International Luge Federation
The International Luge Federation (French: Fédération Internationale de Luge de Course (FIL); German: Internationaler Rennrodelverband) is the main international federation for all luge sports. Founded by 13 nations at Davos, Switzerland in 1957, it has members of 53 national luge associations as of 2009[update] and is based in Berchtesgaden, Germany.
The first luge competition took place on February 12, 1883 on a four kilometer course between Davos and Klosters, Switzerland, with the co-winners from Australia and Switzerland having a time of 9 minutes, 15 seconds. Austria, Germany, and Switzerland founded the Internationaler Schlittensportsverband (ISSV - International Sled Sport Federation in (in German)) in 1913 in Dresden, Germany. The first European Luge Championships took place in Reichenberg, Bohemia (now Liberec, Czech Republic) in 1914. World War I in Europe caused the ISSV operations to be suspended and prevented any additional competitions until 1927.
Rebirth and merging into FIBTEdit
In 1927, the ISSV was reestablished with the second European Luge Championships taking place in Schreiberhau, Germany (now Szklarska Poręba, Poland) the following year with a women's competition included. The ISSV was absorbed into the Fédération Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing (FIBT - International Bobsleigh and Tobagganing Federation in (in French)) in 1935 and was part of the "Section de Luge" until the early 1950s.
Independence from FIBTEdit
At a 1954 International Olympic Committee (IOC) meeting in Athens, Greece, it was determined that luge would replace skeleton as a Winter Olympic discipline. Skeleton, which had been a sport both at the 1928 and 1948 Winter Olympics, would not return as an Olympic sport until the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. In 1955, the first World Luge Championships were held at Holmenkollen near Oslo, Norway. The FIL was established in Switzerland in 1957 with membership granted into the IOC at their congress in Sofia, Bulgaria that same year. Bert Isatitsch of Austria was elected President of the FIL.
At the 1959 IOC meeting in Munich, West Germany, luge was approved for inclusion into the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck with competitions taking place in neighboring Igls. 12 nations took part in the first Winter Olympic luge competitions with timing taking place in 1/100ths of a second. Following a tie in the men's doubles competition between East Germany and Italy at the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan, the FIL began timing all of their competition in 1/1000ths of a second, a practice that continues as of 2009. The first natural track European championships took place in Kapfenberg, Austria in 1970 while the first natural track World Championships took place in Inzing, Austria in 1979. The first Junior World Championships on artificial track took place at Lake Placid, New York, United States three years later.
Isatitich died suddenly on February 8, 1994 and then Vice-President for Sport, Josef Fendt, took over as Acting President. Fendt would be named president at the FIL congress in Rome, Italy later that year, a position he still holds as of 2010.
The FIL governs competitions on artificial tracks and natural tracks at both the European and World Championship levels. At the Winter Olympics, only artificial track competitions are contested. The events at the European and World Championships are men's singles, men's doubles, women's singles, and a team event consisting of one run each from men's singles, men's doubles, and women's singles.
Artificial tracks are tracks that have their curves specifically designed and banked with walled-in straightaways. Made of reinforced concrete and cooled with ammonia refrigeration, these tracks are smooth and have g-forces of up to 4g (Four times the athlete's body weight). Men's singles on most tracks have their start house close to the bobsleigh and skeleton start locations while both the men's doubles and women's singles have their start house located further down the track. As of 2009, there are sixteen bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton artificial tracks worldwide with a 17th track near Moscow that will host Junior World Cup events in November 2009. Another track in Russia near Sochi, the Sliding Center Sanki, will be in use for the 2014 Winter Olympics, had construction started in May 2009 following controversies at a previous location over track start heights and it being near World Heritage Site, including near an endangered species of brown bear.
Natural tracks are tracks adapted from existing mountain roads and paths, including a horizontal track surface and natural track icing. Most of the over 60 tracks are located in Austria, Italy, Germany, Poland, Canada, the United States, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Croatia, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, New Zealand and Slovenia.
FIL Hall of FameEdit
In 2004, the FIL established a Hall of Fame for the greatest competitors in luge. As of 2008, there have been a total of six inductees.
- 2004: Klaus Bonsack ( East Germany, now Germany), Paul Hildgartner ( Italy), Margit Schumann ( East Germany, now Germany)
- 2005: Josef Feistmantl ( Austria), Hans Rinn ( East Germany, now Germany)
- 2006: Vera Zozula ( Soviet Union, now Latvia)
- 2012: Gerhard Pilz ( Austria), Georg Hackl ( West Germany, now Germany)
|Netherlands Antilles||Rodel En Bobslee Bond Nederlandse Antillen|
|Andorra||Associatio Andorrana De Luges Esqui Club D'Andorra|
|Argentina||Asociacion Argentina De Bobsleigh Y Skeleton- Luge|
|Australia||Luge Australia Incorporated|
|Belgium||Association Belge De Luge De Course|
|Bermuda||Bermuda Bobsled Skeleton & Luge Association|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sankaski Savez Bosne I Hercegovine|
|Brazil||Confederacao Brasileira De Desportos No Gelo|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Luge Federation|
|Canada||Canadian Luge Association (Cla)|
|People's Republic of China||Chinese Luge Association|
|Croatia||Croatian Bobsleigh, Skeleton & Luge Federation|
|Czech Republic||Ceskomoravska Sankarska Asociace|
|Spain||Federacion Española Deportes De Hielo|
|Estonia||Estonian Association of Luge Sports|
|France||Fédération Francaise Des Sports De Glace|
|United Kingdom||Great Britain Luge Association|
|Georgia||Luge Federation of the Republic of Georgia|
|Germany||Bob- Und Schlittenverband Für Deutschland (Bsd)|
|Greece||Hellenic Ice Sports Federation|
|India||Indian Amateur Luge Association|
|Israel||Israel Luge Federation|
|United States Virgin Islands||Virgin Islands Luge Federation|
|Italy||Federazione Italiana Sport Invernali|
|Japan||Japan Bobsleigh and Luge Federation|
|Kazakhstan||Luge Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan|
|Kyrgyzstan||Kyrgyzstan Sledge Sport Federation|
|Korea||Korea Luge Federation|
|Latvia||Latvian Luge Federation|
|Lithuania||Lithuanian Luge Federation|
|Republic of Moldova||Federatia De Schi Si Sanie Din Republica Moldova|
|Netherlands||Bob En Slee Bond Nederland (Bsbn) C/O Nederlandse Ski Vereniging|
|Norway||Norges Ake -, Bob- Og Skeleton Forbund (Nabsf)|
|New Zealand||New Zealand Olympic Luge Association|
|Poland||Polski Zwiazek Sportow Saneczkowych|
|Puerto Rico||Puerto Rico Winter Sports Federation|
|Romania||Federatia Romana De Bob-Sanie|
|Slovenia||Sankaska Zveza Slovenije|
|Switzerland||Schweizer Bobsleigh - Schlitten Und Skeleton Sportverband|
|Slovakia||Slovensky Zvaz Sankarov|
|Sweden||Svenska Bob Och Rodelförbundet|
|Tonga||Luge Association of the Kingdom of Tonga|
|Thailand||Thai Federation of Luge Usacck|
|Chinese Taipei||Chinese Taipei Luge and Bobsleigh Association|
|Turkey||Turkish Bobsleigh- Skeleton and Luge Federation|
|United Kingdom||Rennrodelverband Der Ukraine|
|United States||United States Luge Association|
|Venezuela||Federacion Venezolana De Deportes De Invierno|
|Yugoslavia||Serbia & Montenegro (Yugoslaw) Luge Association|