International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics

The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG; French: Union géodésique et géophysique internationale, UGGI) is an international non-governmental organization dedicated to the scientific study of Earth and its space environment using geophysical and geodetic techniques.

International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics
green, dark blue, and white design within a circle
Formation1919; 102 years ago (1919)
Region served
Official language
English, French
Kathryn Whaler (UK)
Chris Rizos (Australia)
Secretary General
Alexander Rudloff (Germany)
Niels Andersen (Denmark)
WebsiteIUGG official website
German stamp about the IUGG General Assembly in 1983, Hamburg

The IUGG was established in Brussels, Belgium in 1919.[1][2][3][4][5] Some areas within its scope are environmental preservation, reduction of the effects of natural hazards, and mineral resources.


IUGG's objectives are the promotion and coordination of studies related to Earth's physical, chemical and mathematical representation. This includes geometrical shape, internal structure, gravity and magnetic fields, seismicity, volcanism, hydrologic cycle, glaciers, oceans, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere of Earth. It also includes solar, lunar and planetary studies.[6]


The IUGG consists of eight semi-autonomous associations:[7]

It has also established six commissions to promote interdisciplinary problems:[8]

  • Climatic and Environmental Changes (CCEC)
  • Mathematical Geophysics (CMG)
  • Geophysical Risk and Sustainability (GRC)
  • Study of the Earth's Deep Interior (SEDI)
  • Data and Information (UCDI)
  • Planetary Sciences (UCPS)

and the Union Working Group on History.

General Assemblies, Presidents, and Secretaries GeneralEdit

List of General Assemblies, Presidents, and Secretaries-General.[9]

Nr. Year General Assembly in President Secretary-General
28. 2023 Berlin   Germany 2023-2027 Chris Rizos   Australia
27. 2019 Montreal   Canada 2019-2023 Kathryn Whaler   United Kingdom 2019-2023 Alexander Rudloff   Germany
26. 2015 Prague   Czech Republic 2015-2019 Michael Sideris   Canada 2015-2019 Alik Ismail-Zadeh   Germany /   Russia
25. 2011 Melbourne   Australia 2011-2015 Harsh Gupta   India 2011-2015 Alik Ismail-Zadeh   Germany /   Russia
24. 2007 Perugia   Italy 2007-2011 Tom Beer   Australia 2007-2011 Alik Ismail-Zadeh   Germany /   Russia
23. 2003 Sapporo   Japan 2003-2007 Uri Shamir   Israel 2003-2007 JoAnn Joselyn   United States
22. 1999 Birmingham   United Kingdom 1999-2003 Masaru Kono   Japan 1999-2003 JoAnn Joselyn   United States
21. 1995 Boulder   United States 1995-1999 P.J. Wyllie   United States 1995-1999 Georges Balmino   France
20. 1991 Vienna   Austria 1991-1995 H. Moritz   Austria 1991-1995 Georges Balmino   France
19. 1987 Vancouver   Canada 1987-1991 V.I. Keilis-Borok   Soviet Union 1987-1991 Baron Paul Melchior   Belgium
18. 1983 Hamburg   West Germany 1983-1987 D. Lal   India 1983-1987 Baron Paul Melchior   Belgium
17. 1979 Canberra   Australia 1979-1983 G.D. Garland   Canada 1979-1983 Baron Paul Melchior   Belgium
16. 1975 Grenoble   France 1975-1979 A. Ashour   Egypt 1973-1979 Baron Paul Melchior   Belgium
15. 1971 Moscow   Soviet Union 1971-1975 H. Charnock   United Kingdom 1973-1991 Baron Paul Melchior   Belgium
14. 1967 Zurich    Switzerland 1967-1971 J. Coulomb   France 1967-1973 G.D. Garland   Canada
13. 1963 Berkeley   United States 1963-1967 J. Kaplan   United States 1963-1967 G.D. Garland   Canada
12. 1960 Helsinki   Finland 1960-1963 V.V. Beloussov   Soviet Union 1960-1963 G.R. Laclavère   France
11. 1957 Toronto   Canada 1957-1960 J.T. Wilson   Canada 1957-1960 G.R. Laclavère   France
10. 1954 Rome   Italy 1954-1957 K.R. Ramanathan   India 1954-1957 G.R. Laclavère   France
9. 1951 Brussels   Belgium 1951-1954 S. Chapman   United Kingdom 1951-1954 G.R. Laclavère   France
8. 1948 Oslo   Norway 1948-1951 F.A. Vening Meinesz   Netherlands 1946-1951 J.M. Stagg   United Kingdom
7. 1939 Washington DC   United States 1946-1948 B. Helland-Hansen   Norway 1939-1946 H. St. J.L. Winterbotham   United Kingdom
6. 1936 Edinburgh   United Kingdom 1936-1942 D. La Cour   Denmark 1936-1939 H. St. J.L. Winterbotham   United Kingdom
5. 1933 Lisbon   Portugal 1933-1936 W. Bowie   United States 1933-1936 H. St. J.L. Winterbotham   United Kingdom
4. 1930 Stockholm   Sweden 1919-1933 C. Lallemand   France 1930-1933 H. St. J.L. Winterbotham   United Kingdom
3. 1927 Prague   Czechoslovakia 1919-1933 C. Lallemand   France 1927-1930 Sir Henry Lyons   United Kingdom
2. 1924 Madrid   Spain 1919-1933 C. Lallemand   France 1924-1927 Sir Henry Lyons   United Kingdom
1. 1922 Rome   Italy 1919-1933 C. Lallemand   France 1919-1924 Sir Henry Lyons   United Kingdom

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Lyons, Henry G. (1919). "The Brussels Meeting of the International Research Council". Nature. 103 (2598): 464–466.
  2. ^ Cochrane, Rexmond C. (1978). The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963. National Academies.
  3. ^ Good, Gregory A. (2000). "The Assembly of Geophysics: Scientific Disciplines as Frameworks of Consensus". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. 31 (3): 259–292. Bibcode:2000SHPMP..31..259G. doi:10.1016/S1355-2198(00)00018-6.
  4. ^ Ismail-Zadeh, Alik (2016). "Geoscience international: the role of scientific unions". History of Geo- and Space Sciences. 7: 103–123.
  5. ^ Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Joselyn, JoAnn (Eds.) (2019). "The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics: from different spheres to a common globe". History of Geo- and Space Sciences. 10: 17–191.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Burchfiel, B. C. (1987) International Role of U.S. Geoscience US National Academies page 32
  7. ^ "Associations of the IUGG". International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  8. ^ "Union Commissions". International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  9. ^ IUGG - Bureau of the Union. Retrieved 01/07/2015.

External linksEdit