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100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
2001
2004
2008
2012
2016
Cumulative installed wind capacity in megawatts since 2001[1][2]
Number of countries with wind capacities in the gigawatt-scale
10
20
30
40
2005
2010
2015
2018
Growing number of wind gigawatt-markets

As of the end of 2018, the worldwide total cumulative installed electricity generation capacity from wind power amounted to 591,549 MW, an increase of 9.6% compared to the previous year. [3] Installations increased by 54,642 MW, 63,330 MW, 51,675 MW and 36,023 MW in 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 respectively.

Since 2010 more than half of all new wind power was added outside the traditional markets of Europe and North America, mainly driven by the continuing boom in China and India. At the end of 2015, China had 145 GW of wind power installed.[4] In 2015, China installed close to half the world's added wind power capacity.

Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 39% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, [5][6] 18% in Portugal,[6] 16% in Spain,[6] 14% in Ireland[7] and 9% in Germany in 2010. [6][8] As of 2011, 83 countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis.[8] In November 2018 Scotland crossed the threshold of windpower supplying 100% of the country's electricity needs. [9] Wind power's share of worldwide electricity usage at the end of 2014 was 3.1%.[10]

Contents

Installed wind power capacityEdit

This section provides end-of-year figures of worldwide installed wind power capacity by country. The data is sourced from Global Wind Energy Council. In 2015, global wind power capacity increased by 63,330 MW or 17.14% from 369,553 MW to 432,883 MW.[4]

New Installed capacity by country in 2018 (MW)[11]
ChinaUnited StatesGermanyIndiaUnited KingdomBrazilFranceMexicoSwedenCanadaAustraliaBelgiumNorwayTurkeyRest of the world: 6,091 MW (11.7%) 
  •   China: 23,000 MW (44.3%)
  •   United States: 7,618 MW (14.7%)
  •   Germany: 3,179 MW (6.1%)
  •   India: 2,191 MW (4.2%)
  •   United Kingdom: 2,098 MW (4.0%)
  •   Brazil: 1,939 MW (3.7%)
  •   France: 1,550 MW (3.0%)
  •   Mexico: 929 MW (1.8%)
  •   Sweden: 716 MW (1.4%)
  •   Canada: 566 MW (1.1%)
  •   Australia: 549 MW (1.1%)
  •   Belgium: 517 MW (1.0%)
  •   Norway: 513 MW (1.0%)
  •   Turkey: 512 MW (1.0%)
  •   Rest of the world: 6,091 MW (11.7%)
Installed capacity by country in 2018 (MW)[11]
ChinaUnited StatesGermanyIndiaSpainUnited KingdomFranceBrazilCanadaItalyRest of the world: 91,798 MW (15.5%) 
  •   China: 211,392 MW (35.7%)
  •   United States: 96,665 MW (16.3%)
  •   Germany: 59,311 MW (10.0%)
  •   India: 35,129 MW (5.9%)
  •   Spain: 23,494 MW (4.0%)
  •   United Kingdom: 20,970 MW (3.5%)
  •   France: 15,309 MW (2.6%)
  •   Brazil: 14,707 MW (2.5%)
  •   Canada: 12,816 MW (2.2%)
  •   Italy: 9,958 MW (1.7%)
  •   Rest of the world: 91,798 MW (15.5%)
Installed capacity by regions in 2018 (MW)[11]
AsiaEurope: 189,606 MW (32.1%)Americas: 135,071 MW (22.8%)Africa and Middle East: 5,720 MW (1.0%) 
  •   Asia-Pacific: 261,152 MW (44.1%)
  •   Europe: 189,606 MW (32.1%)
  •   Americas: 135,071 MW (22.8%)
  •   Africa and Middle East: 5,720 MW (1.0%)
Installed wind power capacity (MW) [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]
# Nation 2006 2007 2008[20] 2009[21] 2010[22] 2011[23] 2012[24] 2013[25] 2014[26] 2015[4] 2016[27] 2017[28] 2018[29]
1   China 2,599 5,912 12,210 25,104 44,733 62,733 75,564 91,412 114,763 145,104 168,690 188,232 211,392
  European Union 48,122 56,614 65,255 74,919 84,278 93,957 106,454 117,384 128,752 141,579 153,730 169,319 178,826
2   United States 11,603 16,819 25,170 35,159 40,200 46,919 60,007 61,110 65,879 74,472 82,183 89,077 96,665
3   Germany 20,622 22,247 23,903 25,777 27,214 29,060 31,332 34,250 39,165 44,947 50,019 56,132 59,311
4   India 6,270 7,850 9,587 10,925 13,064 16,084 18,421 20,150 22,465 27,151 28,665 32,848 35,129
5   Spain 11,630 15,145 16,740 19,149 20,676 21,674 22,796 22,959 22,987 23,025 23,075 23,170 23,494
6   United Kingdom 1,963 2,389 3,288 4,070 5,203 6,540 8,445 10,711 12,440 13,603 15,030 18,872 20,970
7   France 1,589 2,477 3,426 4,410 5,660 6,800 7,196 8,243 9,285 10,358 12,065 13,759 15,309
8   Brazil 237 247 339 606 932 1,509 2,508 3,466 5,939 8,715 10,740 12,763 14,707
9   Canada[30] 1,460 1,846 2,369 3,319 4,008 5,265 6,200 7,823 9,694 11,205 11,898 12,239 12,816
10   Italy 2,123 2,726 3,537 4,850 5,797 6,747 8,144 8,558 8,663 8,958 9,257 9,479 9,958
11   Sweden 571 831 1,067 1,560 2,163 2,970 3,745 4,382 5,425 6,025 6,519 6,691 7,407
12   Turkey[31] 65 207 433 801 1,329 1,799 2,312 2,958 3,763 4,718 6,101 6,516 7,369
13   Poland 153 276 472 725 1,107 1,616 2,497 3,390 3,834 5,100 5,782 6,397 5,864
14   Denmark 3,140 3,129 3,164 3,465 3,752 3,871 4,162 4,807 4,845 5,063 5,227 5,476 5,758
15   Portugal 1,716 2,130 2,862 3,535 3,702 4,083 4,525 4,730 4,914 5,079 5,316 5,316 5,380
16   Australia[32] 651 824 1,306 1,712 1,991 2,176 2,584 3,239 3,806 4,187 4,327 4,557 5,362
17   Mexico 84 85 85 520 733 873 1,370 1,859 2,551 3,073 3,527 4,005 4,935
18   Netherlands 1,571 1,759 2,237 2,223 2,237 2,328 2,391 2,671 2,805 3,431 4,328 4,341 4,471
19   Japan 1,309 1,528 1,880 2,056 2,304 2,501 2,614 2,669 2,789 3,038 3,234 3,400 3,661
20   Ireland 746 805 1,245 1,260 1,379 1,614 1,738 2,049 2,272 2,486 2,830 3,127 3,564
21   Belgium 194 287 384 563 911 1,078 1,375 1,651 1,959 2,229 2,386 2,843 3,360
22   Austria 965 982 995 995 1,011 1,084 1,378 1,684 2,095 2,412 2,632 2,828 3,045
23   Romania 2 7 10 14.1 462 982 1,905 2,599 2,953 2,976 3,028 3,029 3,029
24   Greece 758 873 990 1,087 1,208 1,629 1,749 1,866 1,980 2,152 2,374 2,651 2,844
25   South Africa 10 570 1,053 1,471 2,094 2,085
26   Finland 86 110 143 147 197 199 288 447 627 1,005 1,539 2,113 2,041
27   Chile 20 168 172 205 331 836 933 1,424 1,540 1,621
28   Uruguay 43 56 59 701 845 1,210 1,505 n.a.
29   Norway[33][34][35] 325 333 428 431 441 512 704 811 819 838 838 1,162 1,675
30   South Korea 176 192 278 348 379 407 483 561 609 852 1,089 1,136 1,302
31   Morocco 64 125 125 253 286 291 291 487 787 787 787 787 1,207
32   Egypt 230 310 390 430 550 550 550 550 610 610 810 810 1,190
33   Pakistan[36] 255 591 792 1,189
34   Thailand 7 112 223 223 223 430 648 778
35   Argentina 113 167 204 204 204 204 228 722
36   Taiwan 188 280 358 436 519 564 564 614 633 647 682 692 n.a.
37   Bulgaria 36 70 120 177 500 612 674 681 691 691 691 691 691
38   New Zealand 171 322 325 497 530 623 623 623 623 623 623 623 n.a.
39   Croatia n/a n/a 69.4 104 152 187.4 207.1 302 347 387 422 613 583
40   Ukraine 86 89 90 94 87 151 302 371 498 514 526 593 533
41   Lithuania 56 50 54 91 163 203 263 279 279 315 493 493 439
42   Philippines 66 216 216 427 427 427
43   Costa Rica 74 123 119 132 147 148 198 268 319 378 n.a.
44   Peru 146 148 148 243 243 375
45   Hungary 61 65 127 201 295 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329
46   Ethiopia 23 81 171 171 324 324 324 n.a.
47   Czech Republic 57 116 150 192 215 217 260 269 281 281 281 308 317
48   Estonia 31.8 59 78 142 149 184 269 280 302 303 310 310 310
49   Panama 35 270 270 n.a. n.a.
50   Tunisia 54 104 245 245 245 245 245 n.a.
51   Honduras 102 102 126 176 180 225 n.a.
52   Nicaragua 62 102 146 186 186 186 - n.a.
53   Cyprus 147 158 158 158 158
54   Iran 47 67 82 91 91 91 91 91 n.a. 129 134 n.a. n.a.
55   Luxembourg 58 58 100 120 120
56   Jordan 2 119 119 119 n.a.
57   Mongolia 50 50 50 50 100 n.a.
58   Sri Lanka 63 63
59   Latvia 62 62 66 66 66
60   Venezuela 30
61   Cape Verde 24 24 24 24
Caribbean 191 250 250 250 200 218 n.a.
Pacific Islands 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 n.a.
Rest of Europe 3,815 4,956 5,715 6,543
Rest of Latin America & Caribbean 54 54 250 250 285
Rest of Africa & Middle East 1,165 1,255 129 151 159 159
Rest of Asia 71 87 167 70 70 n.a.
World total capacity (MW) 74,151 93,927 121,188 157,899 197,637 238,035 282,482 318,596 369,553 432,419 487,657 539,581 591,549

Annual wind power generationEdit

Annual Wind Power Generation (TW·h) and total electricity consumption (TW·h) for 10 largest countries[15][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]
Nation 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Wind
power
Capacity
Factor
% Total
Demand
Wind
power
Capacity
Factor
% Total
Demand
Wind
power
Capacity
Factor
% Total
Demand
Wind
power
Capacity
Factor
% Total
Demand
Wind
power
Capacity
Factor
% Total
Demand
1   United States 26.6 26.1% 0.7% 4058.1 34.5 23.4% 0.8% 4149.9 52.0 23.5% 1.3% 4108.6 70.8 1.8% 3951.1 95.2 2.6% 3,723.8
2   China 3.7 16.2% 0.1% 2834.4 5.6[44] 10.6% 0.2% 3255.9 12.8[45] 12.0% 0.4% 3426.8 26.9 12.2% 0.74% 3640.3 55.5
3   Spain 22.9 22.4% 8.5% 268.8 27.2 20.5% 9.8% 276.8 31.4 21.7% 11.1% 282.1 36.6 13.7% 267.0 43.7
4   Germany 30.7 17.0% 5.4% 569.9 38.5 19.7% 6.6% 584.9 40.4 19.3% 6.6% 611.9 37.2 6.4% 581.3 36.5
5   India 7.6 13.8% 1.0% 726.7 14.7 21.0% 1.9% 774.7 14.8 17.6% 1.77% 834.3 17 2.7% 637.6 20.6
6   United Kingdom 4.2 23.2% 1.2% 352.9 5.3 27.5% 1.5% 352.0 7.1 30.4% 2.0% 350.5 9.3 2.5% 325.8 10.2
7   France 2.2 16.0% 0.5% 478.4 4.0 18.6% 0.8% 480.3 5.6 18.8% 1.1% 494.5 7.8 20.2% 1.6% 486 9.7
8   Portugal 2.9 19.3% 5.9% 49.2 4.0 21.2% 8.0% 50.1 5.7 22.7% 11.3% 50.6 7.5 15.0% 49.9 9.1
9   Italy 3.0 16.1% 0.9% 337.5 4.0[46] 16.7% 1.2% 339.9 4.9 15.7% 1.4% 339.5 6.2 2.1% 296.3 8.4
10   Denmark 6.1 22.2% 16.8% 36.4 7.2 26.3% 19.7% 36.4 7.0 24.9% 19.1% 36.2 6.8 19.3% 32.4 7.4[47]
World total (TWh) 126.547 19.2% 0.8% 16,388.5 163.683 21.1% 1.0% 17,110.5 211.812 24.5% 1.2% 17,420.0 262.563[15] 21.5% 1.5% 17,313.6 344.8

Electricity generation by wind 2011-2012Edit

Electricity Generation by Wind (total TWh per year):[48]

Nation 2011 2012[49]
  USA 119.7 140.1
  China 73.2 100.8[50]
  Spain 42.4 48.5
  Germany 46.5 46.0
  India 26.0 27.9
  Canada 19.7 21.0
  UK 15.5 21.0
  France 12.2 14.9
  Italy 10.1 13.2
  Denmark 9.7 10.2
  Portugal 9.1 10.0
  Sweden 6.1 7.2
  Australia 5.8 7.0
  Turkey 4.7 5.8
  Brazil 2.7 5.1
  Netherlands 5.1 5.0
  Japan 4.3 4.8
  Ireland 4.4 4.2
  Poland 2.7 4.7
  Greece 3.3 3.9
  Mexico 1.4 3.6
  Romania 1.4 2.6
  Belgium 2.3 2.7
  Austria 2.1 2.4
  New Zealand 2.0 1.9
  Norway 1.3 1.7
  South Korea 0.9 1.7
  Egypt 1.7 1.3
  Bulgaria 0.8 1.2
  Morocco 0.9 0.7

Historical wind power capacityEdit

  • Total does not match sum of totals because of different sources.

Historical wind power generationEdit

Electricity generation by wind 2001-2010Edit

Electricity Generation by Wind (total TWh per year)[61]
Nation 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  USA 6.737 10.354 11.187 14.144 17.811 26.589 34.450 55.363 73.886 94.65
  Germany 9.933 15.063 17.916 24.234 25.868 29.175 37.727 38.545 36.71 35.90
  Spain 6.421 8.875 11.471 14.915 20.117 22.132 26.190 30.593 35.9 41.5
  India 2.129 2.553 3.411 4.266 6.273 8.255 11.206 13.053 17 20.6
  China 0.712 0.829 0.987 1.265 1.927 3.675 5.425 12.425 26.9 55.5
  UK 0.917 1.193 1.221 1.838 2.759 4.014 5.010 6.742 8.84 9.70
  Denmark 4.091 4.633 5.283 6.254 6.283 5.803 6.814 6.582 6.39 7.42
  Italy 1.120 1.334 1.385 1.755 2.227 2.822 3.832 4.618 6.200 8.0
  Portugal 0.243 0.344 0.471 0.775 1.684 2.779 3.835 5.469 7.20 8.60
  France 0.125 0.256 0.372 0.566 0.914 2.073 3.857 5.405 7.50 9.20
  Netherlands 0.784 0.899 1.252 1.774 1.964 2.596 3.266 4.047 4.350 3.78
  Australia 0.200 0.346 0.668 0.670 0.841 1.627 2.480 2.938 3.615 3.62
  Canada 0.320 0.388 0.785 0.906 1.398 2.375 2.873 3.628 4.3 5.50
  Japan 0.239 0.394 0.791 1.245 1.666 2.100 2.493 2.799 2.802 3.60
  Ireland 0.317 0.369 0.431 0.622 1.056 1.541 1.860 2.290 2.807 2.67
  Austria 0.163 0.193 0.348 0.878 1.262 1.664 1.934 1.913 1.87 1.92
  Sweden 0.458 0.578 0.645 0.808 0.889 0.938 1.359 1.896 2.361 3.30
  Greece 0.718 0.618 0.970 1.065 1.203 1.614 1.727 2.130 2.416 2.030
  New Zealand 0.130 0.148 0.141 0.340 0.583 0.591 0.883 1.004 1.398 1.55
  Norway 0.026 0.071 0.207 0.239 0.481 0.605 0.847 0.867 0.932 0.850
  Poland 0.013 0.058 0.118 0.135 0.128 0.243 0.496 0.795 1.023 1.60
  Turkey 0.059 0.046 0.058 0.055 0.056 0.121 0.337 0.805 1.4 2.80
  Belgium 0.035 0.054 0.084 0.135 0.246 0.348 0.466 0.605 0.946 1.20
  Brazil 0.033 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.088 0.225 0.531 0.530 1.180 2.07
  Egypt 0.210 0.194 0.350 0.497 0.524 0.585 0.789 0.880 1.1 1.20
  Mexico 0.017 0.020 0.018 0.019 0.018 0.056 0.249 0.256 0.566 0.378
Rest of World 10.657 15.976 19.060 25.473 27.37 31.588
Total 36.723 50.557 61.476 80.595 99.687 126.547 163.683 211.812 262.563 327.850

Electricity generation by wind 1991-2000Edit

Electricity Generation by Wind (total TWh per year)[62]
Nation 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
  Germany 0.204 0.276 0.640 1.357 1.626 1.974 2.882 4.363 5.252 8.884
  USA 2.951 2.888 3.006 3.447 3.164 3.234 3.288 3.026 4.488 5.593
  Denmark 0.703 0.869 0.982 1.080 1.118 1.166 1.837 2.679 2.878 4.029
  Spain 0.014 0.042 0.109 0.166 0.257 0.346 0.705 1.284 2.607 4.491
  India 0.037 0.084 0.090 0.181 0.471 0.834 0.939 1.019 1.374 1.600
  China 0.009 0.013 0.021 0.038 0.061 0.093 0.196 0.352 0.469 0.584
  UK 0.010 0.032 0.207 0.325 0.371 0.464 0.634 0.833 0.808 0.900
  Italy 0.003 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.009 0.031 0.112 0.219 0.383 0.535
  France 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.005 0.007 0.010 0.019 0.035 0.073
  Portugal 0.001 0.004 0.010 0.016 0.015 0.020 0.036 0.085 0.117 0.160
  Netherlands 0.068 0.140 0.169 0.225 0.301 0.415 0.451 0.608 0.613 0.788
  Japan 0 0 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.001 0.007 0.036 0.104
  Australia 0 0 0 0.004 0.007 0.007 0.007 0.008 0.026 0.055
  Canada 0.002 0.003 0.030 0.055 0.056 0.059 0.059 0.059 0.156 0.251
  Austria 0 0 0 0 0.001 0.005 0.019 0.043 0.048 0.064
  Ireland 0 0.005 0.014 0.018 0.015 0.013 0.048 0.161 0.178 0.232
  Greece 0 0.008 0.045 0.035 0.032 0.036 0.034 0.067 0.154 0.428
  Sweden 0.012 0.029 0.046 0.068 0.094 0.137 0.193 0.301 0.340 0.434
  New Zealand 0 0 0 0.001 0.001 0.008 0.013 0.021 0.037 0.114
  Norway 0 0.003 0.003 0.009 0.010 0.009 0.010 0.010 0.024 0.029
  Egypt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.023 0.130
  Belgium 0.008 0.008 0.008 0.009 0.009 0.008 0.008 0.010 0.012 0.015
  Mexico 0 0 0 0.004 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.010 0.010 0.018
  Turkey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.031
  Poland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.005
  Brazil 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001
Rest of World 0.205 0.277 0.645 1.373 1.646 2.028 3.006 4.554 5.514 9.363
Total 4.024 4.406 5.393 7.063 7.644 8.921 11.606 15.363 20.320 29.970

Electricity generation by wind 1983-1990Edit

Electricity Generation by Wind (total TWh per year)[63]
Nation 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
  Germany -- -- -- -- -- 0.002 0.002 0.003
  USA1 0.00267 0.00649 0.00576 0.00419 0.00354 0.00087 2.112 2.789
  India 0 0 0 0.002 0.003 0.006 0.006 0.030
  Denmark 0.024 0.039 0.06 0.136 0.183 0.302 0.429 0.580
  UK 0 0 0 0 0 0.001 0.009 0.009
  Portugal 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.001 0.001
  Netherlands 0 0 0 0.001 0.002 0.016 0.023 0.048
  Greece 0 0 0 0 0.001 0.001 0 0.001
  Sweden 0.003 0.005 0.006 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.006
  Belgium 0 0 0 0 0.006 0.008 0.007 0.008
  Spain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.013
  Italy 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
  Canada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
  China 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.002
Rest of World 0 0 0.001 0 0.001 0.003 0.003 0.005
Total 0.0297 0.0505 0.0728 0.149 0.206 0.343 2.595 3.496
1 [sic] – Generation does not correlate with installed capacity, which would suggest approximately 0.33, 0.87, 1.54, 2.13, 2.50, 2.47 TWh from 1983 to 1988 for the United States.

Opinion on wind farms in selected countriesEdit

Opinion on increase in number of wind farms (2010)
US
%
UK
%
France
%
Italy
%
Spain
%
Germany
%
Strongly oppose 3 6 6 2 2 4
Oppose more than favour 9 12 16 11 9 14
Favour more than oppose 37 44 44 38 37 42
Strongly favour 50 38 33 49 53 40
Source: Harris Poll, 2010. Base: All EU and U.S. adults.[64] Note: Percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding

ReferencesEdit

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