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The 2019 Indian general election was held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The counting of votes took place on 23 May, and on the same day the results were declared.[1][2][3][4] About 900 million people were eligible to vote and turnout was over 67 per cent – the highest ever as well as the highest participation by women voters.[5][6][note 2]

2019 Indian general election

← 2014 11 April – 19 May 2019 2024 →
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543[note 1] (of the 545) seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout67.11% (Increase0.7%)
  First party Second party
  PM Modi Portrait(cropped).jpg Rahul Gandhi (cropped).jpg
Leader Narendra Modi Rahul Gandhi
Party BJP INC
Alliance NDA UPA
Leader since 13 September 2013 11 December 2017
Leader's seat Varanasi Wayanad (won)
Amethi (lost)
Last election 282 seats, 31.34% (BJP)
336 seats, 38.5% (NDA)
44 seats, 19.52% (INC)
60 seats, 23% (UPA)
Seats won 303 (BJP)
352 (NDA)
52 (INC)
91 (UPA)
Seat change Increase21 (BJP)
Increase16 (NDA)
Increase8 (INC)
Increase31 (UPA)
Percentage 37.43% (BJP)
45% (NDA)
19.51% (INC)
26% (UPA)
Swing Increase 6.09% (BJP)
Increase 6.5% (NDA)
Decrease 0.01% (INC)
Increase 3% (UPA)

Indian General Election 2019 by alliance.svg
Results of the election by alliance

Prime Minister before election

Narendra Modi
BJP

Subsequent Prime Minister

Narendra Modi
BJP

The Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 seats, further increasing its substantial majority[8] and the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance won 352 seats. The Indian National Congress party won 52 seats, and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 91. Other parties and their alliances won 99 seats.[9]

Legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election.[10][11]

Contents

Electoral systemEdit

All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The President of India nominates an additional two members from the Anglo-Indian community if he believes the community is under-represented.[12]

Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 or older, an ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote, possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or equivalent.[13] Some people convicted of electoral or other offences are barred from voting.[14]

The elections are being held on schedule and per the Constitution of India that mandates parliamentary elections once every five years.[15]

Election scheduleEdit

 
Official logo
 
Election schedule

The election schedule was announced by Election Commission of India (ECI) on 10 March 2019, and with it the Model Code of Conduct came into force.[16][17]

The election was scheduled to be held in seven phases. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the election was held in all seven phases. The polling for the Anantnag constituency in the state of Jammu and Kashmir was held in three phases due to violence in the region.[18]

Phase-wise polling constituencies in each state
State/UT Total

constituencies

Election dates and number of constituencies
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 7
11 April 18 April 23 April 29 April 6 May 12 May 19 May
Andhra Pradesh 25 25
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2
Assam 14 5 5 4
Bihar 40 4 5 5 5 5 8 8
Chhattisgarh 11 1 3 7
Goa 2 2
Gujarat 26 26
Haryana 10 10
Himachal Pradesh 4 4
Jammu and Kashmir 6 2 2 13[n 1] 13[n 1] 1​13[n 1]
Jharkhand 14 3 4 4 3
Karnataka 28 14 14
Kerala 20 20
Madhya Pradesh 29 6 7 8 8
Maharashtra 48 7 10 14 17
Manipur 2 1 1
Meghalaya 2 2
Mizoram 1 1
Nagaland 1 1
Odisha 21 4 5 6 6
Punjab 13 13
Rajasthan 25 13 12
Sikkim 1 1
Tamil Nadu 39 38[n 2]
Telangana 17 17
Tripura 2 1 1[n 3]
Uttar Pradesh 80 8 8 10 13 14 14 13
Uttarakhand 5 5
West Bengal 42 2 3 5 8 7 8 9
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1
Chandigarh 1 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 1
Daman and Diu 1 1
Delhi 7 7
Lakshadweep 1 1
Puducherry 1 1
Constituencies 543 91 95 116​13 71​13 50​13 59 59
Total constituencies by end of phase 91 186 302​13 373​23 424 483 542[n 2]
per cent complete by end of phase 17% 34% 56% 69% 78% 89% 100%
  1. ^ a b c Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  2. ^ a b Polling in Vellore was cancelled. (see below)
  3. ^ Polling in Tripura East was rescheduled from 18 to 23 April.

Rescheduled voting, cancellationsEdit

  • Vellore, Tamil Nadu: Over 11 crore (US$1.6 million) in cash was seized in Vellore from DMK leaders – a regional party in Tamil Nadu. According to The News Minute, this cash is alleged to have been for bribing the voters.[19] Based on the evidence collected during the raids, the Election Commission of India cancelled the 18 April election date in the Vellore constituency. The DMK leaders have denied wrongdoing and alleged a conspiracy.[20]
  • Tripura East, Tripura: The Election Commission of India deferred polling from 18 to 23 April due to the law and order situation. The poll panel took the decision following reports from the Special Police Observers that the circumstances were not conducive for holding free and fair elections in the constituency.[21]

CampaigningEdit

IssuesEdit

Alleged institutional underminingEdit

The opposition parties have accused the NDA government is destroying democratic institutions and processes.[22] Modi denied and blamed Congress and the communists for undermining institutions including the police, CBI and the CAG, and cited the murder of BJP activists in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.[23]

The Congress party, other opposition parties and a group of retired civil servants have accused the ECI as being compromised and as endorsing the model code of conduct violations by Narendra Modi and other BJP political leaders during their campaign.[24][25] Another group of 81 retired civil servants, judges and academics disputed these allegations, made counter-allegations, and stated that the ECI acted fairly and similarly in alleged violations by either side. The group states that such political attacks on the ECI are a "deliberate attempt to denigrate and delegitimise the democratic institutions".[25][26]

Economic performanceEdit

According to The Times of India, the major economic achievements of the incumbent NDA government include an inflation rate less than 4 per cent, the GST reform, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, its programs in recent years that have positively touched many among the Indian masses, programs such as the Jan Dhan Yojana, rural cooking gas and electricity for homes.[27] According to the IMF, the Indian economy has been growing in recent years, its GDP growth rate is among the highest in the world for major economies, and India is expected to be the fastest growing major economy in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with real GDP projected to grow at 7.3 per cent.[28][29][30] The GDP growth data has been disputed[27] by a group of Indian social scientists, economists and the political opposition's election campaign, while a group of Indian chartered accountants has defended the data, the GDP calculation methodology, and questioned the motivations of those disputing the recent Indian GDP statistics.[31]

The opposition's election campaign has claimed that both the demonetisation and GST law have "seriously hit small business, farmers and casual labour", states The Times of India.[27][32] The incumbent has claimed that they inherited a country from the previous Congress-led government that was "a legacy of policy paralysis, corruption and economic fragility", and that the BJP-led government policies have placed India on better economic fundamentals and a fast gear.[33] Modi claims that his government pursued demonetisation in the national interest, his government has identified and de-registered 338,000 shell companies, identified and recovered 130,000 crore (US$19 billion) in black money since 2014, and almost doubled India's tax base.[34][35] The Congress party disputes the incumbents' claims, and has alleged that BJP offices have "become hubs of creating black money", and seeks a judicial inquiry into the Rafale deal with France and BJP's role in corruption.[36]

Income tax raidsEdit

In April 2019, raids conducted by the Income Tax Department found bundles of unaccounted for cash amounting to 281 crore (US$41 million), along with liquor and documentary evidence in premises of people with close connections to Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath of the Congress. Modi has highlighted this evidence to attack the Congress in its election campaign, alleging corruption is part of Congress party's culture.[37][38]

National security and terrorismEdit

In response to the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted airstrikes inside Pakistan — for the first time since the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The ongoing conflict with Pakistan became a significant factor in the election. The opposition parties accused of politicising the army, whilst the BJP countered their accusations by stating that such allegations raised by them were adversely affecting the morale of armed forces.[39]

According to the Pew Research Center, both before and after the outbreak of recent India-Pakistan tensions, their 2018 and 2019 surveys suggest that the significant majority of the voters consider Pakistan as a "very serious threat" to their country, and terrorism to be a "very big problem".[40][41]

UnemploymentEdit

According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Indian voters consider the lack of employment opportunities as a "very big problem" in their country. "About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and another 393.7 million work in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement", states the Pew report.[41]

A report on unemployment prepared by the National Sample Survey Office's (NSSO's) periodic labour force survey, has not been officially released by the government. According to Business Today, this report is the "first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation move in November 2016". According to this report, the 2017–2018 "usual status"[note 3] unemployment rate in India at 6.1 per cent, a four-decade high.[42][note 3] The government has claimed that the report was not final.[47] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) – a United Nations agency, unemployment is rising in India and the "unemployment rate in the country [India] will stand at 3.5 per cent in 2018 and 2019 – the same level of unemployment seen in 2017 and 2016", instead of dropping to 3.4 per cent as it had previously projected.[48] According to the ILO's World Employment Social Outlook Report, the unemployment rate in India has been in the 3.4 to 3.6 per cent range over the UPA-government led 2009–2014 and the NDA-government led 2014–2019 periods.[48]

Opposition parties have claimed in their election campaign that the unemployment in India has reached crisis levels. The NDA government has denied the existence of any job crisis.[49] Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that jobs are not lacking but the accurate data on jobs has been lacking.[50][51]

The opposition has attacked the NDA government's performance with the NSSO reported 6.1 per cent unemployment data. Modi and his government have questioned this job statistics report, stating that "most surveys that try to capture unemployment rate are skewed since these did not cover the unorganised sector, which accounts for 85–90 per cent of jobs [in India]".[52]

Agrarian and rural distressEdit

The Congress party campaign has highlighted "agrarian distress" as an election issue.[53] The BJP campaign has highlighted that the Congress party had been in power for five generations of the Nehru dynasty and its past promises and campaign issues have been empty. It claims that the recent farmer loan waivers by Congress have not reached "even 10% of the farmers" nor has it helped the financial situation of the farmers. BJP highlights that its "Kisan Samman Nidhi" helps the small farmers at the time of seed planting through a direct deposit of ₹6000 to their accounts.[54] The opposition has accused this as being an attempt to lure voters.[55]

According to The Times of India, a group of farmer associations have demanded that the 2019 election manifesto of competing political parties should promise to "keep agriculture out of the World Trade Organization (WTO)" and that the interests of Indian farmers must not be compromised in global trade treaties.[56] They have also demanded loan waivers and income support for the agriculture sector.[56] According to the Business Standard and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, India has witnessed record crop harvests in recent years including 2017 when its farmers grew more foodgrains than ever before.[57][58] However, the farmers consider the "low remunerative prices" they receive in the free market to be too low and a need for the Indian government to establish higher minimum support prices for agricultural products. These farmers consider this an issue for the 2019 general elections.[57]

Social media abuses and fake newsEdit

According to The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, the election had attracted a systematic attempt to spread misinformation through social media.[59][60] Facebook claimd that over a hundred of these advocacy accounts spreading disinformation were traced to "employees of the Pakistani military public relations wing".[59][60] Some others have been linked to the INC and BJP.[60][59][60]

Political parties spent over 53 crore (US$7.7 million) with the largest spending by BJP on digital platforms for online ads. The BJP placed 2,500 ads on Facebook, while the Congress placed 3,686 ads.[61] According to a study by Vidya Narayanan and colleagues at the Oxford Internet Institute, social media was used by all the major parties and alliances, and all of them linked or posted divisive and conspiratorial content and images. According to Narayanan, "a third of the BJP’s images, a quarter of the INC’s images, and a tenth the SP-BSP’s images were catalouged as divisive and conspiratorial".[62][63] The Narayanan et al study added, "we observed very limited amounts of hate speech, gore or pornography in either platform samples" by BJP, Congress or SP-BSP, but the election did include proportionally more polarising information on social media than other countries except for the US Presidential election in 2016.[63]

NaMo TV and Modi biopicEdit

According to The Financial Times and other news sources, on 31 March 2019, the cable and satellite operators – such as Tata Sky, DishTV and Videocon – added a new "NaMo TV" channel to the dozens of news and entertainment channels they already offer.[64][65][66] Further, independently, a Bollywood biopic named "PM Narendra Modi" starring Vivek Oberoi was due for release in early April. The NaMo TV channel exclusively focuses on replaying Narendra Modi’s speeches, the live coverage of rallies by Modi and key leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, and presenting the incumbent government's initiatives and achievements in the last five years to the audience that chooses to tune to the channel.[64] The election time Bollywood biopic, states The Financial Times, is "adulatory, which depicts his [Modi's] rise from humble origins as the son of a railway station tea-seller to a strongman who vows to avenge Pakistani terror attacks".[64]

The Indian opposition led by the Congress Party and activists opposed to the incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party have expressed outrage and alleged that it violates India's election laws and the regulations on "broadcast channels" under the Programme Codes of the Cable TV Act of 1994.[64][65] The Bharatiya Janata Party and its supporters claim that this is an exercise of the "Right to Free Speech" protected by the Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, a means to address the bias against them and to communicate directly to the voters.[64] They also claim that the NaMo TV does not violate any regulations or laws, as similar "Direct-to-Home (DTH) operator channels" have already been distributed by cable and satellite operators in the past since 2006.[65] Others state that the audience has a choice to ignore or tune into the channel, and "only Modi's most devoted loyalists were likely to tune in". However, they state that if the BJP pressures public facilities and commercial establishments to show it exclusively during the elections then that would lead to abuse.[64] The Congress Party and activists have filed a complaint to the Indian Election Commission, demanding that the NaMo TV channel be stopped.[64] The Election Commission announced on 12 April that any content broadcast on the NaMo TV must be pre-approved by its committee, and only pre-certified content can be broadcast.[66] On 13 April 2019, the BJP submitted the contents of NaMo TV to the Election Commission designated "certification and monitoring committee" for its review and pre-certification.[67] The Election Commission ruled on 19 April 2019, that live speeches of Narendra Modi and other BJP leaders can be broadcast on NaMo TV as well as Twitter platform tweets can be broadcast by Rahul Gandhi and Congress leaders during the silence period. However, neither should mention the constituency or candidates covered by the silence period immediately prior to the polling date.[68]

The ECI blocked the release of the Modi biopic while the election is in progress.[69] The producers appealed this "stay" to the Supreme Court.[70]

Dynasty politicsEdit

The BJP has highlighted that the Congress party has relied on Nehru's dynasty for leadership since India's independence, its lack of internal party institutions and claimed that whenever Congress has been in power, the freedom of press and Indian government institutions have "taken a severe beating".[71][72] During the election campaign, its leaders have mentioned the Emergency of 1975, the nepotism, corruption and widespread abuses of human rights under the Congress rule in the past.[71][73][74] Congress-led alliance leader H. D. Kumaraswamy – the son of a former prime minister of India and the current chief minister of Karnataka, has countered that "India developed because of dynasty politics", stating that "dynasty politics are not the main issue, rather country's problems are".[75] The Congress has alleged hypocrisy by the BJP, claiming that the BJP itself forms alliances with dynasty-based parties such as the Akali Dal in Punjab, and that family relatives of senior BJP leaders such as Rajnath Singh and Arun Jaitley have been in politics too.[76]

According to an IndiaSpend report published by the BloombergQuint, the smaller and regional parties such as the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Lok Jan Sakti Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party have higher densities of dynasty-derived candidates and elected representatives in recent years.[77][78] While both the Congress and the BJP have also nominated candidates from political dynasties, states the report, the difference between them is that in Congress "top party leadership has been handed down from generation to generation within the same [Nehru Gandhi dynasty] family", while there has been a historic non-dynastic diversity in the top leadership within the BJP. According to the report, while BJP has also nominated candidates from political dynasties, its better public relations operation "can leap to its defence when attacked on the same grounds".[77] In contrast to the IndiaSpend report, analysis of Kanchan Chandra, a prominent professor of Politics, of the 2004, 2009 and 2014 general elections included a finding that the Congress party has had about twice or more dynastic parliamentarians than the BJP at those elections, and higher than all major political parties in India except the Samajwadi Party.[79][note 4] Many of these dynastic politicians in India who inherit the leadership positions have never held any jobs and lack state or local experience, states Anjali Bohlken – a professor and political science scholar, and this raises concerns of rampant nepotism and appointments of their own friends, relatives and cronies if elected.[80] The BJP has targeted the Congress party in the 2019 elections for alleged nepotism and a family dynasty for leadership.[77][71]

Party campaignsEdit

Party ManifestosEdit

Highlights of the Congress manifestoEdit

The Congress released its manifesto, titled Congress Will Deliver on 3 April.[89][90] Some of its highlights:[89][91][92]

  • Introduce a Nyuntam Aay Yojana welfare program wherein 72,000 (US$1,000) per year will be transferred directly to the bank account of a woman-member in each family in the poorest 20 per cent households.
  • Create 1 million "Seva Mitra" jobs in rural and urban local government bodies. Fill all 400,000 central government vacancies before March 2020, and encourage state governments to fill their 2,000,000 vacancies. Enact a law that requires all non-government controlled employers with over 100 employees to implement an apprentice program.
  • Enact a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning and introduce a "Kisan Budget" (Farmer Budget) in the parliament every year. Waive all farmer loans in all states with any amounts outstanding.
  • Enact a Right to Homestead Act that will provide free land to every household that does not own a home.
  • Enact a Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, free medicines, free hospitalisation and free out-patient care. Double spending on healthcare to 3 per cent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Double spending on education to 6 per cent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Revise the national GST law from three tax tiers to a single moderate rate of tax. Reduce taxes on exported products to zero. Exempt from the GST essential goods and services that are currently not exempt. Enact a new Direct Taxes Code.
  • Augment and rapid construction of national highways. Modernise Indian railway infrastructure. Promote green energy. Manufacturing promotion.
  • Increase defense spending.
  • Enact a National Election Fund, wherein public funds will be distributed to recognised political parties to run their campaign
  • Preserve special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.[92]
  • Amend the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. End the Sedition law (Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code).

Highlights of the BJP manifestoEdit

The BJP released its manifesto sub-titled Sankalpit Bharat, Sashakt Bharat (lit. "Resolute India, Empowered India") on 8 April.[93][94] Some of its highlights:[95][94][92]

  • Double farmer incomes by 2022 by completing all major and micro-irrigation infrastructure projects, opening adequate markets and modern farm produce storage centres, implement minimum price supports for farmer produce, farmer loans and all-weather rural roads. Introduce a pension bill for small and marginal farmers to provide social security after 60 years of age.
  • Bring all secondary schools under the national board quality purview. Invest 100,000 crore (US$14 billion) in higher education, open new and increase seats at existing engineering, management and law schools. Establish skills and innovations centre at block-level in every town. Enhance higher education opportunities for women by introducing financial support and subsidies programs. Source 10 per cent of government procurement from companies with more than 50 per cent female employees.
  • Ensure a pucca (lit. brick-solid, modern) house, safe potable water, toilet, LPG gas cylinder, electricity and banking account for every family. Reduce the percentage of families living under the poverty line to a single digit by 2024.
  • Double the length of national highways. Improve fuel quality by mandating 10 per cent ethanol in petrol. Scale renewable energy capacity to 175 GW.
  • Electrify and convert to broad gauge all railway tracks.
  • Establish 150,000 health and wellness centres. Start 75 new medical colleges. Raise doctor-to-population ratio to 1:1400. Triple childcare facilities. Achieve 100 per cent immunisation of all babies.
  • Raise India's ranking further in "ease of doing business". Double exports, introduce single-window compliance procedures for all businesses.
  • Reduce air pollution by eliminating all crop residue burning.
  • Digitise paperwork and proceedings, modernise the courts.
  • Launch and promote a National Digital Library with e-books and leading journals to provide free knowledge accessible to all students. Launch a "Study in India" program to bring foreign students to institutes of higher education.
  • Zero tolerance for terrorism, fund resources to strengthen national security, guarantee veterans and soldier welfare, modernise police forces.
  • End special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.[92]

Other partiesEdit

Other national and regional parties have released their manifestos too:

  • The Tamil Nadu-based regional parties AIADMK and DMK released their manifesto on 18 March 2019, with each promising to release the seven Tamils jailed after being found guilty for their role in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, a former Congress party leader and prime minister of India. The AIADMK promised to press for the political rights of the Tamil people in the Eelam region of Sri Lanka, while the DMK has promised Indian citizenship to all Sri Lankan expats. According to the Deccan Herald, the AIADMK has promised a cash transfer of 18,000 (US$260) per year to "all families below the poverty level, destitute women, widows without income, differently-abled, landless agricultural labourers, rural and urban manual labourers and destitute senior citizens". The AIADMK also promised to raise the tax exemption limit, and revisions to the GST law. The DMK promised a probe into Rafale fighter jet deal, and a plan to distribute free sanitary napkins to working women along with starting martial arts schools for girls.[96]
  • Biju Janata Dal (BJD) released its manifesto on 9 April 2019. It promised a 100,000 (US$1,400) zero-interest crop loan to farmers every year, a 500,000 (US$7,200) zero-interest loan to women-run self-help groups, 75 per cent jobs reservation in Odisha-based companies to Odisha youth, free education to all girls and a marriage assistance grant of 25,000 (US$360) to daughters of poor families. It also promised to complete two expressways.[97]
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) manifesto promised to raise the minimum wage to 216,000 (US$3,100) per year, an old age pension of 72,000 (US$1,000) per year and universal public distribution of 35 kilograms of foodgrains per family. It also stated the restoration of inheritance tax and increase in the taxes on individuals and corporations.[98] It also promised spending 6 per cent of GDP on education, enacting a Right to Free Health Care with 3.5 per cent of GDP on health in the short term and 5 per cent in the long term, introduction of price controls on essential drugs, breaking monopoly of drug multinationals, as well as enact a Right to Guaranteed Employment in urban areas.[99]
  • Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) promised to open talks with Pakistan on terrorism. It also promised to expand trade and political relationship with Russia, and seek to weaken Russia's ties with China and Pakistan.[100]
  • Samajwadi Party promised an annual pension of 36,000 (US$520) to poor families in a form of a cash transfer to women. It has also proposed a new property tax of 2 per cent on homes valued above 25,000,000 (US$360,000) as well as raising income taxes on the affluent. It also promised to create 100,000 new jobs every year.[101]
  • Telugu Desam Party released its manifesto on 5 April 2019. It promised zero-interest loans to farmer without any caps, a grant of 15,000 (US$220) per year to each farmer as investment support, a grant of 100,000 (US$1,400) to each family with a daughter in the year of her marriage, an unemployment allowance of 3,000 (US$43) for any youth who has completed intermediate education, and free laptops to all students at the intermediate level.[102]
  • AITMC's manifesto was released on 27 March 2019. It promised a judicial probe into demonetisation, a review of GST law, and seekd to bring back the Planning Commission. It also promised free medical care, expanding the "100-day work scheme" currently operating in India to "200-day work scheme" along with a pay increase.[103]
  • Aam Aadmi Party released its manifesto on 25 April 2019 promising full statehood for Delhi to give the Delhi government control over police and other institutions.[104] The manifesto promised 85 per cent reservations in the Delhi-based colleges and jobs for the voters of Delhi and their families.[105][106]

Campaign financeEdit

Several organisations have offered varying estimates for the cost of election campaign. The Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi estimates the election campaign could exceed $7 billion.[107] According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), an election watchdog, in the financial year 2017–18 BJP received 4,370,000,000 (US$63 million), about 12 times more donations than Congress and five other national parties combined.[107]

The electoral bonds in denominations ranging from 1,000 rupees to 10 million rupees ($14 to $140,000) can be purchased and donated to a political party. The bonds don’t carry the name of the donor and are exempt from tax.[108][108][note 5] Factly – an India data journalism portal, traced the electoral bond donations for 2018 under India's Right to Information Act. According to Factly, electoral bonds worth about 10,600,000,000 (US$150 million) were purchased and donated in 2018. According to Bloomberg, this accounted for 31.2 per cent of political donations in 2018, while 51.4 per cent of the total donated amount were each below 20,000 (US$290) and these too were from unknown donors. About 47 per cent of the donations to political parties were from known sources.[108] Between 1 January and 31 March 2019, donors bought 17,100,000,000 (US$250 million) worth of electoral bonds and donated.[112] The spending in elections boosts national GDP, and the 2009 election spending contributed about 0.5 per cent to GDP.[113]

Candidates with criminal chargesEdit

According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) – an Indian advocacy group, 464 of the total 2,856 contestants in the first two phases of the election have disclosed criminal cases against themselves in their nomination papers, as required by Indian election disclosure laws.[114] In the first two phases of elections, the Congress Party topped the list, having nominated 23 candidates with pending criminal cases to compete in the parliamentary elections. The BJP and BSP ranked next, each with 16 candidates.[114]

Parties and alliancesEdit

More than 50 parties are contesting these elections. Most of them are small with regional appeal. The main parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC). With the exception of 2014, no single party has won the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha since 1984, and therefore forming alliances is the norm in Indian elections.[115][116]

There were four main national pre-poll alliances. They are the NDA headed by the BJP, the UPA headed by the INC, the grand alliance of regional parties, and the left front of Communist-leaning parties. Given the volatile nature of coalition politics in India, alliances may change during and after the election. It was the first time when BJP (437) contested more seats than Congress (421) in the Lok Sabha elections.[115][116]

The INC has not formed an alliance in states where it is in direct contest with the BJP. These states include Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. It has formed alliances with regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, and Kerala.[117]

In January 2019, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party announced a grand alliance (Mahagathbandhan) to contest 76 out of the 80 seats in Uttar Pradesh leaving two seats, namely Amethi and Rae Bareli, for INC and another two for other political parties.[118]

Parties/Alliances contesting for the 2019 elections
Party States/UTs contested Seats Alliance
Contested Won
Bharatiya Janata Party Andhra Pradesh 25 437 0 National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2
Assam 10 9
Bihar 17 17
Chhattisgarh 11 9
Goa 2 1
Gujarat 26 26
Haryana 10 10
Himachal Pradesh 4 4
Jammu and Kashmir[119] 6 3
Jharkhand 13 11
Karnataka 27 25
Kerala 15 0
Madhya Pradesh 29 28
Maharashtra 25 23
Manipur 2 1
Meghalaya 2 0
Mizoram[120] 1 0
Odisha 21 8
Punjab 3 2
Rajasthan 24 24
Sikkim 1 0
Tamil Nadu 5 0
Telangana 17 4
Tripura 2 2
Uttar Pradesh 78 62
Uttarakhand 5 5
West Bengal 42 18
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 0
Chandigarh 1 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Daman and Diu 1 1
Delhi 7 7
Lakshadweep 1 0
Shiv Sena[121] Maharashtra 23 18
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[122] Tamil Nadu 20 1
Janata Dal (United)[123] Bihar 17 16
Shiromani Akali Dal[124] Punjab 10 2
Pattali Makkal Katchi[122] Tamil Nadu 7 0
Lok Janshakti Party[123] Bihar 6 6
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Kerala 4 0
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam[125] Tamil Nadu 4 0
Asom Gana Parishad Assam 3 0
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Uttar Pradesh 2 2
All Jharkhand Students Union[126] Jharkhand 1 1
Puthiya Tamilagam[127] Tamil Nadu 1 0
Tamil Maanila Congress Tamil Nadu 1 0
Puthiya Needhi Katchi[128] Tamil Nadu 1 0
All India N.R. Congress[129] Puducherry 1 0
Bodoland People's Front[130] Assam 1 0
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Nagaland 1 1
Kerala Congress (Thomas)[131] Kerala 1 0
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Rajasthan 1 1
Sumalatha (Independent candidate supported by BJP in Mandya) Karnataka 1 1
Indian National Congress Andhra Pradesh 25 421 0 United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
Arunachal Pradesh 2 0
Assam 14 3
Bihar 9 1
Chhattisgarh 11 2
Goa 2 1
Gujarat 26 0
Haryana 10 0
Himachal Pradesh 4 0
Jammu and Kashmir 5 0
Jharkhand 7 1
Karnataka 21 1
Kerala 16 15
Madhya Pradesh 29 1
Maharashtra[132] 24 1
Manipur 2 0
Meghalaya 2 1
Nagaland 1 0
Odisha 18 1
Punjab 13 8
Rajasthan 25 0
Sikkim 1 0
Tamil Nadu 9 8
Telangana 17 3
Tripura 2 0
Uttar Pradesh[133] 67 1
Uttarakhand 5 0
West Bengal 40 2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1
Chandigarh 1 0
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Daman and Diu 1 0
Delhi 7 0
Lakshadweep 1 0
Puducherry 1 1
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[134] Tamil Nadu 20 20
Nationalist Congress Party[132] Maharashtra 20 4
Rashtriya Janata Dal Bihar 19 20 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Janata Dal (Secular)[135] Karnataka 7 1
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Bihar 5 0
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha[136] Jharkhand 4 5 1
Odisha 1 0
Jan Adhikar Party[133] Uttar Pradesh 3 0
Communist Party of India (State level)[134][137] Odisha 1 3 0
Tamil Nadu 2 2
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level)[134] Odisha 1 3 0
Tamil Nadu 2 2
Hindustani Awam Morcha Bihar 3 0
Indian Union Muslim League[134] Kerala 2 3 2
Tamil Nadu 1 1
Vikassheel Insaan Party Bihar 3 0
Jharkhand Vikas Morcha[136] Jharkhand 2 0
Swabhimani Paksha[132] Maharashtra 2 0
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi[134] Tamil Nadu 2 2
Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi[132] Maharashtra 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation (State level) Bihar 1 0
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi[134] Tamil Nadu 1 1
Kerala Congress (M) Kerala 1 1
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi[134] Tamil Nadu 1 1
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[134] Tamil Nadu 1 1
Revolutionary Socialist Party (State level)[138] Kerala 1 1
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (supported by INC in Srinagar) Jammu and Kashmir 1 1
Navaneet Kaur (Independent candidate supported by INC in Amravati) Maharashtra 1 1
Lalnghinglova Hmar (Independent candidate supported by INC in Mizoram) Mizoram 1 0
Surendra Kumar Gupta (Independent candidate supported by INC in Pilibhit) Uttar Pradesh 1 0
Bahujan Samaj Party[139] Andhra Pradesh 3 291 0 Mahagathbandhan

(Grand Alliance)

Bihar 40 0
Chhattisgarh 11 0
Gujarat 26 0
Haryana 8 0
Jammu and Kashmir 2 0
Jharkhand 14 0
Karnataka 28 0
Madhya Pradesh 26 0
Maharashtra 44 0
Odisha 14 0
Punjab 3 0
Rajasthan 25 0
Telangana 5 0
Uttar Pradesh 38 10
Uttarakhand 4 0
Samajwadi Party[118] Madhya Pradesh 2 43 0
Maharashtra 4 0
Uttar Pradesh 37 5
Rashtriya Lok Dal Uttar Pradesh 3 0
Gondwana Ganatantra Party[140] Madhya Pradesh 1 0
Loktantra Suraksha Party[141] Haryana 2 0
Punjab Ekta Party[142] Punjab 3 0
Lok Insaaf Party[142] Punjab 3 0
Punjab Front[142] Punjab 1 0
Communist Party of India (State level)[142] Andhra Pradesh 2 4 0
Punjab 2 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level) Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Revolutionary Marxist Party of India (State level)[142] Punjab 1 0
Jana Sena Party[143] Andhra Pradesh 18 23 0
Telangana 5 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist)[144] Assam 2 65 0 Left Front
Bihar 1 0
Haryana 1 0
Himachal Pradesh 1 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Karnataka 1 0
Kerala 16 1
Lakshadweep 1 0
Madhya Pradesh 1 0
Maharashtra 1 0
Odisha 1 0
Telangana 2 0
Tripura 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
West Bengal 33 0
Communist Party of India Bihar 1 9 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Kerala 4 0
West Bengal 3 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party West Bengal 3 0
All India Forward Bloc Andhra Pradesh 1 5 0
Arunachal Pradesh 1 0
West Bengal 3 0
Telugu Desam Party Andhra Pradesh 25 3 Other parties
YSR Congress Party Andhra Pradesh 25 22
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Maharashtra TBA
Amma Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam Puducherry 1 39 0
Tamil Nadu 38 0
Makkal Needhi Maiam Puducherry 1 38 0
Tamil Nadu 37 0
Biju Janata Dal Odisha 21 12
Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 16 9
Social Democratic Party of India Tamil Nadu 1 0
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen Maharashtra 1 2 1
Telangana 1 1
Naam Tamilar Katchi Puducherry 1 39 0
Tamil Nadu 38 0
Aam Aadmi Party[145] Bihar 3 33 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Delhi 7 0
Goa 2 0
Haryana 3 0
Punjab 13 1
Uttar Pradesh 4 0
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) Bihar 3 96 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Delhi 2 0
Haryana 1 0
Jammu and Kashmir 1 0
Karnataka 2 0
Madhya Pradesh 2 0
Odisha 2 0
Tamil Nadu 2 0
Uttar Pradesh 79 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Jammu and Kashmir 4 0
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Jammu and Kashmir 4 3
National People's Party Arunachal Pradesh TBA TBA
Assam 5 0
Manipur 1 0
Meghalaya 1 1
Mizoram 1 0
Jannayak Janata Party Haryana 7 0
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand 4 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Andhra Pradesh 2 9 0
Bihar 4 0
Jharkhand 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star Andhra Pradesh 1 3 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) Bihar 2 5 0
Chhattisgarh 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
All India Trinamool Congress Assam 8 72 0
Bihar 2 0
Jharkhand 3 0
Odisha 10 0
Tamil Nadu 7 0
West Bengal 42 22
Indian Gandhiyan Party Bihar 2 66 0
Jharkhand 3 0
Odisha 10 0
Tamil Nadu 7 0
Uttar Pradesh 2 0
West Bengal 42 0
Independent politicians Andhra Pradesh TBA TBA None
Arunachal Pradesh TBA
Assam TBA
Bihar TBA
Chhattisgarh TBA
Goa TBA
Gujarat TBA
Haryana TBA
Himachal Pradesh TBA
Jammu and Kashmir TBA
Jharkhand TBA
Karnataka TBA
Kerala TBA
Madhya Pradesh TBA
Maharashtra TBA
Manipur TBA
Meghalaya TBA
Mizoram TBA
Nagaland TBA
Odisha TBA
Punjab TBA
Rajasthan TBA
Sikkim TBA
Tamil Nadu TBA
Telangana TBA
Tripura TBA
Uttar Pradesh TBA
Uttarakhand TBA
West Bengal TBA
Andaman and Nicobar Islands TBA
Chandigarh TBA
Dadra and Nagar Haveli TBA
Daman and Diu TBA
Delhi TBA
Lakshadweep TBA
Puducherry TBA

Voter statisticsEdit

According to the ECI, 900 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 84.3 million voters since the last election in 2014,[146][147] making it the largest-ever election in the world.[148] 15 million voters aged 18–19 years became eligible to vote for the first time.[149][150] 468 million eligible voters were males, 432 million were females and 38325 identified themselves belonging to third gender. Total 71,735 overseas voters also enrolled.[citation needed]

The residents of the former enclaves exchanged under the 2015 India-Bangladesh boundary agreement voted for the first time.[151]

Electronic voting machines and securityEdit

The ECI deployed a total of 1.74 million voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) units and 3.96 million electronic voting machines (EVM) in 1,035,918 polling stations.[152] Approximately 270,000 paramilitary and 2 million state police personnel provided organisational support and security at various polling booths.[153] On 9 April 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the ECI to increase VVPAT slips vote count to five randomly selected EVMs per assembly constituency, which means ECI has to count VVPAT slips of 20,625 EVMs before it certifies the final election results.[154][155][156]

TurnoutEdit

In the first phase, 69.58 per cent of the 142 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect their representatives for 91 Lok Sabha seats.[157] The voter turnout was 68.77 per cent in the same constituencies in the 2014 general elections.[157] In the second phase, 156 million voters were eligible to vote for 95 Lok Sabha seats and the turnout was 69.45 per cent, compared to 69.62 per cent in 2014.[157] For the third phase, 189 million voters were eligible to elect 116 Lok Sabha representatives.[157] According to ECI, the turnout for this phase was 68.40 per cent, compared to 67.15 per cent in 2014.[157] In the fourth of seven phases, 65.50 per cent of the 128 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect 72 representatives to the Indian parliament while the turnout for the same seats in the 2014 election was 63.05 per cent.[157] The fifth phase was open to 87.5 million eligible voters, who could cast their vote in over 96,000 polling booths.[158] In the sixth phase, 64.40 per cent of the 101 million eligible voters cast their vote in about 113,000 polling stations.[159]

The final turnout stood at 67.11 per cent, the highest ever turnout recorded in any of the general elections till date. The percentage is 1.16 per cent higher than the 2014 elections whose turnout stood at 65.95 per cent.[160]

State/UT Total Voter turnout by phase[157][a]
Phase 1

11 April

Phase 2

18 April

Phase 3

23 April

Phase 4

29 April

Phase 5

6 May

Phase 6

12 May

Phase 7

19 May

Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%)
Andhra Pradesh 25 79.70   25 79.70    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Arunachal Pradesh 2 78.47   2 78.47    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Assam 14 81.52   5 78.27   5 81.19   4 85.11    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Bihar 40 TBA 4 53.44   5 62.92   5 61.21   5 59.18   5 57.08   8 58.48  8 51.38
Chhattisgarh 11 71.48   1 66.04   3 74.95   7 70.73    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Goa 2 74.94    –  –  –  – 2 74.94    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Gujarat 26 64.11    –  –  –  – 26 64.11    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Haryana 10 70.34   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 10 70.34   –  –
Himachal Pradesh 4 70.22  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 4 70.22 
Jammu and Kashmir[b] 6 TBA 2 57.38   2 45.66   13 13.68   13 10.32   1​13 19.92    –  –  –  –
Jharkhand 14 TBA  –  –  –  –  –  – 3 64.97   4 65.99   4 65.42  3 55.59
Karnataka 28 68.63    –  – 14 68.80   14 68.47    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Kerala 20 77.67    –  –  –  – 20 77.67    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Madhya Pradesh 29 71.10    –  –  –  –  –  – 6 74.90   7 69.14   8 65.24   8 75.64  
Maharashtra 48 60.79   7 63.04   10 62.85   14 62.36   17 57.33    –  –  –  –  –  –
Manipur 2 82.75   1 84.20   1 81.24    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Meghalaya 2 71.43   2 71.43    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Mizoram 1 63.12   1 63.12    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Nagaland 1 83.09   1 83.09    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Odisha 21 73.06   4 73.82   5 72.56   6 71.62   6 74.38    –  –  –  –  –  –
Punjab 13 65.96  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 13 65.96 
Rajasthan 25 TBA  –  –  –  –  –  – 13 68.17   12 63.71    –  –  –  –
Sikkim 1 78.81   1 78.81    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tamil Nadu[c] 38 72.02    –  – 38 72.02    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Telangana 17 62.71 17 62.71  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tripura 2 83.20   1 83.21    –  – 1 83.19    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Uttar Pradesh 80 TBA 8 63.92   8 62.46   10 61.42   13 59.11   14 58.00   14 54.44 13 47.82
Uttarakhand 5 61.48   5 61.48    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
West Bengal 42 TBA 2 83.80   3 81.72   5 81.97   8 82.84   7 80.09   8 84.50 9 78.73
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 65.08   1 65.08    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Chandigarh 1 70.62  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 1 70.62
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 79.59    –  –  –  – 1 79.59    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Daman and Diu 1 71.83    –  –  –  – 1 71.83    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Delhi 7 60.51   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 7 60.51   –  –
Lakshadweep 1 84.96   1 84.96    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Puducherry 1 81.21    –  – 1 81.21    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Total 542 67.11   91 69.58   95 69.45   116​13 68.40  71​13 65.50   50​13 64.16   59 64.40 59 61.71
  1. ^  /  indicate change from the 2014 elections.
  2. ^ Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  3. ^ Tamil Nadu has 39 constituencies. Polling in Vellore was cancelled.

Opinion polls, exit polls and seat projectionsEdit

 
Number of seats projected in opinion polls per alliance over time.

Various organisations have carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intentions in India. Results of such polls are displayed in this list. The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held in April and May 2014, to the present day. The ECI banned the release of exit polls from 11 April to 19 May, the last phase of the elections.[161] The commission also banned the publication or broadcast in the media of predictions made by astrologers and tarot card readers.[162]

Date published Polling agency Others Majority Ref
NDA UPA
Exit poll India Today-Axis 352 ± 13 93 ± 15 82 ± 13 80 ± 13 [163]
Exit poll News24-Today's Chanakya 350 ± 14 95 ± 9 97 ± 11 78 ± 14 [164]
Exit poll News18-IPSOS
CNN-IBN-IPSOS
336 82 124 64 [165][166]
Exit poll VDP Associates 333 115 94 61 [167]
Exit poll Sudarshan News 313 121 109 41 [168]
Exit poll Times Now-VMR 306 ± 3 132 ± 3 104 ± 3 34 ± 3 [169]
Exit poll Republic-Jan Ki Baat 305 124 113 33 [170]
Exit poll Suvarna News 305 124 102 33 [168]
Exit poll India TV-CNX 300 ± 10 120 ± 5 122 ± 6 28 ± 10 [171]
Exit poll India News-Polstrat 287 128 127 15 [172]
Exit poll Republic-CVoter 287 128 127 15 [166]
Exit poll News Nation 286 122 134 14 [173]
Exit poll ABP-CSDS 277 130 135 5 [163]
Exit poll NewsX-Neta 242 164 137 Hung [166]
Elections: 11 April – 19 May
8 April 2019 Times Now-VMR 279 149 115 7 [174]
6 April 2019 India TV-CNX 275 126 142 3 [175]
1 Feb – 4 April 2019 Jan Ki Baat 310 122 111 38 [176]
Mar 2019 Times Now-VMR 283 135 125 11 [177]
Mar 2019 News Nation 270 134 139 Hung [178]
Mar 2019 Republic-CVoter 264 141 138 Hung [179]
Mar 2019 India TV-CNX 285 126 132 13 [180]
Mar 2019 Zee 24 Taas 264 165 114 Hung [181]
Feb 2019 VDP Associates 242 148 153 Hung [182]
Jan 2019 Times Now-VMR 252 147 144 Hung [183]
Jan 2019 ABP News-CVoter 233 167 143 Hung [184]
Jan 2019 India Today-Karvy 237 166 140 Hung [185]
Jan 2019 VDP Associates 225 167 150 Hung [186]
Dec 2018 India Today 257 146 140 Hung [187]
Dec 2018 ABP News-CVoter 247 171 125 Hung [188]
Dec 2018 India TV-CNX 281 124 138 9 [189]
Nov 2018 ABP News-CVoter 261 119 163 Hung [190]
Oct 2018 ABP News 276 112 155 4 [191]
Aug 2018 India Today-Karvy 281 122 140 9 [192]
May 2018 ABP News-CSDS 274 164 105 2 [193]
Jan 2018 Republic-CVoter 335 89 119 63 [194]
Jan 2018 India Today 309 102 132 37 [195]
April–May 2014 2014 election results 336 60 113 64 [196]

ResultsEdit

ReactionsEdit

The benchmark BSE Sensex and Nifty50 indices hit intraday record highs and the Indian rupee strengthened after the exit polls and on the day the election results were announced.[197][198]

InternationalEdit

Afghanistan, Argentina,[199] Australia, Austria,[200] Bangladesh, Bhutan,[201] Brazil,[202] Burundi, Canada, China, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia,[203] France, Ghana, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica,[204] Japan, Kenya,[205] Kuwait,[206] Latvia,[207] Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand,[208] Pakistan, Palestine,[209] Portugal, Qatar,[210] Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles,[211] Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Thailand,[212] Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela,[213] Vietnam[214] and Zimbabwe congratulated Narendra Modi and the BJP on their victory.[215]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Two seats are reserved for Anglo-Indians and filled through Presidential nomination, while the poll in one constituency was cancelled.
  2. ^ In 9 states and union territories of India – such as Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand – more women turned out to vote than men in 2019.[7]
  3. ^ a b The unemployment data in India is not collected on a monthly or an annual basis, rather it is determined through a sample survey once every 5 years, with a few exceptions. The survey methodology is unlike those in major world economies, and sub-classifies unemployment into categories such as "usual status unemployment" and "current status unemployment" based on the answers given by the individuals interviewed. Its methodology and results have been questioned by various scholars.[43][44][45] The report and the refusal of the BJP government to release it has been criticised by economist Surjit Bhalla.[44] According to Bhalla, the survey methodology is flawed and its results absurd, because the sample survey-based report finds that India's overall population has declined since 2011–12 by 1.2 per cent (contrary to the Census data which states a 6.7 per cent increase). The report finds that India's percent urbanisation and urban workforce has declined since 2012, which is contrary to all other studies on Indian urbanisation trends, states Bhalla.[44] According to NSSO's report's data, "the Modi government has unleashed the most inclusive growth anywhere, and at any time in human history" – which is as unbelievable as the unemployment data it reports, states Bhalla.[44] The NSSO report suggests the inflation-adjusted employment income of casual workers has dramatically increased while those of the salaried wage-earners has fallen during the 5-years of BJP government.[44] The NSSO has also changed the sampling methodology in the latest round, state Bhalla and Avik Sarkar,[46] which is one of the likely sources of its flawed statistics and conclusions.[44]
  4. ^ According to Chandra: in 2009 after the persistently dynastic Samajwadi party, the larger Biju Janata Dal ranked next, followed by the Congress party. In 2004 and 2014, Congress ranked second.[80]
  5. ^ Stanley Kochanek in 1987 published about the "briefcase politics" tradition in Indian politics during the decades when the Congress party dominated Indian national politics.[109] Similarly, Rajeev Gowda and E Sridharan in 2012 have discussed the history of campaign financing laws in India and the role of black money in Indian elections.[110] Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav discuss the rise of "briefcase" black money donations in India triggered by the 1969 campaign financing bans proposed and enacted by Indira Gandhi, and the campaign finance law reforms thereafter through 2017. They call the recent reforms as yielding "greater transparency than ever before, though limited".[111]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "EC may announce Lok Sabha election schedule in March first week: Sources – Times of India". The Times of India.
  2. ^ Staff, Scroll. "2019 General Elections: Voting to be held in 7 phases from April 11 to May 19, counting on May 23". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Lok Sabha Election 2019 Dates Schedule LIVE, Assembly Elections Dates For Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, 2019 Election Date Time for Polling, Counting and Results". timesnownews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Lok Sabha elections will begin on April 11 and polling will be held over seven phases through May 19, followed by counting of votes on May 23. Lok Sabha Election 2019 : Key Dates, Live News Updates, Election Calendar". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  5. ^ At 67.1%, 2019 turnout's a record: Election Commission, The Times of India (20 May 2019)
  6. ^ Polls Are Closed in India’s Election: What Happens Next?, The New York Times, Douglas Schorzman and Kai Schultz (19 May 2019)
  7. ^ Women turn out in greater numbers than in previous elections, The Economic Times, Aanchal Bansal (20 May 2019)
  8. ^ "India Election Results: Modi and the B.J.P. Make History". NYT. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  9. ^ "LIVE Indian General Election Results - Map Wise, State Wise, Constituency Wise". NDTV.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Assembly polls in 4 states with Lok Sabha elections but not in J&K- Malayala Manorama". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  11. ^ "Lok Sabha elections 2019: Congress MP favours more seats for RJD in Bihar". 4 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  12. ^ Electoral system IPU
  13. ^ Lok Sabha Election 2019 Phase 3 voting: How to vote without voter ID card, Business Today (April 23 2019)
  14. ^ "General Voters". Systematic Voters' Education and Electoral Participation. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  15. ^ Singh, Vijaita (1 September 2018). "General election will be held in 2019 as per schedule, says Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections dates announced: Polls to be held from April 11 in 7 phases, counting on May 23". The Economic Times. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  17. ^ "Announcement of Schedule for General Elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha & Sikkim, 2019". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  18. ^ Ahmad, Mudasir (11 March 2019). "Kashmir: Why Polls in Anantnag Lok Sabha Seat Will Be Held in Three Phases". The Wire. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  19. ^ "Election cancelled in Vellore Lok Sabha seat after money seized from DMK leaders". The News Minute. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  20. ^ "Lok Sabha polls in Vellore cancelled due to use of money power". The Economic Times. 16 April 2019.
  21. ^ "Polling in Tripura East deferred to April 23". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 16 April 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 May 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  22. ^ "Mamata's Opposition rally top quotes: 'One ambition — save India, save democracy'". The Indian Express. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  23. ^ T Ramavarman (27 January 2019). "Opposition united only for corruption, undermining institutions, alleges PM Modi". Times of India. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  24. ^ Election Commission endorsing Modi violations: Congress, The Telegraph (28 April 2019)
  25. ^ a b Countering Criticism Of EC, 81 Civil Servants Write Counter-letter To The President Reposing Their Faith In The Poll Body. Read Here, Republic World (16 April 2019)
  26. ^ In its attack on Modi government, the Opposition has failed to distinguish between political executive and independent institutions, The Indian Express (30 April 2019)
  27. ^ a b c SWOT analysis shows NDA well ahead of UPA, The Times of India, SA Aiyar (14 April 2019)
  28. ^ Narendra Modi's Challenge In India's Upcoming Elections, The Forbes, Harry Broadman (29 March 2019)
  29. ^ India to be global growth leader in 2019–20: IMF, India Today (22 January 2019); At 7.5%, 7.7% India to be top growing economy in 2020: IMF, The Hindu (21 January 2019)
  30. ^ India: Report, International Monetary Fund (2019)
  31. ^ 131 accountants from India just responded to the open letter from economists and social scientists challenging official GDP data, Business Insider, D Dhillon (18 March 2019)
  32. ^ Mayawati again blasts both BJP, Congress, Business Standard, IANS (8 April 2019)
  33. ^ Congress put India in fragile five, we put it in fastest gear even in challenging environments: Arun Jaitley, The Economic Times, Deepshikha Sikarwar and Vinay Pandey (4 April 2019)
  34. ^ Demonetisation was done in national interest: PM Narendra Modi, Live Mint, Shashi Shekhar (6 April 2019)
  35. ^ Corruption-free government is possible: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, The New Indian Express, GS Vasu, HK Singh and M Anand (16 April 2019)
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