Interstate 275 (Florida)

Interstate 275 (I-275), located in Florida, is a 60-mile-long (97 km) auxiliary Interstate Highway serving the Tampa Bay area. Its southern terminus is at I-75 near Palmetto, where I-275 heads west towards the Sunshine Skyway Bridge crossing over Tampa Bay. From that point, I-275 passes through St. Petersburg before crossing Tampa Bay again on the Howard Frankland Bridge, then continues through the city of Tampa, where it connects to an interchange with I-4 in Downtown Tampa. After the interchange, I-275 passes north through the Tampa suburbs to its northern terminus at I-75 in Wesley Chapel.

Interstate 275 marker
Interstate 275
I-275 highlighted in red
Route information
Auxiliary route of I-75
Maintained by FDOT
Length60.237 mi[1] (96.942 km)
Existed1973–present
Major junctions
South end I-75 near Palmetto
Major intersections
North end I-75 near Wesley Chapel
Location
CountryUnited States
StateFlorida
CountiesManatee, Pinellas, Hillsborough, Pasco
Highway system
US 92SR 93 SR 93A
Old I-275 shield in St. Petersburg

Route descriptionEdit

Southern terminus to St. PetersburgEdit

I-275 begins at exit 228 of I-75 with two lanes in either direction in rural Palmetto. I-275 immediately heads west of its parent Interstate and has an interchange with US Highway 41 (US 41) two miles (3.2 km) up the road. I-275's next interchange is with US 19, beginning a concurrency that lasts 13 miles (21 km). After this exit, I-275 reaches the southern toll plaza for the Sunshine Skyway Bridge. There is a corresponding northern toll plaza for southbound travelers. The Sunshine Skyway Bridge is a 4.1-mile-long (6.6 km) bridge that spans Tampa Bay. After reaching the northern end of the bridge, I-275 enters St. Petersburg.[2]

St. PetersburgEdit

At the northern end of the bridge, drivers briefly drive on the left side as the freeway's lanes invert for about half a mile (0.80 km) before US 19 exits the freeway at exit 17,[3] serving as a local road in St. Petersburg. At this point, the Interstate expands to three lanes. I-275 has multiple exits in the city, each of them serving the residential neighborhoods that the freeway passes through. Between exits 22 and 23, the highway becomes two lanes each way, expanding back to three thereafter. I-275 then has a major interchange with I-175, which provides access to Albert Whitted Airport and Tropicana Field, home of the Tampa Bay Rays.[4] The next major interchange occurs less than a mile (1.6 km) down the road with I-375, providing access to the waterfront along Tampa Bay.[2] After this exit, I-275 continues through residential neighborhoods, widening to four lanes each way between exits 25 and 26, though the right lane in both directions being designated "exit only". It eventually passes beside Sawgrass Lake Park and then through an area of marshland. The freeway widens to four lanes in either direction at exit 30 before reaching its last interchange in St. Petersburg with SR 687 (4th Street). After traveling 19 miles (31 km) in St. Petersburg, I-275 crosses the Howard Frankland Bridge over Old Tampa Bay into Tampa.[2]

TampaEdit

I-275 reduces to three lanes at exit 39, as well as has an interchange with SR 60 thereat, which provides access to SR 589 and Tampa International Airport.[5] At this point, I-275 thins down to three lanes in either direction and remains this way for the rest of the freeway.[6] I-275 then has an interchange with US 92, the first of two interchanges with the road, allowing access to Downtown Tampa. I-275 then crosses the Hillsborough River for the first time along its route. Afterward, six miles (9.7 km) from its entry into Tampa, I-275 has its next major interchange with I-4, a junction known locally as "Malfunction Junction".[2] This junction was always clogged with daily rush-hour traffic and was subsequently overhauled.[7] This interchange serves as I-4's western terminus and allows access to Orlando and the east coast of Florida. Furthermore, the freeway expands to four lanes through the interchange. After this major exit, I-275 reaches an interchange with US 92 again, also allowing access to US 41. After this interchange, US 41 acts as the local road for the freeway for the rest of its route.[8] I-275 crosses the Hillsborough River a second time and enters residential neighborhoods within Tampa. I-275 travels due north and parallel to US 41 for four miles (6.4 km) before turning northeast toward I-75.[2] At this point, I-275 exits Tampa and enters Lutz, a suburb of Tampa. I-275 then reconnects with its parent Interstate Highway (I-75) and reaches its northern terminus.[2][9]

HistoryEdit

Initial construction in TampaEdit

 
Model of the Downtown Distributor (c. 1960), from Malfunction Junction (right) to Hillsborough River (upper left)

I-275 originally opened in 1962 as a segment of I-75, from the present northern terminus to a diamond interchange at SR 678 (Bearss Avenue). The portion of I-4 that would later become a part of I-275, the Howard Frankland Bridge, and its short freeway stubs at the bridge's endpoints, opened to traffic about a year earlier. In 1964, the stub of what was then known as I-4 between 50th Street (through "Malfunction Junction") and Armenia Avenue was completed. "Malfunction Junction's" northern end was a pair of ramp stubs that would later be filled in by I-75. In 1965, the segment of I-75 from "Malfunction Junction" to about Sligh Avenue was completed, and, by 1967, the remaining gaps in I-4 and I-75 were filled and opened to traffic.

Controversy and repeated delays in PinellasEdit

Around 1970, plans for the extension of I-75 into Pinellas County began. However, the first round of local opposition would lead to the eventual (and repeated) delays of I-75 through St. Petersburg. The first setback was led by 4th Street business owners and residents who demanded that construction on I-75 be stopped, since the bridge was already funneling unwanted traffic into the corridor. It has since seen many unforeseen business and residential booms due to the building of this bridge. At the same time, construction began on I-75 from SR 686 (Roosevelt Boulevard) to about 38th Avenue North. By this time, I-4 was truncated to "Malfunction Junction", allowing the I-75 designation take over the freeway from the junction to 4th Street North. This segment was opened to traffic in 1973, with the gap between Roosevelt and 9th Street filled in a few years later. Around this time, I-75 was redesignated as I-275, and, after some more local opposition, I-275 was constructed to meander down to SR 595 (5th Avenue North), near downtown St. Petersburg, in 1975.

 
The original plans called for I-75 to end in Tampa.

The construction of I-275 over nearly a 50-year period between 1970 and 2016 uprooted many Black families in the Methodist Town, Gas Plant, and 22nd Street neighborhoods. These practices of eminent domain by the St. Petersburg government helped to shut down small companies in these neighborhoods and sustained white businesses that were located more centrally.[10] Families in the Gas Plant neighborhood were assured good jobs at Tropicana Field to help ease the burden of moving. During the 1970s, the government removed 285 buildings and 500 families to help build the Interstate which cost $11.3 million (equivalent to $59.3 million in 2020[11]).[12] The widespread demolition included 10 Black-American churches.[13] The families in the bulldozed Gas Plant neighborhood were guaranteed cheaper homes and 600 new jobs by the city, but these offers were never delivered.[14]

Many members in the affected neighborhoods found the actions taken by the government to be very controversial. In 1977, Chester James was appointed by the city government as the representative from Methodist Town to vote on the future development plans of his neighborhood. However, the city's unclear plans led him to vote in favor of evicting 377 families (including his own) from the neighborhood.[10] There is also contention about the location of I-275 in southwest St. Petersburg, as its current placement is very similar to that of the 1935 segregation initiative perimeter.[14]

Financial burdens through this part of the project caused further delays. However, I-375 opened partially to traffic in 1979, with full operation by 1981, and I-175 opened up in 1980.

With both downtown feeders now open, I-275 was extended to 28th Street South. However, another round of community revolts delayed the segment of I-275 between 28th Street South and 22nd Avenue South. In spite of the delay, the stretch was built by 1981. Exit 20 was configured for an anticipated westward expansion to a planned Pinellas Beltway. A freeway revolt killed many of Pinellas County's freeways during the 1970s and repeatedly delayed the construction of I-275. In addition, the Sunshine Skyway Bridge collapse on May 9, 1980, during which the freighter MV Summit Venture took down one of the two spans of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge and killed 35 people, reduced a portion of I-275 to two lanes until the opening of the present bridge in April 1987.

In 1982, the segment between 22nd Avenue South and 39th Avenue South was opened to traffic. The Pinellas Bayway/US 19 interchange, opened to traffic in 1983–1984, is inverted for about half a mile (0.80 km). The reason for this configuration is unknown; however, to this day, traffic continues to flow smoothly through the interchange with very little congestion. At about the same time this interchange opened, I-275 was completed from the Sunshine Skyway Bridge to the southern terminus with I-75 in Manatee County.

When the new Sunshine Skyway Bridge opened in 1987, the final link of I-275, between US 19 and the bridge, was completed and opened to traffic.

Reconstruction and later changesEdit

The segment of I-275 between Veterans Expressway (SR 589) and Himes Avenue was widened from four to six lanes in 1974. Additionally, a median barrier was built along the highway from Himes Avenue to Downtown Tampa.

 
I-275 entering Downtown Tampa

Until the 1980s, the Memorial Highway/Veterans Expressway interchange was only a half diamond, and the West Shore Boulevard interchange was a full diamond. Both interchanges underwent drastic changes to allow safe, free-flowing movement to and from Tampa International Airport and the Veterans Expressway. Among the improvements, three free-flowing exit and entry ramps were added to the expressway from I-275. The exit ramp from I-275 south to the Veterans Expressway northbound was reconstructed, and the ramp from Memorial Highway northbound from Kennedy Boulevard onto northbound I-275 was removed, along with the two western ramps onto West Shore Boulevard (truncating the West Shore interchange to a half diamond), in order to deter accidents that were being caused by commuters entering and exiting the Interstate from the Veterans Expressway. In addition, connections from I-275 north, to Cypress Street were made (though the ramps are underutilized today). In 2004, the ramp from southbound Veterans Expressway to southbound I-275 was realigned in order to ease congestion on the mainline lanes of the Interstate.

 
I-275 just leaving Downtown Tampa heading south toward Tampa International Airport

In 1984, the Himes Avenue exit/entrance was constructed. The exit was originally rumored to supplement a failed redevelopment project in the area during that time. Today, the Himes Avenue connection serves as reliever for nearby Raymond James Stadium.

In 1991, following the expansion of the Howard Frankland Bridge, the 4th Street North interchange was reconstructed.

In 1994, the two drawbridges on the northern approach to the Sunshine Skyway Bridge, dating to the original twin Sunshine Skyway bridges, were replaced with high-level fixed spans, eliminating bottlenecks caused by openings.

Between 1994 and 1998, there were no major projects taking place on the highway, and I-275 saw very few changes. The hiatus ended in 1999, when a much needed, dual-stage, widening project took place between SR 580 (Busch Boulevard) and Bearss Avenue. The project widened I-275 mainline from four to six lanes, rehabilitated the existing concrete surfaces, and improved interchange flow, lighting, signage, and drainage. The project was completed in 2003.

The northern toll plaza to the Sunshine Skyway Bridge was relocated south of the approach bridge in 2000 due to a lack of capacity. The original plaza only allowed three lanes, while the replacement allows six lanes to flow through, with the sixth lane dedicated to SunPass users.

In 2001, the widening project for I-275 between SR 694 (Gandy Boulevard) and SR 686 began. The project increased I-275 from six to eight lanes, and its existing concrete surfaces were rehabilitated. A reconfiguration of the SR 686 interchange (exit 30) started in 2001 and added access to 118th Avenue North at the same interchange. The new connection to 118th Avenue North is the first phase of a proposed freeway to connect I-275 to the Bayside Bridge (although it is unclear if future segments will be built). All construction in this area was completed by 2002. Reconstruction of I-275 between SR 686 and SR 687 quickly followed the widening project. Lane counts on I-275 were increased from four to mostly six lanes (with some eight-lane segments). The Ulmerton Road and 9th Street North interchanges were originally narrow 1959 configurations that caused much congestion in the area. Additionally, the 9th Street North/Martin Luther King Jr. Street North exit and Ulmerton Road entrance ramps were situated in the left lane of I-275, causing dangerous weaving patterns. These interchanges were reconstructed into right-lane configurations, and two new ramps were added from Ulmerton Road (one leading to 9th Street North and one exiting onto southbound I-275). The southbound I-275 exits to Ulmerton Road and Martin Luther King Jr. Street North were combined into one exit ramp to provide better flow. The Martin Luther King Jr. Street North interchange was shut down for several months as a result of the reconstruction. Finally, the ramps to and from 118th Avenue North were opened to traffic. The entire reconstruction project along I-275 in the Gateway area was completed in 2005.

In 2003 operational improvements began for the notorious "Malfunction Junction" in Downtown Tampa. The project consisted of widening mainline I-275 and I-4, along with an array of ramp and bridge improvements, lighting and drainage work, and new signs. The entire project was completed on December 22, 2006, with intelligent transportation system (ITS) components installed by March 2007. The renovation of the I-4 corridor through Ybor City was finished around mid-2007, almost one year ahead of schedule.

 
I-275 at "Malfunction Junction"

The staged reconstruction project for I-275 between the Howard Frankland Bridge and Downtown Tampa was supposed to begin in mid-2006. However, bids received by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for the project came in at $100 million (40 percent) over the projected estimates, which was blamed on the rising cost of asphalt and other materials, which was, in turn, partly blamed on the rising oil prices worldwide. As a result, FDOT commenced with the project in four smaller phases, rather than the original, large-scale, two-phase project. Construction began on phase one, the northbound lanes (south of the existing interstate) between Himes Avenue and Downtown Tampa, on August 13, 2007, and was completed in April 2010.[15] Phase two, which includes construction of the northbound lanes from the Westshore area to Himes, was originally scheduled to begin in 2008 but was delayed further. The third phase will consist of transferring northbound traffic onto the new northbound lanes, southbound traffic onto the existing northbound lanes, and the construction of the new southbound lanes from Himes to downtown. Finally, the fourth and final phase will construct the new southbound lanes from the Westshore area to Himes. The entire project was originally scheduled to be completed by around 2013 or 2014, but it was extended until early 2015[16] and costed an estimated $540 million (equivalent to $586 million in 2020[11]), an increase from the original $350-million (equivalent to $380 million in 2020[11]) budget.[17] Finally, on March 30, 2015, the fourth and final phase was finished with the new lanes finally opening, ending the long term project in Downtown Tampa.

Between Himes Avenue and downtown, southbound (westbound) traffic was shifted on to the original northbound lanes. However, those wishing to exit at either the Howard/Armenia or Himes avenues exits continue on the original southbound lanes. Those exiting on Himes Avenue have one dedicated lane in the original southbound lanes. Traffic entering the freeway from Armenia Avenue now does so on the original northbound exit ramp. This creates an odd left-lane merge situation. However, to help motorists in this effort, the entrance ramp has a dedicated lane from the freeway entrance until just over the Himes Avenue bridge. Traffic heading northbound on Howard Avenue must now turn left onto Green Avenue, left onto Armenia Avenue, and then right onto the entrance ramp in order to enter the freeway. While this setup is temporary, it has somewhat improved traffic flow in the area, as motorists who intend to exit at Howard/Armenia or Himes avenues now exit the freeway much earlier.

In January 2011, construction began on widening the northernmost segment of I-275 from US 41 (Nebraska Avenue) to the I-75 apex from four to six lanes. The project also includes constructing a dedicated flyover ramp over I-75 towards SR 56.[18] This ramp, along with a new, extended ramp from I-75 to SR 56, opened on August 18, 2011.[19]

On February 4, 2011, a new ramp connecting northbound I-275 to 118th Avenue North opened. This project, beginning in July 2009 and involving widening the existing ramp from northbound I-275 to SR 686, is being performed in conjunction with the project to build the Mid Pinellas Expressway, which has suffered numerous delays due to a lack of funding.[20]

Other improvementsEdit

 
I-275 southbound approaching the closed SR 687 interchange

Other sections not requiring a full-scale reconstruction have undergone improvements:

  • Concrete rehabilitation from 62nd Avenue North to exit 17 in Pinellas County, complete, 2001–2005
  • Resurfacing from the Howard Frankland Bridge to Himes Avenue (exit 41C), complete, 2002
  • Resurfacing from the US 41 overpass (exit 53) to I-75 junction in Lutz, complete, 2003
  • Resurfacing from the Howard Frankland Bridge to SR 687, complete, 2006
  • Concrete rehabilitation/bridge upgrade/lighting improvements from "Malfunction Junction" to Busch Boulevard, complete, 2007
  • Concrete rehabilitation from 26th Avenue North to exit 23, complete, 2008
  • Rehabilitation at exit 28, complete, 2008
  • Resurfacing between exit 17 to the Misner Bridge in Pinellas County (currently ongoing)[21]
  • Widening of the northbound exit ramp at exit 51 in Hillsborough County, complete, 2012[22]
  • Redesigning and reconstructing a new bridge for SR 687 bridge at exit 32 southbound (currently ongoing)

The segment of I-275 in Manatee County has not changed dramatically since its construction in 1983, other than a toll plaza upgrade in the late 1990s and resurfacing of the mainline lanes between the I-75 apex and the US 19 exit. It is unclear if any other improvements are planned at this time.

Naming of the highwayEdit

In November 2005, The Florida Legislature dedicated the section of I-275 in Pinellas County as the "St. Petersburg Parkway/William C. Cramer Memorial Highway". William Cato Cramer was a native of St. Petersburg who served as a member of the Florida Legislature from 1955 through 1971. He helped to procure the building of I-275 through Pinellas County.[23]

ServicesEdit

I-275 has two rest areas, one at each end of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge. Both rest areas, each accessible by traffic in both directions, have rest rooms, vending machines, picnic tables, dog walk areas, and nighttime security. These rest areas also provide access to the fishing piers, for an extra fee.

Exit listEdit

CountyLocationmi[1]kmOld exit[24]New exitDestinationsNotes
Manatee0.0000.000  I-75 (SR 93 south / SR 93A north) – Naples, Tampasouth end of SR 93 concurrency
2.2793.66812  US 41 (SR 45) – Palmetto, Bradenton
Terra Ceia4.7287.60925  US 19 south (SR 55) – Palmetto, BradentonSouth end of US 19 / SR 55 overlap; southbound exit and northbound entrance
5.8[25]9.3South Toll Plaza (northbound only)
6.9[25]11.12ASouth Skyway Fishing Pier; Rest Area
Tampa Bay8.021–
12.164
12.909–
19.576
Sunshine Skyway Bridge
PinellasSt. Petersburg12.9[25]20.82BNorth Skyway Fishing Pier; Rest Area
13.567[25]
13.855
21.834–
22.297
Structure B over Bunces Pass
14.7[25]23.7Scenic View (northbound only)
15.1[25]24.3North Toll Plaza (southbound only)
15.579[25]
16.116
25.072–
25.936
Structure A over Gulf Intracoastal Waterway
16.96827.307316Skyway Lane / Pinellas Point Drive
17.42428.041417   US 19 north / SR 682 west (Pinellas Bayway) / 54th Avenue South – St. Pete BeachNorth end of US 19 / SR 55 overlap; northbound left exit
19.44731.29751826th Avenue SouthNorthbound exit and southbound entrance
19.69931.70261922nd Avenue South (CR 138)Southbound exit and northbound entrance
20.37732.79472031st Street SouthNorthbound exit and southbound entrance (both on the left side)
20.69733.30982128th Street SouthSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
21.65134.844922   I-175 east (SR 594) – Tropicana FieldAccess to Bayfront Health St. Petersburg
22.41236.0691023A  I-375 east (SR 592) – BayWalk, The PierSigned as exit 23 northbound
22.418[25]36.0781123B  SR 595 (5th Avenue North / US 19 Alt.)Southbound exit and northbound entrance
23.44037.723122422nd Avenue North
24.46639.374132538th Avenue North (CR 184)
25.49241.0251426  54th Avenue North (CR 202)Signed as exits 26A (east) and 26B (west) northbound; access to Northside Hospital
27.69544.5711528  SR 694 (Gandy Boulevard) – Pinellas Park, Seminoleno access from I-275 south to SR 694 east or SR 694 west to I-275 north
29.61447.6591630   SR 686 (Roosevelt Boulevard) / CR 296 west (118th Avenue North) – Largo
30.751[25]49.4891731Martin Luther King, Jr. Street (CR 803 south)Southbound exit and northbound entrance; formerly exit 31A
30.93349.7821831  SR 688 west (Ulmerton Road)No northbound exit; formerly exit 31B
31.58050.8231932  
 
SR 687 south (4th Street North) to US 92
Southbound exit and northbound entrance. Currently closed due to Gateway Expressway-related construction.[26]
Old Tampa Bay33.797[25]
36.803
54.391–
59.229
Howard Frankland Bridge
HillsboroughTampa38.42261.83420A39  SR 60 east (Kennedy Boulevard) / Westshore Boulevard (CR 587)Northbound exit and southbound entrance; formerly exit 39A
38.95962.6982039  
 
  SR 60 west to SR 589 (Veterans Expressway) / Cypress Street – Clearwater, Tampa International Airport,
formerly exit 39B (old 20B) northbound
39.42463.4472140AWestshore Boulevard (CR 587)Southbound exit and northbound entrance
40.05664.4642240BLois AvenueSouthbound exit to westbound Cypress Street.[27]
40.63865.4012341A  US 92 (Dale Mabry Highway / SR 600)A partial cloverleaf interchange with two exits until 2013. Formerly Exits 41A and 41B (2002-2013) and Exit 41A-B (2013-2015).[28][29][30]
40.91065.83823C41BHimes AvenueSouthbound exit (Exit 41C from 2002-2015)[30] and northbound entrance
41.97867.5572442  Armenia Avenue / Howard AvenueAccess to Memorial Hospital of Tampa
43.24369.5932544Downtown West (Ashley Drive / Tampa Street), Downtown East (Scott Street)No southbound exit. Former southbound exit to Downtown West (Ashley Drive / Tampa Street) consolidated into Exit 45A.
43.66470.2702645ADowntown East (Jefferson Street), Downtown West (Ashley Drive / Tampa Street)Southbound exit and northbound entrance; signed as "Downtown East–West". Exit has ramps from both I-275 and I-4 (signed "Exit 45A")
44.25671.2232745B  I-4 east (SR 400) – OrlandoInterchange commonly known as Malfunction Junction; western terminus of I-4
44.68371.9102846AFloribraska AvenueSouthbound exit and northbound entrance
45.41673.0902946B   SR 574 (Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard)Access to St. Joseph's Hospital, St. Joseph's Children's Hospital, and St. Joseph's Women's Hospital
46.42674.7153047  
 
US 92 (Hillsborough Avenue / SR 600) to US 41 south
Signed as exits 47A (east) and 47B (west) northbound
47.43776.3423148Sligh Avenue
48.26777.6783249Bird Street / Waters Avenue (CR 587A)Northbound exit and southbound entrance
48.98478.8323350  SR 580 (Busch Boulevard) – Temple Terrace
50.48081.2403451  SR 582 (Fowler Avenue) – University of South Florida, Temple Terrace
51.48782.8603552   CR 582A (Fletcher Avenue / SR 579) – University of South FloridaAccess to AdventHealth Tampa
52.77684.9353653Bearss Avenue (SR 678)
59.46295.69559  SR 56 – Land o' Lakes, Tarpon Springssingle northbound ramp that merges with I-75 exit 275
Pasco60.23796.942  I-75 north (SR 93) – Ocala, Atlantanorth end of SR 93 concurrency
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Straight Line Diagram of Road Inventory". Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "FDOT Surveying & Mapping, Official State Map". Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  3. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  4. ^ "Directions and Parking". Tampa Bay Rays. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  5. ^ "TPA - Maps & Directions - Directions to TPA". Archived from the original on July 31, 2014. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  6. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  7. ^ "Tampabay: For the Junction, a dubious honor". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  8. ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  9. ^ "Interstate-Guide: Interstate 275 Florida". Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Phillips, Evelyn Newman (2016). "Rebranding Black Public Spaces In St. Petersburg, Florida: Economic Development For Whom?". Urban Anthropology and Studies of Cultural Systems and World Economic Development. 45 (3/4): 349–414. ISSN 0894-6019. JSTOR 26384876.
  11. ^ a b c Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2022). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved February 12, 2022. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  12. ^ "City Wilds: Gas Plant — imagining a lost neighborhood". Creative Loafing: Tampa Bay. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  13. ^ Belcastro, Philip, "Poverty, Planning, Policy and Race: Urban Design in St. Petersburg, Florida, since 1965" (2017). USFSP Honors Program Theses (Undergraduate). 219
  14. ^ a b Vatelot, Sarah-Jane (2019). Where Have All the Mangoes Gone?. St. Petersburg, FL: St. Petersburg Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-1-940300-07-8.
  15. ^ Northbound I-275 from Himes Avenue to the Hillsborough River (new alignment, completed April 2010)
  16. ^ "I-275 Widening from east of SR 60 to downtown Tampa (Hillsborough River)". MyTBI / Florida Department of Transportation.
  17. ^ I-275 plan hits $100M bump. St. Petersburg Times: June 28, 2006
  18. ^ I-275 Widening / ITS from U.S. 41 to I-75
  19. ^ "New S.R. 56 exit ramp opens for commuters in Pasco". TBO.com. August 18, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  20. ^ Northbound I-275 Connector to CR 296/SR 686
  21. ^ I-275 Resurfacing from Misener Bridge to 54th Avenue South
  22. ^ Northbound I-275 Exit Ramp Widening at Fowler Avenue
  23. ^ The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Cramer
  24. ^ FDOT: Interstate Exit Numbers for I-275, accessed March 2014
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j FDOT straight line diagrams Archived March 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, accessed March 2014
  26. ^ "433880-1-52-01 Gateway Expressway". FDOT Tampa Bay. Florida Department of Transportation. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  27. ^ "New exit route from SB I-275 to Cypress Street opens". Tampa Bay Times. November 12, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  28. ^ "Northbound I-275 exit to northbound Dale Mabry now combined with exit to southbound Dale Mabry" (Press release). Tampa. Florida Department of Transportation. July 29, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  29. ^ Girona, José Patiño (January 8, 2013). "Dale Mabry exit off southbound I-275 closes". The Tampa Tribune. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Two Exit Number Changes on Southbound I-275" (Press release). Tampa. Florida Department of Transportation. April 1, 2015. Retrieved April 20, 2015.

External linksEdit

Route map:

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