International Commission of Control and Supervision
The International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) was created during the Vietnam War to replace the International Control Commission (formally called the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam (ICSC)) following the signing of the Paris Peace Accords ("Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam") on 27 January 1973.
The Protocol to the Paris Agreement detailed the functions of the ICCS. At Article 4 it named the locations of seven regional teams and twenty-six teams within those regions in South Vietnam. It also called for seven teams to be assigned to ports of entry (for replacement of armaments, munitions and war material permitted the two South Vietnamese parties under Article 7 of the Agreement) and seven teams to supervise the return of captured and detained personnel.
In summary, the ICCS was to supervise the cease-fire, the withdrawal of troops, the dismantlement of military bases, the activity at ports of entry and the return of captured military personnel and foreign civilians. It was to report on the implementation, or violation, of the Peace Agreement and Protocols. The force was composed of military and civilian personnel from two communist nations, Hungary and Poland, and two non-communist nations, Canada and Indonesia. As with the old ICSC, there were continuous disagreements between the communist and non-communist nations about the causes of treaty violations. Canada attempted to counter this with an "open mouth policy" to the world's media.
Canada remained a member of the ICCS from 29 January until 31 July 1973. During this period there were 18,000 alleged cease-fire violations, which resulted in over 76,000 killed, wounded and missing to both sides. On 7 April 1973 one Canadian (Captain Charles Laviolette of the 12e Regiment blindé du Canada) and eight others from Hungary (2 people: border guard Captain Aurél Dylski and 1st Lt Csaba Cziboly), Indonesia, the Philippines, Poland, and the United States were killed on 7 April 1973 when an ICCS helicopter operated by Air America was shot down by a People's Army of Vietnam SA-7 missile near Route 9 in Quảng Trị Province. This was the only Canadian fatality during its time with the ICCS. On 29 May 1973 the Canadians announced that they were withdrawing from the ICCS because they had come to supervise a ceasefire but instead were observing a war.:50 After Canada's departure from the Commission, it was replaced by Iran.
Personnel who served at least 90 days with the ICCS were awarded the International Commission of Control and Supervision Medal.