Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the 0.67 square kilometers (0.26 sq mi) historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, which was created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979.[2]

Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception.jpg Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila.jpg
FvfIntramuros2720 27.JPG 02407jfManila Intramuros Streets Buildings Churches Landmarksfvf 08.jpg
Entrance of Fort Santiago, Intramuros, Manila - panoramio.jpg FvfManilaCathedralPlaza0445 32.JPG
Official seal of Intramuros
Nickname(s): Walled City
Motto(s): Insigne y siempre leal Ciudad de Manila
Distinguished and ever loyal City of Manila"
Location within Manila
Location within Manila
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Intramuros
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Intramuros
Location within Metro Manila 14.591496, 120.973985
Coordinates: 14°35′29″N 120°58′25″E / 14.59147°N 120.97356°E / 14.59147; 120.97356
Country Philippines
Region National Capital Region
City Manila
Congressional District 5th District of Manila
Settled June 12, 1571 (1571-June-12)
Founded by Miguel López de Legazpi
 • Administrator of Intramuros Guiller Asido
 • Total 0.67 km2 (0.26 sq mi)
Population (2015)[1]
 • Total 5,935
 • Density 8,900/km2 (23,000/sq mi)
Time zone Philippine Standard Time (UTC+08:00)
Zip codes 1002
Area codes 2

Intramuros is also called the Walled City, and at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrables (suburbs) located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls".[3][4] It was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was also the center of religion, education and economy. The standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros (Manila) and Acapulco, Mexico.

Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions. The Walled City was originally located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay. The Battle of Manila in 1945 devastated Intramuros. It is the place where the occupying Japanese Imperial Army made their last stand against American soldiers and Filipino guerillas. The battle destroyed its churches, universities, houses, and government buildings, most of which dated back to the Spanish Colonial Period.

Intramuros, particularly the Fort Santiago, was designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1951. The Intramuros Administration, created through Presidential Decree No. 1616 that was signed on April 10, 1979, is tasked to rebuild, redevelop, administer and preserve remaining buildings, structures and fortifications of Intramuros. San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, is located within Intramuros.



Pre-Hispanic periodEdit

The strategic location of Manila along the bay and at the mouth of Pasig River made it an ideal location for the Tagalog and Kapampangan tribes and kingdoms to trade with merchants from what would be today's China, India, Borneo, and Indonesia.

Before the first arrival of Europeans on Luzon island, the island was part of the Majapahit empire around the 14th century, according to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which described its conquest by Mahārāja Hayam Wuruk.[5] The region was invaded around 1485 by Sultan Bolkiah and became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei.[6] The site of Intramuros then became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei.

Spanish colonial period (1571-1898)Edit

The sketch of the Plaza de Roma Manila by Fernando Brambila, a member of the Malaspina Expedition during their stop in Manila in 1792.
Plaza Santo Tomas in Intramuros, Manila; Where the Santo Domingo Church, Colegio de Santa Rosa and the original University of Santo Tomas where built during the Spanish era.

Spanish conquest of Manila (1571-1762)Edit

In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain (now Mexico), and arrived on the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, establishing the first Spanish colony in the Philippines. Having heard from the natives about the rich resources in Manila, Legazpi dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the island of Luzon. The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570. After quarrels and misunderstandings between the Muslim natives and the Spaniards, they fought for control of the land and settlements. After several months of warfare the natives were defeated, and the Spaniards made a peace pact with the councils of Rajah Sulaiman III, Lakan Dula, and Rajah Matanda who handed over Manila to the Spaniards.

Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24, 1571, because of its strategic location and rich resources. He also proclaimed the sovereignty of the Monarchy of Spain over the whole archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarding the city a coat of arms and declaring it as: Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal (English: "Distinguished and Ever Loyal City"). It was settled and became the political, military, and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia.

Construction of the city wallsEdit

The city was in constant danger of natural and man-made disasters and worse, attacks from foreign invaders. In 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates led by Limahong attacked the city and destroyed it before the Spaniards drove them away. The colony had to be rebuilt again by the survivors.[7] These attacks prompted the construction of the wall.

The city of stone began during the rule of Governor-General Santiago de Vera.[8] The city was planned and executed by Jesuit Priest Antonio Sedeno[7] in accordance to the Laws of the Indies, and was approved by King Philip II's Royal Ordinance that was issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain. The succeeding governor-general, Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas brought with him from Spain the royal instructions to carry into effect the said decree stating that "to enclose the city with stone and erect a suitable fort at the junction of the sea and river". Leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish military engineer specializing in fortifications, headed the project. Chinese and Filipino workers built the walls.

Fort Santiago was rebuilt and a circular fort, known as Nuestra Senora de Guia, was erected to defend the land and sea on the southwestern side of the city. Funds came from a monopoly on playing cards and fines imposed on its excessive play. Chinese goods were taxed for two years. Construction of the walls began on 1590 and continued under many governor-generals until 1872. By the middle of 1592, Dasmarinas wrote the King about the satisfactory development of the new walls and fortification.[9] Since the construction was carried on during different periods and often far apart, the walls were not built according to any uniform plan.[8]

Improvements continued during the terms of the succeeding Governor-Generals. Governor-General Juan de Silva executed certain work on the fortifications in 1609 which was improved by Juan Niño de Tabora in 1626, and by Diego Fajardo Chacón in 1644. The erection of the Baluarte de San Diego was also completed that year. This bastion, shaped like an "ace of spades" is the southernmost point of the wall and the first of the large bastions added to the encircling walls, then of no great height nor of finished construction.[10] It was the former site of Nuestra Señora de Guia, the very first stone fort of Manila.[11] Ravelins and reductos were added to strengthen weak areas and serve as outer defenses. A moat was built around the city with the Pasig River serving as a natural barrier on one side. By the 18th century, the city was totally enclosed. The last construction works were completed by the start of the 19th century.[9]

Inside colonial IntramurosEdit

An 1851 map of Intramuros
The newly rebuilt Manila Cathedral in 1880 before the earthquake of July 20, 1880, which knocked down the over-a-century old bell tower.

The main square of the city of Manila was Plaza Mayor (later known as Plaza McKinley then Plaza de Roma) in front of the Manila Cathedral. East of the plaza was the Ayuntamiento (City Hall) and facing it was the Palacio del Gobernador, the official residence of the Spanish viceroyalties to the Philippines. An earthquake on June 3, 1863 destroyed the three buildings and much of the city. The residence of the Governor-General was moved to Malacañang Palace located about 3 km (1.9 mi) up on the Pasig River. The two previous buildings were later rebuilt but not the Governor's Palace.

Inside the walls were other Roman Catholic churches, the oldest being San Agustin Church (Augustinians) built in 1607. The other churches built by the different religious orders – San Nicolas de Tolentino Church (Recollects), San Francisco Church (Franciscans), Third Venerable Order Church (Third Order of St. Francis), Santo Domingo Church (Dominican), Lourdes Church (Capuchins), and the San Ignacio Church (Jesuits) – has made the small walled city the City of Churches.

Intramuros was the center of large educational institutions in the country.[3] Convents and church-run schools were established by the different religious orders. The Dominicans established the Universidad de Santo Tomás in 1611 and the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán in 1620. The Jesuits established the Universidad de San Ignacio in 1590, the first university in the country, but closed in 1768 following the expulsion of the Jesuits in the country. After the Jesuits were allowed to return to the Philippines, they established the Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1859.[12] In the initial period of colonization, there were a total of 1200 Spanish families living in the vicinity of Intramuros, 600 Spanish families within the walls and another 600 living in the suburbs outside Intramuros. In addition to this were about 400 Spanish soldiers garrisoned at the walled city.[13]

The main gateway to Fort Santiago, Manila in 1880. The building was destroyed during the July 1880 earthquake that affected Luzon Island.

American period (1898–1942)Edit

After the end of the Spanish–American War, Spain surrendered the Philippines and several other territories to the United States as part of the terms of the Treaty of Paris for $20 million. The American flag was raised at Fort Santiago on August 13, 1898 indicating the start of American rule over the city. The Ayuntamiento became the seat of the Philippine Commission of the United States in 1901 while Fort Santiago became the headquarters of the Philippine Division of the United States Army.

The Americans made drastic changes to the city, such as in 1903, when the walls from the Santo Domingo Gate up to the Almacenes Gate were removed as the wharf on the southern bank of the Pasig River was improved. The stones removed were used for other construction happening around the city. The walls were also breached in four areas to ease access to the city: the southwestern end of Calle Aduana (now Andres Soriano Jr. Ave.); the eastern end of Calle Anda; the northeastern end of Calle Victoria (previously known as Calle de la Escuela); and the southeastern end of Calle Palacio (now General Luna Street). The double moats that surrounded Intramuros were deemed unsanitary and were filled in with mud dredged from Manila Bay where the present Port of Manila is now located. The moats were transformed into a municipal golf course by the city.

Reclamations for the construction of the Port of Manila, the Manila Hotel, and Rizal Park obscured the old walls and skyline of the city from the Manila Bay.[14] The Americans also founded the first school under the new government, the Manila High School, on June 11, 1906 along Victoria Street.[15]

World War II and Japanese occupationEdit

Destruction of the Walled City in the aftermath of the Battle of Manila.

In December 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded the Philippines. The first casualties in Intramuros brought by the war were the destruction of Santo Domingo Church and the original University of Santo Tomas campus during an assault. The whole city of Manila was declared by General Douglas MacArthur as an "Open City" as Manila was indefensible.

In 1945, the battle for the liberation of Manila began when American troops tried to occupy Manila on January 1945. Intense urban fighting occurred between the combined American and Filipino troops under the United States Army and Philippine Commonwealth Army including recognized guerrillas, against the 30,000 Japanese defenders. As the battle continued, both sides inflicted heavy damage on the city culminating with the Manila massacre by Japanese troops. The Imperial Japanese Army was pushed back, eventually retreating into the Intramuros district. General MacArthur, though opposed to the bombing of the walled city, approved the heavy shelling which resulted in deaths of over 16,665 Japanese alone within Intramuros.[16] Two of the eight gates of Intramuros were badly damaged by American tanks. The bombings leveled most of Intramuros leaving only 5% of the city structures; the walls lost 40% to the bombings.[17][18] Over 100,000 Filipino men, women and children died from February 3 to March 3, 1945 during the Battle of Manila.

At the end of World War II, all of the buildings and structures in Intramuros were destroyed, with only the damaged San Agustin Church still standing.[18][19][20]

Contemporary periodEdit

Manila Cathedral and its surrounding structures in Plaza Roma
A view of the north elevation of the reconstructed Ayuntamiento de Manila. At the bottom right on the shortest window shows a door that serves as a fire exit, an example of inauthentic design by post-war buildings.

In 1951, Intramuros was declared a historical monument and Fort Santiago, a national shrine with Republic Act 597, with the policy of restoring, reconstructing, and urban planning of Intramuros. Several laws and decrees also followed but results were deemed unsatisfactory due to limited funds. [21] In 1979, the Intramuros Administration (IA) was created by virtue of Presidential Decree № 1616, signed by President Ferdinand Marcos on April 10 of that year.[22]

Since then, the IA has been slowly restoring the walls, the sub-features of the fortification, and the city within. The remaining five original gates have been restored or rebuilt: Isabel II Gate, Parian Gate, Real Gate, Santa Lucía Gate and the Postigo Gate. The entrances made by the Americans by breaching the walls at four locations are now spanned by walkways thereby creating a connection, seamless in design and character to the original walls. Buildings destroyed during the war were subsequently rebuild: Manila Cathedral was rebuilt and was opened to the public in 1958, Ayuntamiento de Manila was rebuilt in 2013, while the San Ignacio Church and Convent is currently being reconstructed as the Museo de Intramuros.

Several architects and urban planners have been critical of the way Intramuros was being restored, comparing it to a "theme park" that is inspired by the Spanish colonial period. Buildings and structures inside the district are also criticized for being "inauthentic" in their design that is supposed to be inspired by the Bahay na Bato or the prevailing pre-war architectural style, however they were approved by the Intramuros Administration. The district also has a few population, making it a "dead" district at night or at specific time periods.

City wallsEdit

The outline of the defensive wall of Intramuros is irregular in shape, following the contours of Manila Bay and the curvature of the Pasig River. The walls covered an area of 64 hectares (160 acres) of land, surrounded by 8 feet (2.4 m) thick stones and high walls that rise to 22 feet (6.7 m). An inner moat (foso) surrounds the perimeter of the wall and an outer moat (contrafoso) surrounds the walls that face the city.

Defense structuresEdit

1902 photo taking by a US Military Personnel showing Spanish artillery

Several bulwarks (baluarte), ravelins (ravellin) and redoubts (reductos) are also strategically located along its massive walls following the design of medieval fortifications. The seven bastions (clockwise, from Fort Santiago) are the Bastions of Tenerias, Aduana, San Gabriel, San Lorenzo, San Andres, San Diego, and Plano.[23] The bastions were constructed at different periods of time, the reason for the differences in style. As mentioned above, the oldest bastion is the San Diego Bastion.

In Fort Santiago, there are bastions on each corner of the triangular fort. The Santa Barbara Bastion (Baluarte de Santa Bárbara) faces the bay and Pasig River; Baluarte de San Miguel, faces the bay; Medio Baluarte de San Francisco, Pasig River.[24]


The current Puerta Real was built in 1780 and was restored in 1969 with additional works made in 1989

Before the American Era, entrance to the city was through eight gates or Puertas namely (clockwise, from Fort Santiago) Puerta Almacenes, Puerta de la Aduana, Puerta de Santo Domingo, Puerta Isabel II, Puerta del Parian, Puerta Real, Puerta Sta. Lucia, and Puerta del Postigo.[25] Formerly, drawbridges were raised and the city was closed and under sentinels from 11:00 pm till 4:00 am. It continued so until 1852, when, in consequence of the earthquake of that year, it was decreed that the gates should thenceforth remain open night and day.[23]

Present day IntramurosEdit

Intramuros is the only district of Manila where old Spanish-era influences are still plentiful. Fort Santiago is now a well-maintained park and popular tourist destination. Adjacent to Fort Santiago is the reconstructed Maestranza Wall, which was removed by the Americans in 1903 to widen the wharves thus opening the city to Pasig River. One of the future plans of the Intramuros Administration is to complete the perimeter walls that surround the city making it completely circumnavigable from the walkway on top of the walls.[26]

There has been minimal commercialization occurring within the district, despite restoration efforts. A few fast food establishments set up shop at the turn of the 21st century, catering mostly to the student population within Intramuros.


The center of education since the colonial period, Manila — particularly Intramuros — is home to several Philippine universities and colleges as well as its oldest ones. It served as the home of the University of Santo Tomas (1611), Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620), Ateneo de Manila University (1859), Lyceum of the Philippines University and the Mapua Institute of Technology. Only Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1620) remains at Intramuros; the University of Santo Tomas transferred to a new campus at Sampaloc in 1927, and Ateneo left Intramuros for Loyola Heights, Quezon City (while still retaining "de Manila" in its name) in 1952.

New non-sectarian schools were established and built over the ruins after the war. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, established in 1965 by the city government of Manila, was built at the site of the old Cuartel España (Spanish Barracks). The Lyceum of the Philippines University, a private university founded in 1952 by Philippine President Jose P. Laurel, was built over the lot of San Juan de Dios Hospital. The hospital moved out to Roxas Boulevard in Pasay. Mapúa Institute of Technology, which was founded in 1925 in Quiapo, Manila moved in Intramuros after the war. Its post-war campus was built on the location of the destroyed San Francisco Church and the Third Venerable Order Church at the corner of San Francisco and Solana Streets. The three new educational institutions, along with Colegio de San Juan de Letran formed an academic cooperation called the Intramuros Consortium.


Intramuros, as the seat of religious and political power during the colonial period, was the home to eight grand churches built by different religious orders. All but one of these churches were destroyed in the Battle of Manila. Only San Agustin Church, the oldest building in existence in Manila completed in 1607, was the only structure inside the Walled City not to be destroyed during the war. The Manila Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila, was reconstructed thereafter. The other religious orders reconstructed their churches outside Intramuros after the war. The Dominicans rebuilt Santo Domingo Church on Quezon Avenue in Quezon City. The Augustinian Recollects moved to their other church, the San Sebastian Church (now Basilica), 2.5-kilometre (1.6 mi) northeast of the walled city. The Capuchins moved the Lourdes Church in 1951 to the corner of Kanlaon St. and Retiro St. (now Amoranto Ave.) in Quezon City. It was declared a National Shrine in 1997. The Order of Saint John of God moved to Roxas while the Order of Poor Clares in Aurora Boulevard. The San Ignacio Church and Convent is now currently being reconstructed as Museo de Intramuros, an ecclesiastical museum.

Monuments that survived the centuriesEdit

World War 2 as well as natural and man-made disasters destroyed a great many old buildings and statues throughout the country. It is by sheer luck that many Spanish period monuments have continued to survive the passage of time. The following are the ones we could still see today in Intramuros.

  • Anda Monument - initially located at Plaza Maestranza near Fort Santiago, the whole monument was transferred in 1957 outside Intramuros into Bonifacio Drive, comprising the Anda Circle. In recent years it has been painted over, with the lower level vandalized with graffiti
  • Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument - within the first decade of the 2000s some of its metal ornaments had been stolen and unscrupulously sold as scrap metal[citation needed]
  • Queen Isabel II Monument - initially located at modern-day Plaza Rajah Sulayman, the whole monument was transferred in 1975 at the front of the similarly-named Puerta Isabel II
  • Benavides Monument - replica; the undamaged original statue was transferred in 1946 to the Sampaloc campus, now fronting the Main Building, while its original marble pedestal had been completely obliterated during the Battle of Manila.
  • Carlos IV Monument


Structures before and after World War IIEdit

Note: Parenthesis () indicates the new buildings that occupy the same site today; an asterisk (*), same occupants before and after the war.


Schools and conventsEdit

Other buildingsEdit


Intramuros is made up of five Barangays numbered 654, 655, 656, 657 and 658. These five barangays only serves the welfare of the city's constituents because they have no executive and legislative power. The Intramuros Administration oversee the day-to-day administration of the district, including the issuance of building permits, traffic re-routing, among others.

Barangays of Intramuros
Barangay Population (2015)[1]
Barangay 654 1,137
Barangay 655 1,671
Barangay 656 369
Barangay 657 677
Barangay 658 2,081

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 11, 2017. 
  2. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 1616, s. 1979". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved July 12, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Journal of American Folklore, Volumes 17-18. United States: American Folklore Society. 1904. p. 283. ISBN 1248746058. Retrieved 2012-08-12. 
  4. ^ O'Connell, Daniel (1908). Manila, the Pearl of the Orient. Manila Merchants' Association. p. 20. ISBN 0217014798. Retrieved 2012-08-12. 
  5. ^ Gerini, G.E. (1905). "The Nagarakretagama List of Countries on the Indo-Chinese Mainland (Circâ 1380 A.D.)". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (July 1905): 485–511. JSTOR 25210168. 
  6. ^ "Pusat Sejarah Brunei" (in Malay). Government of Brunei Darussalam. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Torres, Jose Victor. Ciudad Murada, A Walk Through Historic Intramuros. Vibal Publishing House. p. 5. ISBN 971-07-2276-X. 
  8. ^ a b U.S. War Department 1903, p. 435.
  9. ^ a b Torres, Jose Victor. Ciudad Murada, A Walk Through Historic Intramuros. Vibal Publishing House. p. 6. ISBN 971-07-2276-X. 
  10. ^ U.S. War Department 1903, p. 436.
  11. ^ "Baluarte de San Diego". Intramuros, the Walled City. Retrieved on 2011-11-13.
  12. ^ "History". Ateneo de Manila University. Retrieved on 2012-10-11.
  13. ^ Barrows, David (2014). "A History of the Philippines". Guttenburg Free Online E-books. 1: 179. Within the walls, there were some six hundred houses of a private nature, most of them built of stone and tile, and an equal number outside in the suburbs, or “arrabales,” all occupied by Spaniards (“todos son vivienda y poblacion de los Españoles”). This gives some twelve hundred Spanish families or establishments, exclusive of the religious, who in Manila numbered at least one hundred and fifty, the garrison, at certain times, about four hundred trained Spanish soldiers who had seen service in Holland and the Low Countries, and the official classes. 
  14. ^ City of Manila. "Annual Report of the City of Manila, 1905", p.71. Manila Bureau of Printing.
  15. ^ "Manila High School". The Historical Marker Database. Retrieved on 2012-10-11.
  16. ^ Ramsey, Russell Wilcox (1993). "On Law & Country", pg. 41. Braden Publishing Company, Boston.
  17. ^ Esperanza Bunag Gatbonton. "A SHORT HISTORY AND GUIDE TO INTRAMUROS" (PDF). Philippine Academic Consortium for Latin American Studies. Retrieved 2013-12-23. 
  18. ^ a b "The Sack of Manila". The Battling Bastards of Bataan ( Archived from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  19. ^ Bernad, Miguel A. "Genocide in Manila". California, USA: Philippine American Literary House ( PALH Book. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  20. ^ Quezon III, Manuel L. (2007-02-07). "The Warsaw of Asia: How Manila was Flattened in WWII". Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Arab News Online ( Opinion. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  21. ^ "History of Intramuros". Intramuros, the Walled City. Retrieved on 2011-09-14.
  22. ^ "Presidential Decree no. 1616". The LawPhil Project. Retrieved on 2012-04-04.
  23. ^ a b U.S. War Department 1903, p.443.
  24. ^ "Intramuros Walkthrough". Intramuros, the Walled City. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
  25. ^ "IA Trivia - Eight main gates of Intramuros". Intramuros, the Walled City. Retrieved on 2011-09-14.
  26. ^ philstarcom (2010-06-18). "Maestranza Wall Restoration". Retrieved on 2011-09-18.
  27. ^ Torres, Jose Victor. Ciudad Murada. Vibal Publishing House, Inc. p. 64. ISBN 971-07-2276-X. 
  28. ^ "List of Intramuros proposed projects for 2013- 2015". Intramuros, the Walled City. Retrieved on 2013-06-24.
  29. ^ (2007-03-11). "Fire hits Comelec headquarters".


External linksEdit