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Inkjet technology

Inkjet technology is a method for depositing liquid droplets on a substrate. It was originally developed for the publishing industry, but has become a popular method in digital fabrication of electronic and mechanical devices. Although both terms, "inkjet technology" and "inkjet printing", are commonly used interchangeably, inkjet printing usually refers to the publishing industry, used for printing graphical content, while inkjet technology usually refers to the general purpose fabrication via inkjetting.

Contents

ApplicationsEdit

Inks must have high conductivity, high oxidation resistance and low sintering temperature.

  • optical devices.[11]

Personalized medicationsEdit

Drop formationEdit

Various drop formation technologies exist, and can be classified into two main types: continuous inkjet (CIJ) and drop-on-demand (DOD).[12]

While CIJ has a straightforward drop creation and sophisticated drop trajectory manipulation, DOD has sophisticated drop creation and no trajectory manipulation.

Classification of inkjet technologies[13]
Drop-on-demand (DOD) Continuous (CIJ) Electrospray
Thermal Piezoelectric Single jet Multiple jet
Face shooter Side shooter Shear Extension Unimorph/bimorph Squeeze Acoustic modulation Thermal modulation

Drop-on-demand (DOD)Edit

In this method, drops of ink are released individually, on demand, by a voltage signal. Released drops fall vertically without any trajectory manipulation. Commercial printheads can have tens to thousands of nozzles.

The two leading technologies for forcing ink out of a nozzle on demand are thermal DOD and piezoelectric DOD. Additional technologies include electrospray,[14][15] acoustic discharge,[16] electrostatic membrane[17] and thermal bimorph.[18]

Piezoelectric DODEdit

 
The piezoelectric voltage pulse determines the jetted volume.

Piezoelectric DOD was invented in the 1970s.[19][20] One disadvantage of the piezo-DOD method is that jettable inks must have viscosity and surface tension within a relatively strict range.

Thermal inkjet (TIJ) DODEdit

 
Comparison between piezoelectric jet (left) and thermal jet (right)

Thermal DOD was introduced in the 1980s by Canon[21] and Hewlett-Packard.[22]

One disadvantage of this method is that the variety of inks compatible with TIJ is essentially limited, because this method is compatible with inks that have high vapour pressure, low boiling point and high kogation stability.[23][24] Water being such a solvent, limited the popularity of this method for non-industrial photo printing only, where water-based inks are used.

Continuous inkjet (CIJ)Edit

In this method, a column of ink is released continuously from the nozzle. The ink column spontaneously breaks into separate drops due to the Plateau–Rayleigh flow instability. The formed ink drops are either deflected by an electric field towards the desired location on the substrate, or collected for reuse. CIJ printheads can be either have a single jet (nozzle) or multiple jets (nozzles).

One disadvantage of the CIJ method is the need for solvent monitoring. Since only a small fraction of the ink is being used for actual printing, solvent must be continually added to the recycled ink to compensate the evaporation that takes place during flight of the recycled drops.[23]

Another disadvantage is the need for ink additives. Since this method is based on electrostatic deflection, ink additives, such as potassium thiocyanate, may deteriorate the performance of the printed devices.[23]

The printheadEdit

The printhead must have heating capability to print metallic alloys such as lead, tin, indium, zinc and aluminium. The process of printing of low-melting point metals is called "direct melt printing".

Photo inkjet printheadEdit

Tandem printheadsEdit

Multiple printheadsEdit

Fabrication approachesEdit

The printed material is sometimes only one step in the process, which may include deposition of a precursor followed by a catalyst, sintering, photonic curing, electroless plating etc., to give the final result.

  • Direct deposition
  • Mask printing
  • Etching
  • Inverse printing
  • Powder bed

Additive inkjet fabricationEdit

Subtractive inkjet fabricationEdit

Inkjettable materialsEdit

The ink must be liquid, but may also contain small solids if they do not cause clogging. The solid particles should be smaller than 1/10 of the nozzle diameter to avoid clogging.

Drop formation is governed by two physical properties: surface tension and viscosity. The surface tension forms ejected drops into spheres, in accordance with Plateau–Rayleigh instability. The viscosity can be optimized at jet time by using an appropriate printhead temperature.

Generally, lower viscosity allows better droplet formation[25] and in practice only liquids with viscosities of 2-50 mPa s can be printed.[13] More precisely, liquids whose Ohnesorge number is larger than 0.1 and smaller than 1 are jettable.[26][27][28]

  • Metals:
    • Indium, tin, lead, zinc.[29][30]
    • Gold, silver and copper[31] can be printed if made into nanoparticle inks, which have lower sintering temperatures than in bulk, and can therefore be used with a larger range of temperature sensitive substrates.
    • Printing ascorbic acid followed by silver nitrate can be used for conductive traces.[32][33]
  • Ceramics:
  • Polymers:
  • Biological materials (living cells, ...)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Loffredo, F.; Burrasca, G.; Quercia, L.; Sala, D. Della (2007). "Gas Sensor Devices Obtained by Ink-jet Printing of Polyaniline Suspensions". Macromolecular Symposia. 247 (1): 357–363. doi:10.1002/masy.200750141. ISSN 1022-1360. 
  2. ^ Ando, B.; Baglio, S. (December 2013). "All-Inkjet Printed Strain Sensors". IEEE Sensors Journal. 13 (12): 4874–4879. doi:10.1109/JSEN.2013.2276271. ISSN 1530-437X. 
  3. ^ Correia, V; Caparros, C; Casellas, C; Francesch, L; Rocha, J G; Lanceros-Mendez, S (2013). "Development of inkjet printed strain sensors". Smart Materials and Structures. 22 (10): 105028. Bibcode:2013SMaS...22j5028C. doi:10.1088/0964-1726/22/10/105028. ISSN 0964-1726. 
  4. ^ Ryu, D.; Meyers, F. N.; Loh, K. J. (2014). "Inkjet-printed, flexible, and photoactive thin film strain sensors". Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. doi:10.1177/1045389X14546653. ISSN 1045-389X. 
  5. ^ Molina-Lopez, F.; Briand, D.; de Rooij, N.F. (2012). "All additive inkjet printed humidity sensors on plastic substrate". Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 166-167: 212–222. doi:10.1016/j.snb.2012.02.042. ISSN 0925-4005. 
  6. ^ Weremczuk, Jerzy; Tarapata, Grzegorz; Jachowicz, Ryszard (2012). "Humidity Sensor Printed on Textile with Use of Ink-Jet Technology". Procedia Engineering. 47: 1366–1369. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.410. ISSN 1877-7058. 
  7. ^ Courbat, J.; Kim, Y.B.; Briand, D.; de Rooij, N.F. (2011). "Inkjet printing on paper for the realization of humidity and temperature sensors": 1356–1359. doi:10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2011.5969506. 
  8. ^ Ando, B.; Baglio, S.; Marletta, V.; Pistorio, A. (2014). "A contactless inkjet printed passive touch sensor": 1638–1642. doi:10.1109/I2MTC.2014.6861023. 
  9. ^ a b Cappi, B.; Özkol, E.; Ebert, J.; Telle, R. (2008). "Direct inkjet printing of Si3N4: Characterization of ink, green bodies and microstructure". Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 28 (13): 2625–2628. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.03.004. ISSN 0955-2219. 
  10. ^ Wilson, Stephen A.; Jourdain, Renaud P.J.; Zhang, Qi; Dorey, Robert A.; Bowen, Chris R.; Willander, Magnus; Wahab, Qamar Ul; Willander, Magnus; Al-hilli, Safaa M.; Nur, Omer; Quandt, Eckhard; Johansson, Christer; Pagounis, Emmanouel; Kohl, Manfred; Matovic, Jovan; Samel, Björn; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Jager, Edwin W.H.; Carlsson, Daniel; Djinovic, Zoran; Wegener, Michael; Moldovan, Carmen; Iosub, Rodica; Abad, Estefania; Wendlandt, Michael; Rusu, Cristina; Persson, Katrin (2007). "New materials for micro-scale sensors and actuators". Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports. 56 (1-6): 1–129. doi:10.1016/j.mser.2007.03.001. ISSN 0927-796X. 
  11. ^ Chen, Chin-Tai; Chiu, Ching-Long; Tseng, Zhao-Fu; Chuang, Chun-Te (2008). "Dynamic evolvement and formation of refractive microlenses self-assembled from evaporative polyurethane droplets". Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 147 (2): 369–377. doi:10.1016/j.sna.2008.06.006. ISSN 0924-4247. 
  12. ^ Le, Hue P. (1998). "Progress and Trends in Ink-jet Printing Technology". Journal of Imaging Science and Technology. 42 (1): 49–62. Archived from the original on 2015. 
  13. ^ a b Hutchings, Ian M.; Martin, Graham D., eds. (December 2012). Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication. Cambridge: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-68198-5. 
  14. ^ Taylor, G. (1964). "Disintegration of Water Drops in an Electric Field". Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 280 (1382): 383–397. Bibcode:1964RSPSA.280..383T. doi:10.1098/rspa.1964.0151. ISSN 1364-5021. 
  15. ^ Cloupeau, Michel; Prunet-Foch, Bernard (1994). "Electrohydrodynamic spraying functioning modes: a critical review". Journal of Aerosol Science. 25 (6): 1021–1036. doi:10.1016/0021-8502(94)90199-6. ISSN 0021-8502. 
  16. ^ Liquid drop emitter
  17. ^ Kamisuki, S.; Hagata, T.; Tezuka, C.; Nose, Y.; Fujii, M.; Atobe, M. (1998). "A low power, small, electrostatically-driven commercial inkjet head": 63–68. doi:10.1109/MEMSYS.1998.659730. 
  18. ^ Nozzle arrangent with movable ink ejection
  19. ^ Pulsed droplet ejecting system
  20. ^ Method and apparatus for recording with writing fluids and drop projection means therefor
  21. ^ Bubble jet recording method and apparatus in which a heating element generates bubbles in a liquid flow path to project droplets
  22. ^ Thermal ink jet printer
  23. ^ a b c Yeates, Stephen G.; Xu, Desheng; Madec, Marie-Beatrice; Caras-Quintero, Dolores; Alamry, Khalid A.; Malandraki, Andromachi; Sanchez-Romaguera, Veronica (2014). "Fluids for Inkjet Printing": 87–112. doi:10.1002/9781118452943.ch4. 
  24. ^ Shirota, K.; Shioya, M.; Suga, Y.; Eida, T. (1996). "Kogation of Inorganic Impurities in Bubble Jet Ink": 218–219. 
  25. ^ de Gans, B.-J.; Duineveld, P. C.; Schubert, U. S. (2004). "Inkjet Printing of Polymers: State of the Art and Future Developments". Advanced Materials. 16 (3): 203–213. doi:10.1002/adma.200300385. ISSN 0935-9648. 
  26. ^ Derby, Brian (2010). "Inkjet Printing of Functional and Structural Materials: Fluid Property Requirements, Feature Stability, and Resolution". Annual Review of Materials Research. 40 (1): 395–414. doi:10.1146/annurev-matsci-070909-104502. ISSN 1531-7331. 
  27. ^ McKinley, Gareth H.; Renardy, Michael (2011). "Wolfgang von Ohnesorge". Physics of Fluids. 23 (12): 127101. Bibcode:2011PhFl...23l7101M. doi:10.1063/1.3663616. ISSN 1070-6631. 
  28. ^ Jang, Daehwan; Kim, Dongjo; Moon, Jooho (2009). "Influence of Fluid Physical Properties on Ink-Jet Printability". Langmuir. 25 (5): 2629–2635. doi:10.1021/la900059m. ISSN 0743-7463. 
  29. ^ Cheng, Stewart Xu; Li, Tiegang; Chandra, Sanjeev (2005). "Producing molten metal droplets with a pneumatic droplet-on-demand generator". Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 159 (3): 295–302. doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.05.016. ISSN 0924-0136. 
  30. ^ Lee, Taik-Min; Kang, Tae Goo; Yang, Jeong-Soon; Jo, Jeongdai; Kim, Kwang-Young; Choi, Byung-Oh; Kim, Dong-Soo (2008). "Drop-on-Demand Solder Droplet Jetting System for Fabricating Microstructure". IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing. 31 (3): 202–210. doi:10.1109/TEPM.2008.926285. ISSN 1521-334X. 
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  33. ^ Co, Cartesian. "Argentum". Cartesian Co. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
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  37. ^ Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Perkins, J.D.; Curtis, C.; Alleman, J.L.; Ginley, D.S. (2007). "Direct-write inkjet printing for fabrication of barium strontium titanate-based tunable circuits". Thin Solid Films. 515 (7-8): 3820–3824. Bibcode:2007TSF...515.3820K. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2006.10.009. ISSN 0040-6090. 
  38. ^ Keat, Yeoh Cheow; Sreekantan, Srimala; Hutagalung, Sabar Derita; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin (2007). "Fabrication of BaTiO3 thin films through ink-jet printing of TiO2 sol and soluble Ba salts". Materials Letters. Elsevier. 61 (23-24): 4536–4539. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2007.02.046. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
  39. ^ Ding, Xiang; Li, Yongxiang; Wang, Dong; Yin, Qingrui (2004). "Fabrication of BaTiO3 dielectric films by direct ink-jet printing". Ceramics International. Elsevier. 30 (7): 1885–1887. doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2003.12.050. Retrieved June 13, 2015. 
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Further readingEdit