentist might wonder why a patient does not seem motivated to show up for an appointment, with the explanation being that the patient has associated the dentist (conditioned stimulus) with the pain (unconditioned stimulus) that elicits a fear response (conditioned response), leading to the patient being reluctant to visit the dentist.

In operant conditioning, the type and frequency of behaviour are determined mainly by its consequences. If a certain behaviour, in the presence of a certain stimulus, is followed by a desirable consequence (a reinforcer), the emitted behaviour will increase in frequency in the future, in the presence of the stimulus that preceded the behaviour (or a similar one). Conversely, if the behaviour is followed by something undesirable (a punisher), the behaviour is less likely to occur in the presence of the stimulus. In a similar manner, the removal of a stimulus directly following the behaviour might either increase or decrease the frequency of that behaviour in the future (negative reinforcement or punishment).[30][31] For instance, a student that gained praise and a good grade after turning in a paper, might seem more motivated in writing papers in the future (positive reinforcement); if the same student put in a lot of work on a task without getting any praise for it, he or she might seem less motivated to do school work in the future (negative punishment). If a student starts to cause trouble in the class gets punished with something he or she dislikes, such as detention (positive punishment), that behaviour would decrease in the future. The student might seem more motivated to behave in class, presumably in order to avoid further detention (negative reinforcement).

The strength of reinforcement or punishment is dependent on schedule and timing. A reinforcer or punisher affects the future frequency of a behaviour most strongly if it occurs within seconds of the behaviour. A behaviour that is reinforced intermittently, at unpredictable intervals, will be more robust and persistent, compared to one that is reinforced every time the behaviour is performed.[30][31] For example, if the misbehaving student in the above example was punished a week after the troublesome behaviour, that might not affect future behaviour.

In addition to these basic principles, environmental stimuli also affect behavior. Behaviour is punished or reinforced in the context of whatever stimuli were present just before the behaviour was performed, which means that a particular behaviour might not be affected in every environmental context, or situation, after it is punished or reinforced in one specific context.[30][31] A lack of praise for school-related behaviour might, for instance, not decrease after-school sports-related behaviour that is usually reinforced by praise.

The various mechanisms of operant conditioning may be used to understand the motivation for various behaviours by examining what happens just after the behaviour (the consequence), in what context the behaviour is performed or not performed (the antecedent), and under what circumstances (motivating operators).[30][31]

Incentive motivationEdit

Incentive theory is a specific theory of motivation, derived partly from behaviorist principles of reinforcement, which concerns an incentive or motive to do something. The most common incentive would be a compensation. Compensation can be tangible or intangible, It helps in motivating the employees in their corporate life, students in academics, and inspire them to do more and more to achieve profitability in every field. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens.[citation needed] Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become a habit[citation needed]

"Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behaviour differ from the hypothetical construct of reward." A reinforcer is anything that follows an action, with the intention that the action will now occur more frequently. From this perspective, the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant.

Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behaviour of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner. Incentive theory is especially supported by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, meaning that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner.

Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract" a person towards them, and push them towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the reinforcing stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment—the lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst.[32]

Motivating operationsEdit

Motivating operations, MOs, relate to the field of motivation in that they help improve understanding aspects of behaviour that are not covered by operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, the function of the reinforcer is to influence future behavior. The presence of a stimulus believed to function as a reinforcer does not according to this terminology explain the current behaviour of an organism – only previous instances of reinforcement of that behavior (in the same or similar situations) do. Through the behavior-altering effect of MOs, it is possible to affect the current behaviour of an individual, giving another piece of the puzzle of motivation.

Motivating operations are factors that affect learned behaviour in a certain context. MOs have two effects: a value-altering effect, which increases or decreases the efficiency of a reinforcer, and a behavior-altering effect, which modifies learned behaviour that has previously been punished or reinforced by a particular stimulus.[30]

When a motivating operation causes an increase in the effectiveness of a reinforcer or amplifies a learned behaviour in some way (such as increasing frequency, intensity, duration, or speed of the behaviour), it functions as an establishing operation, EO. A common example of this would be food deprivation, which functions as an EO in relation to food: the food-deprived organism will perform behaviours previously related to the acquisition of food more intensely, frequently, longer, or faster in the presence of food, and those behaviours would be especially strongly reinforced.[30] For instance, a fast-food worker earning minimal wage, forced to work more than one job to make ends meet, would be highly motivated by a pay raise, because of the current deprivation of money (a conditioned establishing operation). The worker would work hard to try to achieve the raise, and getting the raise would function as an especially strong reinforcer of work behaviour.

Conversely, a motivating operation that causes a decrease in the effectiveness of a reinforcer, or diminishes a learned behaviour related to the reinforcer, functions as an abolishing operation, AO. Again using the example of food, satiation of food prior to the presentation of a food stimulus would produce a decrease on food-related behaviours, and diminish or completely abolish the reinforcing effect of acquiring and ingesting the food.[30] Consider the board of a large investment bank, concerned with a too small profit margin, deciding to give the CEO a new incentive package in order to motivate him to increase firm profits. If the CEO already has a lot of money, the incentive package might not be a very good way to motivate him, because he would be satiated on the money. Getting even more money wouldn't be a strong reinforcer for profit-increasing behaviour, and wouldn't elicit increased intensity, frequency, or duration of profit-increasing behaviour.

Motivation and psychotherapyEdit

Motivation lies at the core of many behaviorist approaches to psychological treatment. A person with autism-spectrum the disorder is seen as lacking motivation to perform socially relevant behaviours – social stimuli are not as reinforcing for people with autism compared to other people. Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement (especially positive reinforcement) leading to the extinction of behavior in the depressed individual. A patient with specific phobia is not motivated to seek out the phobic stimulus because it acts as a punisher, and is over-motivated to avoid it (negative reinforcement). In accordance, therapies have been designed to address these problems, such as EIBI and CBT for major depression and specific phobia.

DrivesEdit

A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive.[33] These drives are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others.

Another basic drive is the sexual drive which like food motivates us because it is essential to our survival.[34] The desire for sex is wired deep into the brain of all human beings as glands secrete hormones that travel through the blood to the brain and stimulates the onset of sexual desire.[34] The hormone involved in the initial onset of sexual desire is called Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).[34] The hormonal basis of both men and women's sex drives is testosterone.[34][need quotation to verify] Men naturally have more testosterone than women do and so are more likely than women to think about sex.[34][need quotation to verify]

Cognitive dissonance theoryEdit

As suggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions.[citation needed] For example, a consumer may seek to reassure themselves regarding a purchase, feeling that another decision may have been preferable. Their feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with their action of purchasing the item. The difference between their feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so they seek to reassure themselves.

While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.

Unconscious MotivationEdit

In his book A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud explained his theory on the conscious-unconscious distinction.[35] To explain this relationship, he used a two-room metaphor. The smaller of the two rooms is filled with a person's preconscious, which is the thoughts, emotions, and memories that are available to a person's consciousness. This room also houses a person's consciousness, which is the part of the preconscious that is the focus at that given time. Connected to the small room is a much larger room that houses a person's unconscious. This part of the mind is unavailable to a person's consciousness and consists of impulses and repressed thoughts. The door between these two rooms acts as the person's mental censor. Its job is to keep anxiety-inducing thoughts and socially unacceptable behaviors or desires out of the preconscious. Freud describes the event of a thought or impulse being denied at the door as repression, one of the many defense mechanisms. This process is supposed to protect the individual from any embarrassment that could come from acting on these impulses or thoughts that exist in the unconscious.

In terms of motivation, Freud argues that unconscious instinctual impulses can still have great influence on behavior even though the person is not aware of the source.[36] When these instincts serve as a motive, the person is only aware of the goal of the motive, and not its actual source. He divides these instincts into sexual instincts, death instincts, and ego or self-preservation instincts. Sexual instincts are those that motivate humans to stay alive and ensure the continuation of mankind. On the other hand, Freud also maintains that humans have an inherent drive for self-destruction, or the death instinct. Similar to the devil and angel that everyone has on their should, the sexual instinct and death instinct are constantly battling each other to both be satisfied. The death instinct can be closely related to Freud's other concept, the id, which is our need to experience pleasure immediately, regardless of the consequences. The last type of instinct that contributes to motivation is the ego or self-preservation instinct. This instinct is geared towards assuring that a person feels validated in whatever behavior or thought they have. The mental censor, or door between the unconscious and preconscious, helps satisfy this instinct. For example, one may be sexually attracted to a person, due to their sexual instinct, but the self-preservation instinct prevents them to act on this urge until that person finds that it is socially acceptable to do so. Quite similarly to his psychic theory that deals with the id, ego, and superego, Freud's theory of instincts highlights the interdependence of these three instincts. All three instincts serve as checks and balances system to control what instincts are acted on and what behaviors are used to satisfy as many of them at once.

PrimingEdit

Priming is a phenomenon, often used as an experimental technique, whereby a specific stimulus sensitizes the subject to later presentation of a similar stimulus.[37]

“Priming refers to an increased sensitivity to certain stimuli, resulting from prior exposure to related visual or audio messages. When an individual is exposed to the word “cancer,” for example, and then offered the choice to smoke a cigarette, we expect that there is a greater probability that they will choose not to smoke as a result of the earlier exposure.”[38]

Priming can affect motivation, in the way that we can be motived to do things by an outside source.

Priming can be linked with the mere exposure theory. People tend to like things that they have been exposed to before. Mere exposer theory is used by advertising companies to get people to buy their products. An example of this is seeing a picture of the product on a sign and then buying that product later. If an individual is in a room with two strangers they are more likely to gravitate towards the person that they occasionally pass on the street, than the person that they have never seen before. An example of the use of mere exposure theory can be seen in product placements in movies and TV shows. We see a product that our is in our favorite movie, and we are more inclined to buy that product when we see it again.[39]

Priming can fit into these categories; Semantic Priming, Visual Priming, Response Priming, Perceptual and Conceptual Priming, Positive and Negative Priming, Associative and Context Priming, and Olfactory Priming. Visual and Semantic priming is the most used in motivation. Most priming is linked with emotion, the stronger the emotion, the stronger the connection between memory and the stimuli.[38]

Priming also has an effect on drug users. In this case, it can be defined as, the reinstatement or increase in drug craving by a small dose of the drug or by stimuli associated with the drug. If a former drug user is in a place where they formerly did drugs, then they are tempted to do that same thing again even if they have been clean for years.[40]

Conscious MotivationEdit

Freud relied heavily upon the theories of unconscious motivation as explained above, but Allport (a researcher in 1967) looked heavily into the powers of conscious motivation and the effect it can have upon goals set for an individual. This is not to say that unconscious motivation should be ignored with this theory, but instead, it focuses on the thought that if we are aware of our surroundings and our goals, we can then actively and consciously take steps towards them.[41]

He also believed that there are three hierarchical tiers of personality traits that affect this motivation:[41]

  1. Cardinal traits: Rare, but strongly determines a set behavior and can't be changed
  2. Central traits: Present around certain people, but can be hidden
  3. Secondary traits: Present in all people, but strongly reliant on context- can be altered as needed and would be the focus of a conscious motivation effort.

Practical applicationsEdit

The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches to motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics[which?]. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation[original research?].

Like any theory, motivational theory makes predictions about what will work in practice. For instance, McGregor's Theory Y makes the assumption that the average person not only accepts, but also seeks out responsibility, enjoys doing work and, therefore, is more satisfied when they have a wider range of work to do.[42] The practical implication is that, as a firm gives individuals greater responsibilities, they will feel a greater sense of satisfaction and, subsequently, more commitment to the organization. Likewise allocating more work is predicted to increase engagement. Additionally, Malone argues that the delegation of responsibility encourages motivation because employees have creative control over their work and increase productivity as many people can work collaboratively to solve a problem rather than just one manager tackling it alone.[43] Others have argued that participation in decision making boosts morale and commitment to the organization, subsequently increasing productivity.[44][45] Likewise, if teams and membership increase motivation (as reported in the classic Hawthorn Western Electric Company studies[46]) incorporating teams make provide incentives to work. In general, motivation theory is often applied to employee motivation.[47]

Applications in businessEdit

Within Maslow's hierarchy of needs (first proposed in 1943), at lower levels (such as physiological needs) money functions as a motivator; however, it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation of 1959). At higher levels of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor's theory X and theory Y (originating in the 1950s and pertaining to the theory of leadership) suggest.

According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs.[48] The lower-level needs (such as Physiological and Safety needs) must be satisfied before addressing higher-level needs. One can relate to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory with employee motivation. For example, if managers attempt to motivate their employees by satisfying their needs; according to Maslow, they should try to satisfy the lower-level needs before trying to satisfy the upper-level needs - otherwise the employees will not become motivated. Managers should also remember that not everyone will be satisfied with the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are relevant to a given individual or employee.

Maslow places money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and postulates other needs as better motivators to staff. McGregor places money in his Theory X category and regards it as a poor motivator. Praise and recognition (placed in the Theory Y category) are considered stronger motivators than money.

  • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.
  • Motivated employees are more quality-oriented.
  • Motivated workers are more productive.[49]

The average workplace lies about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead-end strategy, and naturally, staff are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Lawrence Steinmetz (1983) sees motivation as a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production.[50]

Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character-types of subordinates: ascendant, indifferent, and ambivalent - who all react and interact uniquely, and must be treated, managed, and motivated accordingly. An effective leader must understand how to manage all characters, and more importantly, the manager must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow, and find answers independently.[51][need quotation to verify]

A classic study at Vauxhall Motors' UK manufacturing plant challenged the assumptions of Maslow and Herzberg were by.[52] Goldthorpe et al. (1968) introduced the concept of orientation to work and distinguished three main orientations:

  • instrumental (with work seen as a means to an end)
  • bureaucratic (where work serves as a source of status, security, and immediate reward)
  • solidaristic (which prioritizes group loyalty)

Other theories expanded and extended those of Maslow and Herzberg. These included the 1930s force-field analysis of Kurt Lewin, Edwin A. Locke's goal-setting theory (mid-1960s onwards) and Victor Vroom's expectancy theory of 1964. These tend to stress cultural differences and the fact that different factors tend to motivate individuals at different times.[53][need quotation to verify]

According to the system of scientific management developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915), pay alone determines a worker's motivation, and therefore management need not consider psychological or social aspects of work. In essence, scientific management bases human motivation wholly on extrinsic rewards and discards the idea of intrinsic rewards.

In contrast, David McClelland (1917-1998) believed that workers could not be motivated by the mere need for money—in fact, extrinsic motivation (e.g., money) could extinguish intrinsic motivation such as achievement motivation, though money could be used as an indicator of success for various motives, e.g., keeping score. In keeping with this view, his consulting firm, McBer & Company (1965-1989), had as its first motto "To make everyone productive, happy, and free". For McClelland, satisfaction lay in aligning peoples' lives with their fundamental motivations.

Elton Mayo (1880-1949) discovered the importance of the social contacts a worker has at the workplace and found that boredom and repetitiveness of tasks lead to reduced motivation. Mayo believed that workers could be motivated by acknowledging their social needs and making them feel important. As a result, employees were given the freedom to make decisions on-the-job and greater attention was paid[by whom?] to informal work-groups.

Mayo named his model the Hawthorne effect.[54] His model has been judged[by whom?] as placing undue reliance on social contacts within work situations for motivating employees.[55][need quotation to verify]

In 1981 William Ouchi introduced Theory Z, a hybrid management approach consisting of both Japanese and American philosophies and cultures.[56][need quotation to verify] Its Japanese segment is much like the clan culture where organizations focus on a standardized structure with a heavy emphasis on socialization of its members. All underlying goals are consistent across the organization. Its American segment retains formality and authority amongst members and the organization. Ultimately, Theory Z promotes common structure and commitment to the organization, as well as constant improvement of work efficacy.

In Essentials of Organizational Behavior (2007), Robbins and Judge examine recognition programs as motivators, and identify five principles that contribute to the success of an employee-incentive program:[57]

  • recognition of employees' individual differences, and clear identification of behavior deemed worthy of recognition
  • allowing employees to participate
  • linking rewards to performance
  • rewarding of nominators
  • visibility of the recognition process

Modern organizations which adopt non-monetary employee motivation methods rather than tying it with tangible rewards. When the reward is aimed at fulfilling employee contribution, participation, and individual satisfaction, it boosts their morale.[58]

  • Provide a positive work environment[5]
  • Encourage team contribution and rewards[59]
  • Feedback[60]
  • Give challenging roles[61]

Job characteristics modelEdit

The Job characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman[62] and Oldham attempts to use job design to improve employee motivation. They suggest that any job can be described in terms of five key job characteristics:[63][64]

  1. Skill variety – the degree to which the job requires the use of different skills and talents
  2. Task identity – the degree to which the job has contributed to a clearly identifiable larger project
  3. Task significance – the degree to which the job affects the lives or work of other people
  4. Autonomy – the degree to which the worker has independence, freedom and discretion in carrying out the job
  5. Task feedback – the degree to which the worker is provided with clear, specific, detailed, actionable information about the effectiveness of his or her job performance

The JCM links the core job dimensions listed above to critical psychological states which results in desired personal and work outcomes. This forms the basis of this 'employee growth-need strength." The core dimensions listed above can be combined into a single predictive index, called the motivating potential score (MPS). The MPS can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussed above, as follows:

  

Jobs high in motivating potential must be high on both Autonomy and Feedback, and also must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness.[65] If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts motivation, performance, and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative outcomes, such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced.[65]

Employee recognition programsEdit

Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It's about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the company's core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation.[66] The difference between the traditional approach (gifts and points) and strategic recognition is the ability to serve as a serious business influencer that can advance a company's strategic objectives in a measurable way. "The vast majority of companies want to be innovative, coming up with new products, business models, and better ways of doing things. However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovations will emerge."[67]

Applications in educationEdit

Motivation is of particular interest to educational psychologists because of the crucial role it plays in student learning. However, the specific kind of motivation that is studied in the specialized setting of education differs qualitatively from the more general forms of motivation studied by psychologists in other fields.

Motivation in education can have several effects on how students learn and how they behave towards the subject matter.[68] It can:

  1. Direct behavior toward particular goals
  2. Lead to increased effort and energy
  3. Increase initiation of, and persistence in, activities
  4. Enhance cognitive processing
  5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing
  6. Lead to improved performance.

Because students are not always internally motivated, they sometimes need situated motivation, which is found in environmental conditions that the teacher creates.

If teachers decided to extrinsically reward productive student behaviors, they may find it difficult to extricate themselves from that path. Consequently, student dependency on extrinsic rewards represents one of the greatest detractors from their use in the classroom.[69]

The majority of new student orientation leaders at colleges and universities recognize that the distinctive needs of students should be considered in regard to orientation information provided at the beginning of the higher education experience. Research done by Whyte in 1986 raised the awareness of counselors and educators in this regard. In 2007, the National Orientation Directors Association reprinted Cassandra B. Whyte's research report allowing readers to ascertain improvements made in addressing specific needs of students over a quarter of a century later to help with academic success.[70]

Generally, motivation is conceptualized as either intrinsic or extrinsic. Classically, these categories are regarded as distinct.[1] Today, these concepts are less likely to be used as distinct categories, but instead as two ideal types that define a continuum:[71]

  1. Intrinsic motivation occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant. It has been shown that intrinsic motivation for education drops from grades 3-9 though the exact cause cannot be ascertained.[72] Also, in younger students it has been shown that contextualizing material that would otherwise be presented in an abstract manner increases the intrinsic motivation of these students.[73]
  2. Extrinsic motivation comes into play when a student is compelled to do something or act a certain way because of factors external to him or her (like money or good grades).

Cassandra B. Whyte researched and reported about the importance of locus of control and academic achievement. Students tending toward a more internal locus of control are more academically successful, thus encouraging curriculum and activity development with consideration of motivation theories.[74][75]

Academic motivation orientation may also be tied with one's ability to detect and process errors. Fisher, Nanayakkara, and Marshall conducted neuroscience research on children's motivation orientation, neurological indicators of error monitoring (the process of detecting an error), and academic achievement. Their research suggests that students with high intrinsic motivation attribute performance to personal control and that their error-monitoring system is more strongly engaged by performance errors. They also found that motivation orientation and academic achievement were related to the strength in which their error-monitoring system was engaged.[76]

Motivation has been found to be an important element in the concept of andragogy (what motivates the adult learner), and in treating Autism Spectrum Disorders, as in pivotal response treatment. Motivation has also been found critical in adolescents compliance to health suggestions, since "commitment requires belief in potentially negative and serious consequences of not acting".[77]

Doyle and Moeyn have noted that traditional methods tended to use anxiety as negative motivation (e.g. use of bad grades by teachers) as a method of getting students to work. However, they have found that progressive approaches with focus on positive motivation over punishment has produced greater effectiveness with learning, since anxiety interferes with performance of complex tasks.[78]

Symer et al. attempted to better define those in medical training programs who may have a ”surgical personality”. They evaluated a group of eight hundred and one first-year surgical interns to compare motivational traits amongst those who did and did not complete surgical training. There was no difference noted between the 80.5% who completed training when comparing their responses to the 19.5% who did not complete training using the validated Behavior Inhibitory System/Behavior Approach System. They concluded based on this that resident physician motivation is not associated with completion of a surgical training program.[79]

It may appear that the reason some students are more engaged and perform better in class activities relative to other students is because some are more motivated than others. However, current research suggests that motivation is "dynamic, context sensitive, and changeable."[80] Thus, students have the flexibility to alter their motivation for engaging in an activity or learning, even if they were not intrinsically motivated in the first place.[81] While having this type of flexibility is important, research reveals that a teacher's teaching style and the school environment may play a factor in student motivation.[82][80][83]

According to Sansone and Morgan, when students are already motivated to engage in an activity for their own personal pleasure and then a teacher provides the student with feedback, the type of feedback given can change the way that student views the activity and can even undermine their intrinsic motivation.[81][84] Maclellan also looked at the relationship between tutors and students and in particular, and the type of feedback the tutor would give to the student. Maclellan's results showed that praise or criticism directed towards the student-generated a feeling of “fixed intelligence” while praise and criticism directed towards the effort and strategy used by the student-generated a feeling of “malleable intelligence”.[80] In other words, feedback concerning effort and strategy leaves students knowing that there is room for growth. This is important because when students believe their intelligence is “fixed”, their mindset can prevent skill development because students will believe that they only have a “certain amount” of understanding on a particular subject matter and might not even try.Therefore, it's crucial that a teacher is aware of how the feedback they give to their students can both positively and negatively impact the student's engagement and motivation.[80][82]

In a correlational study, Katz and Shahar used a series of questionnaires and Likert-style scales and gave them to 100 teachers to see what makes a motivating teacher. Their results indicate that teachers who are intrinsically motivated to teach and believe that students should be taught in an autonomous style are the types of teachers that promote intrinsic motivation in the classroom.[82] Deci, Sheinman, and Nezlek also found that when teachers adapted to an autonomous teaching style, students were positively affected and became more intrinsically motivated to achieve in the classroom. However, while the students were quick to adapt to the new teaching style the impact was short-lived.[85] Thus, teachers are limited in the way they teach because they'll feel a pressure to act, teach, and provide feedback in a certain way from the school district, administration, and guardians.[85][83] Furthermore, even if students do have a teacher that promotes an autonomous teaching style, their overall school environment is also a factor because it can be extrinsically motivating. Examples of this would be posters around school promoting pizza parties for the highest grade point average or longer recess times for the classroom that brings more canned food donations.

In conclusion, it is not a matter whether a student is motivated, unmotivated, or more motivated than other students- it's a matter of understanding what motivates students before providing a certain type of feedback. Furthermore, it is also important to note that despite the classroom environment and the teacher's teaching style, the overall school environment plays a role in students’ intrinsic motivation.

Indigenous education and learningEdit

For many indigenous students (such as Native American children), motivation may be derived from social organization; an important factor educators should account for in addition to variations in sociolinguistics and cognition.[86] While poor academic performance among Native American students is often attributed to low levels of motivation, top-down classroom organization is often found to be ineffective for children of many cultures who depend on a sense of community, purpose, and competence in order to engage.[87] Horizontally structured, community-based learning strategies often provide a more structurally supportive environment for motivating indigenous children, who tend to be driven by "social/affective emphasis, harmony, holistic perspectives, expressive creativity, and nonverbal communication."[88] This drive is also traceable to a cultural tradition of community-wide expectations of participation in the activities and goals of the greater group, rather than individualized aspirations of success or triumph.[89]

Also, in some indigenous communities, young children can often portray a sense of community-based motivation through their parent-like interactions with siblings.[90] Furthermore, it is commonplace for children to assist and demonstrate for their younger counterparts without being prompted by authority figures. Observation techniques and integration methods are demonstrated in such examples as weaving in Chiapas, Mexico, where it is commonplace for children to learn from "a more skilled other" within the community.[91] The child's real responsibility within the Mayan community can be seen in, for example, weaving apprenticeships; often, when the "more skilled other" is tasked with multiple obligations, an older child will step in and guide the learner.[91] Sibling guidance is supported from early youth, where learning through play encourages horizontally structured environments through alternative educational models such as "Intent Community Participation."[92] Research also suggests that formal Westernized schooling can actually reshape the traditionally collaborative nature of social life in indigenous communities.[93] This research is supported cross-culturally, with variations in motivation and learning often reported higher between indigenous groups and their national Westernized counterparts than between indigenous groups across international continental divides.[94]

Also, in some indigenous communities in the Americas, motivation is a driving force for learning. Children are incorporated and welcomed to participate in daily activities and thus feel motivated to participate due to them seeking a sense of belonging in their families and communities.[95]

Children's participation is encouraged and their learning is supported by their community and family, furthering their motivation. Children are also trusted to be active contributors. Their active participation allows them to learn and gain skills that are valuable and useful in their communities.[96]

As children transition from early childhood to middle childhood, their motivation to participate changes. In both the Indigenous communities of Quechua people and Rioja in Peru, children often experience a transition in which they become more included in their family's and community's endeavors. This changes their position and role in their families to more responsible ones and leads to an increase in their eagerness to participate and belong. As children go through this transition, they often develop a sense of identity within their family and community.[97]

The transition from childhood to adolescence can be seen in the number of work children partake in as this changes over time. For example, Yucatec Mayan children's play time decreases from childhood to adolescence and as the child gets older, is replaced for time spent working. In childhood, the work is initiated by others whereas in adolescence it is self-initiated. The shift in initiation and the change in time spent working versus playing shows the children's motivation to participate in order to learn.[98]

This transition between childhood and adolescence increases motivation because children gain social responsibility within their families. In some Mexican communities of Indigenous-heritage, the contributions that children make within their community is essential to being social beings, establishes their developing roles, and also helps with developing their relationship with their family and community.[99]

As children gain more roles and responsibilities within their families, their eagerness to participate also increases. For example, Young Mayan children of San Pedro, Guatemala learn to work in the fields and family run businesses because they are motivated to contribute to their family. Many San Pedro women learned to weave by watching their mothers sew when they were children, sometimes earning their own wool through doing small tasks such as watching young children of busy mothers. Eager to learn and contribute, these young girls helped other members of their community in order to help their mothers with their weaving businesses or through other tasks such as helping carry water while young boys helped with tasks such as carrying firewood alongside their fathers.[100]

Children's motivation to learn is not solely influenced by their desire to belong but also their eagerness to see their community succeed. Children from Navajo communities were shown to have higher levels of social concern than Anglo American children in their schools. By having high levels of social concern the indigenous children are showing concern for not only their learning but also their peers, which serves as an example of their instilled sense of responsibility for their community. They wish to succeed as a united group rather than just themselves.[101]

In order to be knowledgeable contributors, children must be aware of their surroundings and the community's goals. Children's learning in Indigenous-heritage communities is mainly based upon observing and helping out others in their community. Through this type of participation within their community, they gain purpose and motivation for the activity that they are doing within their community and become active participants because they know they are doing it for their community.[102]

Self-determination in educationEdit

Self-determination is the ability to make choices and exercise a high degree of control, such as what the student does and how they do it (Deci et al., 1991; Reeve, Hamm, & Nix, 2003; Ryan & Deci, 2002). Self-determination can be supported by providing opportunities for students to be challenged, such as leadership opportunities, providing appropriate feedback, and fostering, establishing, and maintaining good relationships between teachers and students. These strategies can increase students' interest, competence, creativity, and desire to be challenged and ensure that students are intrinsically motivated to study. On the other hand, students who lack self-determination are more likely to feel their success is out of their control. Such students lose motivation to study, which causes a state of "learned helplessness". Students who feel helpless readily believe they will fail and therefore cease to try. Over time, a vicious circle of low achievement develops.

Applications in game designEdit

Motivational models are central to game design, because without motivation, a player will not be interested in progressing further within a game.[103] Several models for gameplay motivations have been proposed, including Richard Bartle's. Jon Radoff has proposed a four-quadrant model of gameplay motivation that includes cooperation, competition, immersion and achievement.[104] The motivational structure of games is central to the gamification trend, which seeks to apply game-based motivation to business applications.[105] In the end, game designers must know the needs and desires of their customers for their companies to flourish.

There have been various studies on the connection between motivation and games. One particular study was on Taiwanese adolescents and their drive of addiction to games. Two studies by the same people were conducted. The first study revealed that addicted players showed higher intrinsic than extrinsic motivation and more intrinsic motivation than the non-addicted players.[106] It can then be said that addicted players, according to the studies findings, are more internally motivated to play games. They enjoy the reward of playing. There are studies that also show that motivation gives these players more to look for in the future such as long-lasting experience that they may keep later on in life.[107]

Applications in the militaryEdit

Military morale, its fostering and maintenance, play an important role in the military, particularly in combat situations.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L. (2000). "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions". Contemporary Educational Psychology. 25 (1): 54–67. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.318.808. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020. PMID 10620381.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L. (2000). "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being". American Psychologist. 55 (1): 68–78. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.529.4370. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68. PMID 11392867.
  3. ^ Jodai, Hojat; Zafarghandi, Amir Mahda Vi; Tous, Maryam Danaye (2013-01-01). "Motivation, Integrativeness, Organizational Influence, Anxiety, and English Achievement". Glottotheory. 4 (2). doi:10.1524/glot.2013.0012. ISSN 2196-6907. S2CID 147421279.
  4. ^ Ericsson, Karl Anders, Peak: Secrets from the new science of expertise, ISBN 9781531864880, OCLC 961226136
  5. ^ a b Vroom V, Lee D (1964). Work and Motivation.
  6. ^ Robbins, Trevor W.; Everitt, Barry J. (1996). "Neurobehavioural mechanisms of reward and motivation". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 6 (2): 228–236. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(96)80077-8. PMID 8725965. S2CID 16313742.
  7. ^ Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L (2013). "Neuroscience of affect: brain mechanisms of pleasure and displeasure". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 23 (3): 294–303. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.017. PMC 3644539. PMID 23375169.
  8. ^ Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè (8 November 2012). "The mysterious motivational functions of mesolimbic dopamine". Neuron. 76 (3): 470–485. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.021. ISSN 0896-6273. PMC 4450094. PMID 23141060.
  9. ^ a b Rueda, Richard; Moll, Luis C. (1994). "Chapter 7: A Sociocultural Perspective on Motivation". In O'Neill, Jr., Harold F.; Drillings, Michael (eds.). Motivation: Theory and Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8058-1286-2.
  10. ^ Pardee, R. L. (1990). The basic concept behind the hierarchy system is that it's like a food pyramid. Everybody starts at the bottom of the pyramid and is motivated to satisfy each level in ascending order to work our way to the top of the pyramid, and those levels (needs) are categorized into two main groups with five different sections which are explained below. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.
  11. ^ "The Content Theories of Motivation".
  12. ^ Pardee, R. L. (1990). Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.
  13. ^ Schneider, Benjamin; Alderfer, Clayton P. (1973). "Three Studies of Measures of Need Satisfaction in Organizations". Administrative Science Quarterly. 18 (4): 489–505. doi:10.2307/2392201. JSTOR 2392201.
  14. ^ a b Deci, Koestner, Ryan, Edward, Richard, Richard (1999). "A Meta-Analytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation". Psychological Bulletin. 125 (6): 627–668. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627. PMID 10589297.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ a b Ryan, Richard; Edward L. Deci (2000). "Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions". Contemporary Educational Psychology. 25 (1): 54–67. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.318.808. doi:10.1006/ceps.1999.1020. PMID 10620381.
  16. ^ Deci, Edward L.; Ryan, Richard M. (2013-06-29). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York. ISBN 9781489922717. OCLC 861705534.
  17. ^ Wigfield, A.; Guthrie, J. T.; Tonks, S.; Perencevich, K. C. (2004). "Children's motivation for reading: Domain specificity and instructional influences". Journal of Educational Research. 97 (6): 299–309. doi:10.3200/joer.97.6.299-310. S2CID 145301292.
  18. ^ N Root III, George. "Examples of Intrinsic Workplace Motivation". Chron. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
  19. ^ Benjamin Lowry, Paul; Gaskin, James; Twyman, Nathan W.; Hammer, Bryan; Roberts, Tom L. (2013). "Taking 'fun and games' seriously: Proposing the hedonic-motivation system adoption model (HMSAM)". Journal of the Association for Information Systems. 14 (11): 617–671. doi:10.17705/1jais.00347. SSRN 2177442.
  20. ^ Parker, Christopher J.; Wang, Huchen (2016). "Examining hedonic and utilitarian motivations for m-commerce fashion retail app engagement". Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 20 (4): 487–506. doi:10.1108/JFMM-02-2016-0015.
  21. ^ StoryStudio, . "One type of therapy is addressing autism, dementia, and so much more." San Francisco Gate, California Applied Behavior Analysis, 4 Aug. 2017, blog.sfgate.com/storystudio/2017/08/04/one-type-of-therapy-is-tackling-autism-dementia-and-so-much-more/. Accessed 15 Nov. 2017.
  22. ^ a b Deci, Ryan, Edward, Richard (2000). "Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being". American Psychologist. 55 (1): 70–71. doi:10.1037//0003-066x.55.1.68. PMID 11392867.
  23. ^ Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum
  24. ^ Deci & Ryan. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist.
  25. ^ "Motivating Students". 2010-06-11. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  26. ^ Dewani, Vijay (2013-01-12). "Motivation". slideshare. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  27. ^ Lepper, Mark R.; Greene, David; Nisbet, Richard (1973). "Undermining Children's Intrinsic Interest with Extrinsic Reward; A Test of 'Overjustification' Hypothesis". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 28: 129–37. doi:10.1037/h0035519.
  28. ^ Marinak, Barbara A.; Gambrell, Linda B. (2008). "Intrinsic Motivation and Rewards: What Sustains Young Children's Engagement with Text?". Literacy Research and Instruction. 47: 9–26. doi:10.1080/19388070701749546. S2CID 145209271.
  29. ^ Wilson, T. D.; Lassiter, G. D. (1982). "Increasing intrinsic interest with superfluous extrinsic constraints". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 42 (5): 811–819. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.42.5.811.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Cooper, John O (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-13-129327-4.
  31. ^ a b c d e Donahoe, J.W. (2004). Learning and Complex Behavior. Richmond, MA, USA: Ledgetop Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9762371-0-5.
  32. ^ "APA PsycNet". psycnet.apa.org. Retrieved 2020-05-15.
  33. ^ "Drive". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  34. ^ a b c d e Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.L. and Wegner, D.M. (2009,2011) Psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Worth.
  35. ^ Freud, Sigmund (2012). A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. Renaissance Classics. ISBN 9781484156803.
  36. ^ Deckers, Lambert (2018). Motivation: Biological, Psychological, and Environmental. Routledge. pp. 39–41. ISBN 9781138036338.
  37. ^ "Priming | Encyclopedia of Psychology". Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  38. ^ a b Elgendi, Mohamed; Kumar, Parmod; Barbic, Skye; Howard, Newton; Abbott, Derek; Cichocki, Andrzej (2018-05-30). "Subliminal Priming—State of the Art and Future Perspectives". Behavioral Sciences. 8 (6): 54. doi:10.3390/bs8060054. ISSN 2076-328X. PMC 6027235. PMID 29849006.
  39. ^ "Mere Exposure Effect | Encyclopedia of Psychology". Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2016-06-17. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  40. ^ Deckers, Lambert (2018). Motivation Biological, Psychological, and Environmental (5th ed.). 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017: Routledge. pp. 30–38, 71–75. ISBN 9781138036321.CS1 maint: location (link)
  41. ^ a b "Gordon W. Allport". psychology.fas.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  42. ^ McGregor, D., 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise, New York, McGraw-Hill.
  43. ^ Malone, Thomas (1997). "Is 'Empowerment' Just a Fad? Control, Decision-Making, and Information Technology". Sloan Management Review. 23 (38).
  44. ^ Markowitz, Linda (1996). "Employee Participation at the Workplace: Capitalist Control or Worker Freedom?". Critical Sociology. 22 (2): 89–103. doi:10.1177/089692059602200205. S2CID 143788356.
  45. ^ Denison, Daniel R. (1990). Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  46. ^ Elton Mayo, 1984 [1949]. “Hawthorne and the Western Electric Company.” Pp. 279-292 in Organization Theory: Selected Readings. Second Edition. Edited by D.S. Pugh. New York: Penguin.
  47. ^ Miner, J.B. (2003). The rated importance, scientific validity, and practical usefulness of organizational behavior theories: a quantitative review. Acad. Manag.: Learn. Educ.
  48. ^ Tom Pisello (2004). "Managing IT According To A Hierarchy Of Needs". N/A. http://archive.webpronews.com/it/itmanagement/wpn-18-20040302ManagingITAccordingtoaHierarchyofNeeds.html "The well-traveled theory by Abraham Maslow asserts that people are motivated by unsatisfied needs [...]."
  49. ^ "The benefits of a motivated workforce - Motivation - Eduqas - GCSE Business Revision - Eduqas". BBC Bitesize. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  50. ^ Steinmetz, L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc.
  51. ^ Steinmetz, L.L. (1983) Nice Guys Finish Last: Management Myths and Reality. Boulder, Colorado: Horizon Publications Inc. (pp. 43–44) https://books.google.co.nz/books?id=mR3UAAAACAAJ
  52. ^ Goldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Platt, J. (1968) The Affluent Worker: Attitudes and Behaviour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  53. ^ Weightman, Jane. (2008) The Employee Motivation Audit: Cambridge Strategy Publications
  54. ^ Kenton, Will. "What Is the Hawthorne Effect?". Investopedia. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  55. ^ Human Resources Management, HT Graham and R Bennett M+E Handbooks(1993) ISBN 0-7121-0844-0
  56. ^ Barnett, Tim, and Scott B. Droege. "Theory Z." Encyclopedia of Management. Ed. Marilyn M. Helms. 5th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 914-916. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Feb. 2012.
  57. ^ Robbins, Stephen P.; Judge, Timothy A. (2007), Essentials of Organizational Behavior (9 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, archived from the original on 2009-06-14
  58. ^ Mann, Anna Marie. "Employee Recognition: Low Cost, High Impact". Gallup. Gallup. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  59. ^ "Description of a Positive Workplace". Small Business - Chron.com. Retrieved 2020-10-09.
  60. ^ Burgers, Christian; Eden, Allison; Van Engelenburg, Mélisande D.; Buningh, Sander (2015-07-01). "How feedback boosts motivation and play in a brain-training game". Computers in Human Behavior. 48: 94–103. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.038. ISSN 0747-5632.
  61. ^ www.bizjournals.com https://www.bizjournals.com/louisville/stories/2002/09/02/editorial2.html. Retrieved 2020-10-09. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  62. ^ "Richard Hackman".
  63. ^ J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham. Work Redesign. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education, Inc, 1980; pp 78-80.
  64. ^ Katz, Ralph (2015). "Motivating Technical Professionals Today". Research-Technology Management. 48 (6): 19–27. doi:10.1080/08956308.2005.11657344. S2CID 218756298.
  65. ^ a b Steel, Piers. Motivation: Theory and Applied. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions, 2012. Print. pp. 49
  66. ^ How Employee Recognition Programmes Improve Retention Archived 2013-01-16 at the Wayback Machine CFO Insight Magazine, January 2013
  67. ^ Five mistaken beliefs business leaders have about innovation by Freek Vermeulen in Forbes, May 2011
  68. ^ Ormrod, 2003
  69. ^ Williams, Robert L.; Stockdale, Susan L. (2004). "Classroom motivation strategies for prospective teachers". The Teacher Educator. 39 (3): 212–230. doi:10.1080/08878730409555342. S2CID 144007655.
  70. ^ Whyte, Cassandra B (2007). "An Additional Look at Orientation Programs Nationally- (reprint of 1986 article in same journal)". National Orientation Directors Association Journal. 15 (1): 71–77.
  71. ^ Vallerand, Robert J.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Blais, Marc R.; Briere, Nathalie M.; Senecal, Caroline; Vallieres, Evelyne F. (2016). "The Academic Motivation Scale: A Measure of Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Amotivation in Education". Educational and Psychological Measurement. 52 (4): 1003–1017. doi:10.1177/0013164492052004025. S2CID 145465675.
  72. ^ Harter, Susan (1981). "A new self-report scale of intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom: Motivational and informational components". Developmental Psychology. 17 (3): 300–312. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.17.3.300.
  73. ^ Cordova, Diana I.; Lepper, Mark R. (1996). "Intrinsic motivation and the process of learning: Beneficial effects of contextualization, personalization, and choice". Journal of Educational Psychology. 88 (4): 715–730. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.88.4.715.
  74. ^ Whyte, Cassandra Bolyard (2018). "Effective Counseling Methods for High-Risk College Freshmen". Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance. 10 (4): 198–200. doi:10.1080/00256307.1978.12022132.
  75. ^ Lauridsen, K.; Whyte, C.B., eds. (1980). An Integrated counseling and Learning Assistance Center. New Directions Sourcebook. Jossey-Bass.
  76. ^ Fisher, K.; Marshall, M.; Nanayakkara, A. (2009). "Motivational orientation, error monitoring, and academic performance in middle childhood: A behavioral and electrophysiological investigation". Mind, Brain, and Education. 3: 56–63. doi:10.1111/j.1751-228x.2008.01053.x.
  77. ^ William T. O‘Donohue; Lorraine T. Benuto; Lauren Woodward Tolle, eds. (2013). Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Springer. p. 376. ISBN 978-1-4614-6632-1.
  78. ^ Moen, Ross; Doyle, Kenneth O. (1978). "Measures of Academic Motivation: A Conceptual Review". Research in Higher Education. 8 (1): 1–23. doi:10.1007/BF00985853. JSTOR 40195071. S2CID 143695767.
  79. ^ Symer, Matthew M.; Abelson, Jonathan S.; Yeo, Heather L.; Sosa, Julie A.; Rosenthal, M. Zachary (2018). "The Surgical Personality: Does Surgery Resident Motivation Predict Attrition?". Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 226 (5): 777–783. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.02.007. PMID 29510202.
  80. ^ a b c d Maclellan, Effie (2005). "Academic achievement:The role of praise in motivating students" (PDF). Active Learning in Higher Education. 6 (3). doi:10.1177/1469787405057750. S2CID 146571882.
  81. ^ a b Sansone, Carol; Morgan, Carolyn (1992). "Intrinsic motivation and education: Competence in context". Motivation and Emotion. 16 (3): 249–270. doi:10.1007/bf00991654. S2CID 144370965.
  82. ^ a b c Katz, Idit; Shahar, Bat-Hen (2015). "What makes a motivating teacher? Teacher's motivation and beliefs as predictors of their autonomy-supportive style". School Psychology International. 36 (6): 575–588. doi:10.1177/0143034315609969. S2CID 146836262.
  83. ^ a b Reeve, Johnmarshall (2009). "Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive". Educational Psychologist. 44 (3): 159–175. doi:10.1080/00461520903028990. S2CID 29543108.
  84. ^ Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M. (2001). "Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again". Review of Educational Research. 71 (1): 1–27. doi:10.3102/00346543071001001. S2CID 11589745.
  85. ^ a b Deci, Edward L.; Sheinman, Louise; Nezlek, John B. (1981). "Characteristics of the rewardee and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 40 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.40.1.1.
  86. ^ Instructional Conversations in Native American Classrooms (1994). Center for Applied Linguistics: Online Digests (5).
  87. ^ McInerney, Dennis M.; Gayton Swisher, Karen (1995). "Exploring Navajo Motivation in School Settings". Journal of American Indian Education. 34: 3.
  88. ^ Pewewardy, Cornel (2002). "Learning Styles of American Indian/Alaska Native Students: A Review of the Literature and Implications for Practice". Journal of American Indian Education. 41: 3.
  89. ^ Wilfred Pelletier (1969). Childhood in an Indian Village. Institute for Indian Studies. Neewin Publishing, Toronto etc.
  90. ^ Maynard, A. E. (2004). "Cultures of teaching in childhood: formal schooling and Maya sibling teaching at home". Cognitive Development. 19 (4): 517–535. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.492.6959. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2004.09.005.
  91. ^ a b Greenfield, P. M.; Maynard, A. E.; Childs, C. P. (2000). "History, culture, learning, and development". Cross-Cultural Research. 34 (4): 351–374. doi:10.1177/106939710003400404. S2CID 55190308.
  92. ^ Rogoff, Barbara (2011). Developing Destinies: A Mayan Midwife and Town. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
  93. ^ Chavajay, Pablo (2002). "Schooling and Traditional Collaborative Social Organization of Problem Solving by Mayan Mothers and Children". Developmental Psychology. 38 (1): 55–66. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.38.1.55. PMID 11806702.
  94. ^ Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik; Søbstad, Frode; Marder, Kurt; Flowerday, Terri (June 2010). "Indigenous and non-Indigenous primary school students' attitudes on play, humour, learning and self-concept: a comparative perspective". European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. 18 (2): 243–267. doi:10.1080/13502931003784396. S2CID 145281027.
  95. ^ Rogoff, B.; Paradise, R.; Mejia Arauz, R.; Correa-Chavez, M.; Angelillo, C. (2003). "Firsthand learning through intent participation". Annual Review of Psychology. 54: 175–203. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145118. hdl:10400.12/5953. PMID 12499516.
  96. ^ Rogoff, B (2012). "Learning without lessons: Opportunities to expand knowledge". Infancia y Aprendizaje / Journal for the Study of Education and Development. 35 (2): 233–252. doi:10.1174/021037012800217970. S2CID 144442624.
  97. ^ Ames, P (2013). "Learning to be responsible: Young children transitions outside of school". Learning, Culture and Social Interaction. 2 (3): 143–154. doi:10.1016/j.lcsi.2013.04.002.
  98. ^ Gaskins, S (2000). "Children's daily activities in a mayan village: A culturally grounded description". Cross-Cultural Research. 34 (4): 375–389. doi:10.1177/106939710003400405. S2CID 144751184.
  99. ^ Correa-Chávez, M.; Roberts, A. L. D.; Pérez, M. M. (2011). Cultural patterns in children's learning through keen observation and participation in their communities. Adv Child Dev Behav. Advances in Child Development and Behavior. 40. pp. 209–241. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-386491-8.00006-2. ISBN 9780123864918. PMID 21887963.
  100. ^ Mejía-Arauz, R.; Rogoff, B.; Dexter, A.; Najafi, B. (2007). "Cultural Variation in Children's Social Organization". Child Development. 78 (3): 1001–1014. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01046.x. PMID 17517018.
  101. ^ Ali, J.; Mcinerney, D.; Craven, R.; Yeung, A.; King, R. (2013). "Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities Between Native and Anglo Americans". The Journal of Educational Research. 107 (2): 123–137. doi:10.1080/00220671.2013.788988. S2CID 144741545.
  102. ^ Paradise, R.; Rogoff, B. (2009). "Side by Side: Learning by Observing and Pitching In". Ethos. 37: 102–138. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1352.2009.01033.x.
  103. ^ Radoff, Jon. April 2011. Game On: Energize Your Business with Social Games. ISBN 978-0-470-93626-9
  104. ^ Radoff, Jon. "Game Player Motivations." May 2011. radoff.com Archived 2011-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ Popkin, Helen (June 1, 2010). "FarmVille invades the real world". NBC News.
  106. ^ Wan, C. S.; Chiou, W. B. (2007). "The motivations of adolescents who are addicted to online games: A cognitive perspective". Adolescence. 42 (165): 179–97. PMID 17536482.
  107. ^ Ryan, R. M.; Rigby, C. S.; Przybylski, A. (2006). "The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach". Motivation and Emotion. 30 (4): 344–360. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9051-8. S2CID 53574707.

Further readingEdit