Alaskan ice cream (also known as Alaskan Indian ice cream, Inuit ice cream, Indian ice cream or Native ice cream, and Inuit-Yupik varieties of which are known as akutaq or akutuq) is a dessert made by Alaskan Athabaskans and other Alaska Natives. It is traditionally made of whipped fat or tallow (e.g. caribou, moose, or walrus tallow, or seal oil) and meat (such as dried fish, especially pike, sheefish or inconnu, whitefish or cisco, or freshwater whitefishes, or dried moose or caribou) mixed with berries (especially cowberry, bilberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos or other cranberries, bearberry, crowberry, salmonberry, cloudberry or low-bush salmonberry, raspberry, blueberry, or prickly rose) or mild sweeteners such as roots of Indian potato or wild carrot, mixed and whipped with a whisk. It may also include tundra greens. There is also a kind of akutaq which is called snow akutaq. The most common recipes for Indian ice cream consist of dried and pulverized moose or caribou tenderloin that is blended with moose fat (traditionally in a birch bark container) until the mixture is light and fluffy. It may be eaten unfrozen or frozen, and in the latter case it somewhat resembles commercial ice cream.[1]

Alaskan ice cream
Iced akutaq made from raspberries and blueberries
Alternative namesNative ice cream, Alaskan ice cream
Place of originUnited States
Region or stateAlaska
Created byAlaskan Athabaskans, Inuit and Yupik peoples
Main ingredientsdried fish or meat, fat, berries

It is not to be confused with Canadian Indian ice cream (or sxusem) of First Nations in British Columbia, nor with kulfi (Indian ice cream) from the Indian Subcontinent.

"Ice cream songs" used to be sung during the preparation of Alaskan Athabascan Indian ice cream.[2]

Recent additions include sugar, milk, and vegetable shortening.[citation needed]

Native names edit

Athabaskan language ice cream
Ahtna ?
Dena’ina nivagi[3]
Deg Xinag vanhgiq[4][5]
Holikachuk nathdlod[5]
Koyukon nonaałdlode[6] (lit. 'creamed one' or 'that which has been whipped up')
Upper Kuskokwim nemaje[7][8]
Lower Tanana nonathdlodi[2]
Tanacross nanehdlaad[9]
Upper Tanana ?
Gwich’in it’suh[10]
Hän ?
Inuit-Yupik language ice cream
Inuktitut akutuq (ᐊᑯᑐᖅ)[11]
Iñupiaq (Northern) akutuq (lit. 'mixed/stirred together')
Inupiaq (Bering Straits) agutaq (lit. 'mixed/stirred together')
Yup'ik akutaq (lit. 'mixed/stirred together')
Alutiiq (Northern) akutaq, sisuq
Alutiiq (Southern) akutaq, pirinaq

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Priscilla Russell Kari, Tanaina Plantlore, Dena'ina K'et'una (1987), p. 61.
  2. ^ a b "Keynote abstracts - HLK 2010, Lund University". Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Land Use and Economy of Lime Village" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Course: Deg Xinag Learners' Dictionary". Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  5. ^ a b "ABCD" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  6. ^ "EFGH" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  7. ^ The Upper Kuskokwim People and Gathering Plants in the Upper Kuskokwim Archived December 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Whitefish Biology, Distribution, and Fisheries in the Yukon and Kuskokwim River Drainages in Alaska: a Synthesis of Available Information" (PDF). Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  9. ^ Tanacross Learnersʼ Dictionary Archived 2010-12-02 at the Wayback Machine by I. S. Arnold, G. Holton, and R. Thoman (2009)
  10. ^ "Gwich'in Social & Cultural Institute". Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Nunavut — Food and Restaurants". iExplore. Retrieved 13 January 2022.