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The intercalary month or epagomenal days[1] of the ancient Egyptian, Coptic, and Ethiopian calendars are a period of five days in common years and six days in leap years in addition to those calendars' 12 standard months, sometimes reckoned as their thirteenth month. They originated as a periodic measure to ensure that the heliacal rising of Sirius would occur in the 12th month of the Egyptian lunar calendar but became a regular feature of the civil calendar and its descendants. Coptic and Ethiopian leap days occur in the year preceding Gregorian leap years.

Contents

NamesEdit

 
 
   
Those upon the Year[2][a]
Ḥryw Rnpt[3]
in hieroglyphs
  
 
       
   
The Five upon the Year[2][b]
5 Ḥryw Rnpt[3]

in hieroglyphs

The English names "intercalary month" and "epagomenal days" derive from Latin intercalārius ("proclaimed between")[4] and Greek epagómenoi (ἐπαγόμενοι)[5] or epagómenai (ἐπαγόμεναι, "brought in" or "added on"),[6] Latinized as epagomenae. The period is also sometimes known as the "monthless days".[7]

In ancient Egypt, the period was known as the "Five Days upon the Year" (Ancient Egyptian: Hrw 5 Ḥry Rnpt),[8] the "Five Days" (Hrw 5)[8] or "Those upon the Year" (Ḥryw Rnpt), the last of which is transliterated as Heriu Renpet.[9] Parker also proposed that in some cases the intercalary month was known by the name Thoth (Ḏḥwtyt) after the festival that gave its name to the following month.[10]

In modern Egypt, the period is known as Kouji Nabot[5] or Pi Kogi Enavot[11] (Coptic: Ⲡⲓⲕⲟⲩϫⲓ ⲛ̀ⲁⲃⲟⲧ, Pikouji n'Abot, lit. "The Little Month") and Al-Nasi (Egyptian Arabic: النسيء‎, en-Nasiʾ, lit. "The Postponement"), after Nasi' of the Pre-Islamic calendar. The Arabic name is also romanized as Nasie.[11]

In Ethiopia, the period is known as Paguemain,[12] Phagumien (Amharic: ጳጐሜን, Ṗagʷəmen),[13] Pagume,[14] or Pagumay[15] (ጳጉሜ, Ṗagume).

Egyptian calendarsEdit

AncientEdit

      
 
Birth of Osiris
Mswt Wsı͗r Ḥb[3]
in hieroglyphs
     
Birth of Horus[c]
Mswt Stẖ
in hieroglyphs
        
Birth of Set
Mswt Stẖ[3]
in hieroglyphs
 
 
 
 
 
Birth of Isis
Mswt Ꜣst Ḥb[3]
in hieroglyphs
   
 
    
     
  
Birth of Nephthys
Sw n Mswt Nbt Ḥwt[3]
in hieroglyphs

Until the 4th century BC, the beginning of the months of the lunar calendar were based on observation,[16] beginning at dawn on the morning when a waning crescent moon could no longer be seen.[17] The intercalary month was added every two or three years as needed to maintain the heliacal rising of Sirius within the fourth month of the season of Low Water.[18] This month may have had as many as 30 days.[19] According to the civil calendar, the months fell in order with the rest regardless of the state of the moon. They always consisted of 30 days, each individually named and devoted to a particular patron deity, but the year was always followed by an intercalary month of only five days. Owing to the lack of a leap day, the calendar slowly cycled relative to the solar year and Gregorian date until the Ptolemaic and Roman eras.

The period of the intercalary month was considered spiritually dangerous[20] and the pharaoh performed a ritual known as "Pacifying Sekhmet" (Sḥtp Sḫmt) to protect himself and the world[21] from that god's plague.[8] The period seems to have usually been a time of rest, placed between the New Year's Eve celebrations on 30 Wep Renpet and the New Year's celebrations beginning on 1 Thoth.[22] Scribes sometimes omitted the entire period from their records of the year.[23] Torches were carried[24] and apotropaic charms were drawn on linen and worn around the neck.[8]

The period was known as the "birthdays of the gods" as early as the Pyramid Texts.[25] By the early Middle Kingdom, the days were specified and ordered:[25]

  • The first day was the Birth of Osiris (Mswt Wsı͗r).[26] It was also originally known as the "Pure Bull in His Field"[27] (Ngꜣ Wꜥb m Sḫt.f.), although that aspect of the intercalary festivities was later moved to the second day as Horus grew in importance.[28]
  • The second was the Birth of Horus (Mswt Ḥr).[26]
  • The third was the Birth of Set (Mswt Stẖ).[26]
  • The fourth was the Birth of Isis (Mswt Ꜣst or Mswt n Ꜣst).[26]
  • The last day was the Birth of Nephthys (Mswt Nbt-Ḥwt).[29] It was originally the most important, heralding in the New Year's festival and celebrating a "child in his nest" (ḥwn ı͗my sš.f),[20] but these aspects shifted to the fourth night in the Ptolemaic and Roman period owing to the greater importance of Isis and her longstanding connection with the star Sirius.[30]

Throughout the days, their connections to the solar boat of Ra, fish, and a "creator of terror" (ı͗r ḥrywt) were also stressed.[31] In all but a handful of texts, however, the days are merely numbered as "Day ~ of the Five Days upon the Year".[32]

Ptolemy III's Canopus Decree was an attempted calendrical reform in 239 BC which would have inserted a sixth day into the intercalary month, but it was abandoned due to the hostility of the priests[33] and people of Egypt. The leap day was finally established by Augustus in 30, 26,[34] or 25 BC.[33] Under this "Alexandrian calendar", the epagomenal days ran from Julian August 24 to August 28 in common years and to August 29 in leap years.[34][d]

CopticEdit

In the present-day Coptic calendar, the intercalary month remains the same as the Alexandrian dates in the Julian calendar. In terms of the Gregorian calendar, it has begun on September 6[1] and ended on September 10 in common years and September 11 in leap years since AD 1900 (AM 1616)[35] and will continue to do so until AD 2100 (AM 1816).[36] In that year, the Gregorian calendar's lack of a leap day will cause the Coptic month to advance another day relative to it[37] and it will run from September 7 to September 11. Coptic leap years are not computed as divisors of four in that calendar's Diocletian era but occur in the year prior to the Gregorian leap year.[e]

The Coptic liturgical calendar of the month consists of:[11]

Coptic Julian Gregorian Commemorations
Intercalary

1

August

24

September

6

2 25 7
  • Departure of St. Titus, the Apostle.
  • Martyrdom of St. Isaiah, brother of Apa Hor
3 26 8
  • Commemoration of Raphael, the Archangel.
  • Martyrdom of St. Andrianus.
  • Departure of St. John XIV, the 96th Pope of Alexandria.
4 27 9
5 28 10
  • Departure of St. James, Bishop of Cairo.
  • Departure of Amos, the Prophet.
  • Departure of St. Parsoma, the "Naked".
  • Departure of St. John XV, the 99th Pope of Alexandria.
only in years before Julian leap years
(6) (29) (11)
  • Thanksgiving to God the Exalted.

Ethiopian calendarEdit

In the present-day Ethiopian calendar, Paguemain or Pagume is identical to the Coptic intercalary month, beginning on September 6 and ending on September 10 in common years and September 11 in leap years.[14] Its leap years occur at the same time[40][13] and its dates will also shift forward one day relative to the Gregorian calendar in AD 2100[15] (2092 EC).[41]

The unusual calendar is notably used in Ethiopian tourist information to advertise the country's "thirteen months of summer".[14][12]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Alternative representations of Those upon the Year include
     
     
     
     
         
    .[3]
  2. ^ Alternative representations of the Five upon the Year include
           
       
      
    .[3]
  3. ^ For variant hieroglyphic representations of this god, see Horus.
  4. ^ For a chart of conversions from Julian to Gregorian dates from 3701 BC to AD 1900, see Parker.[34]
  5. ^ For example, the Coptic leap day occurred on 11 September AD 2015 (6 Epag. AM 1731)[38] and its Gregorian equivalent on 29 February AD 2016 (21 Meshir AM 1732).[39]

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Gabra, Gawdat (2008), "Coptic Calendar", The A to Z of the Coptic Church, A to Z Guide Series, No. 107, Plymouth: The Scarecrow Press, pp. 70–1.
  2. ^ a b Clagett (1995), p. 29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Vygus, Mark (2015), Middle Egyptian Dictionary (PDF).
  4. ^ "intercalary, adj.", and "intercalate, v.", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1900.
  5. ^ a b Dawood (2007), p. 3.
  6. ^ "epagomenal, adj.", "epagomenic, adj.", and "epagoge, n.", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1933.
  7. ^ "Middle Eastern Calendars" (PDF), Educational Resources, Chicago: Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Chicago, p. 3, retrieved 7 February 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Jauhiainen (2009), p. 196.
  9. ^ Watrall, Ethan (2016), Understanding Egyptian Chronology (PDF), Michigan State University, p. 8.
  10. ^ Parker (1950), p. 46.
  11. ^ a b c "13) Nasie Month", Coptic Synaxarium, Alexandria: St Takla Haymanout, retrieved 6 February 2017.
  12. ^ a b Mebratu, Belete K. (2009), "Ethiopian Calendar", Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, Theology, & Culture, Vol. I, Los Angeles: Sage, p. 128.
  13. ^ a b "Ethiopian Calendar", Selamta, 2015.
  14. ^ a b c Shinn & al. (2013).
  15. ^ a b "Ethiopian Calendar", Official site, Tesfa Community Treks, retrieved 6 February 2017.
  16. ^ Parker (1950), p. 29.
  17. ^ Parker (1950), p. 23.
  18. ^ Parker (1950), p. 32.
  19. ^ Parker (1950), p. 64.
  20. ^ a b Spalinger (1995), p. 35.
  21. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 77.
  22. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), pp. 81–2 & 198.
  23. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), p. 56.
  24. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), pp. 78 & 198.
  25. ^ a b Spalinger (1995), p. 33.
  26. ^ a b c d Jauhiainen (2009), pp. 197 & 223.
  27. ^ Spalinger (1995), p. 38.
  28. ^ Spalinger (1995), p. 46.
  29. ^ Jauhiainen (2009), pp. 82, 197, & 223.
  30. ^ Spalinger (1995), pp. 42 & 44.
  31. ^ Spalinger (1995), pp. 45–7.
  32. ^ Spalinger (1995), p. 34.
  33. ^ a b Dawood, K.R. (2007), "The Coptic Calendar" (PDF), Coptic Heritage, p. 7.
  34. ^ a b c Parker (1950), p. 8.
  35. ^ Reingold, Edward M.; et al. (2002), Calendrical Tabulations, 1900–2200, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 2.
  36. ^ Reingold & al. (2002), p. 402.
  37. ^ Von Staufer, Maria Hubert (2002), "Christmas in Egypt", The Christmas Archives.
  38. ^ Reingold & al. (2002), p. 232.
  39. ^ Reingold & al. (2002), p. 234.
  40. ^ Reingold & al. (2002), pp. xx–xxii.
  41. ^ Reingold & al. (2002), p. 402.

BibliographyEdit

Preceded by
Season of the Harvest
Šmw
Egyptian Seasons
Days over the Year
Ḥryw Rnpt

days: 5 or 6 days
Succeeded by
Season of the Inundation
Ꜣḫt
Preceded by
Mesori
Coptic calendar
days: 5 or 6 days
Succeeded by
Thout