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The 2019 Indian general election was held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The votes were counted and result was declared on 23 May.[1][2][3][4] About 900 million people were eligible to vote and turnout was over 67 per cent – the highest ever as well as the highest participation by women voters.[5][6][note 2]

2019 Indian general election

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543[note 1] (of the 545) seats in the Lok Sabha
272 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout67.47% (Increase1.07%)
  First party Second party Third party
  PM Modi Portrait(cropped).jpg Rahul Gandhi (portrait crop).jpg Mkspicture (cropped).jpg
Leader Narendra Modi Rahul Gandhi M. K. Stalin
Party BJP INC DMK
Alliance NDA UPA UPA
Leader since 13 September 2013 11 December 2017 28 August 2018
Leader's seat Varanasi (won) Wayanad(won) and
Amethi (lost)
Did not contest
Last election 282 44 0
Seats won 303 52 23
Seat change Increase21 Increase8 Increase23
Percentage 37.36% 19.49% 2.26%
Swing Increase6.02% Decrease0.03% Increase0.50%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Mamata Banerjee - Kolkata 2011-12-08 7531 (cropped).JPG Jagan1 (cropped).jpg Uddhav thackeray 20090703 (cropped).jpg
Leader Mamata Banerjee Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy Uddhav Thackeray
Party AITC YSR Congress Shiv Sena
Alliance - - NDA
Leader since 1998 2011 2013
Leader's seat Did not contest Did not contest Did not contest
Last election 34 9 18
Seats won 22 22 18
Seat change Decrease 12 Increase 13 Steady
Percentage 4.07% 2.53% 2.10%
Swing Increase0.19% Decrease0.02% Increase0.23%

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  Nitish Kumar in February 2007.jpg Odisha CM Naveen Patnaik in October 2014.jpg Mayawati.jpg
Leader Nitish Kumar Naveen Patnaik Mayawati
Party JD(U) BJD BSP
Alliance NDA - MGB
Leader since 2016 2000 2003
Leader's seat Did not contest Did not contest Did not contest
Last election 2 20 0
Seats won 16 12 10
Seat change Increase 14 Decrease 8 Increase 10
Percentage 1.46% 1.66% 3.63%
Swing Increase0.37% Decrease0.07% Decrease0.56%

Indian General Election 2019.svg
Seat results by constituency. As this is a FPTP election, seat totals are not determined by popular vote, but instead by the result in each constituency.

Prime Minister before election

Narendra Modi
BJP

Prime Minister

Narendra Modi
BJP

The Bharatiya Janata Party won 303 seats, further increasing its substantial majority[8] and the BJP-led National Democratic Alliance won 353 seats.[9] The Indian National Congress party won 52 seats, and the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won 91. Other parties and their alliances won 98 seats.[10] Indian National Congress again failed to secure the requisite 10% of the seats (54 seats) in the Lok Sabha and hence India remains without an official opposition party.[11][12]

Legislative assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim were held simultaneously with the general election,[13][14] as well as by-elections to twenty two seats of the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.[15]

Contents

Election system

All 543 elected MPs are elected from single-member constituencies using first-past-the-post voting. The President of India appoints an additional two members from the Anglo-Indian community if he believes that community is under-represented.[16]

Eligible voters must be Indian citizens, 18 or older, an ordinary resident of the polling area of the constituency and registered to vote, possess a valid voter identification card issued by the Election Commission of India or an equivalent.[17] some people convicted of electoral or other offences are barred from voting.[18]

The elections are being held on schedule and as per the Constitution of India that mandates parliamentary elections once every five years.[19]

Election schedule

 
Official logo
 
Election schedule

The election schedule was announced by Election Commission of India (ECI) on 10 March 2019, and with it the Model Code of Conduct came into effect.[20][21]

The election was scheduled to be held in seven phases. In Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the election was held in all seven phases. The polling for the Anantnag constituency in the state of Jammu and Kashmir was held in three phases due to violence in the region.[22]

Phase-wise polling constituencies in each state
State/Union territory Total

constituencies

Election dates and number of constituencies
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Phase 7
11 April 18 April 23 April 29 April 6 May 12 May 19 May
Andhra Pradesh 25 25
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2
Assam 14 5 5 4
Bihar 40 4 5 5 5 5 8 8
Chhattisgarh 11 1 3 7
Goa 2 2
Gujarat 26 26
Haryana 10 10
Himachal Pradesh 4 4
Jammu and Kashmir 6 2 2 13[n 1] 13[n 1] 1​13[n 1]
Jharkhand 14 3 4 4 3
Karnataka 28 14 14
Kerala 20 20
Madhya Pradesh 29 6 7 8 8
Maharashtra 48 7 10 14 17
Manipur 2 1 1
Meghalaya 2 2
Mizoram 1 1
Nagaland 1 1
Odisha 21 4 5 6 6
Punjab 13 13
Rajasthan 25 13 12
Sikkim 1 1
Tamil Nadu 39 38[n 2]
Telangana 17 17
Tripura 2 1 1[n 3]
Uttar Pradesh 80 8 8 10 13 14 14 13
Uttarakhand 5 5
West Bengal 42 2 3 5 8 7 8 9
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1
Chandigarh 1 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 1
Daman and Diu 1 1
Delhi 7 7
Lakshadweep 1 1
Puducherry 1 1
Constituencies 543 91 95 116​13 71​13 50​13 59 59
Total constituencies by end of phase 91 186 302​13 373​23 424 483 542[n 2]
per cent complete by end of phase 17% 34% 56% 69% 78% 89% 100%
  1. ^ a b c Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  2. ^ a b Polling in Vellore was cancelled. (see below)
  3. ^ Polling in Tripura East was rescheduled from 18 to 23 April.

Rescheduled voting, cancellations

  • Vellore, Tamil Nadu: Over 11 crore (US$1.6 million) in cash was seized in Vellore from DMK leaders – a regional party in Tamil Nadu. According to The News Minute, this cash is alleged to have been for bribing the voters.[23] Based on the evidence collected during the raids, the Election Commission of India cancelled the 18 April election date in the Vellore constituency. The DMK leaders have denied wrongdoing and alleged a conspiracy.[24]
  • Tripura East, Tripura: The Election Commission of India deferred polling from 18 to 23 April due to the law and order situation.[25] The poll panel took the decision following reports from the Special Police Observers that the circumstances were not conducive for holding free and fair elections in the constituency.[26]

Campaigning

Issues

Allegations of undermining institutions

The opposition parties have accused the NDA government is destroying democratic institutions and processes.[27] Modi denied and blamed Congress and the communists for undermining institutions including the police, CBI and the CAG, and cited the murder of BJP activists in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.[28] The Congress party, other opposition parties and a group of retired civil servants have accused the ECI as being compromised and as endorsing the model code of conduct violations by Narendra Modi and other BJP political leaders during their campaign.[29][30] Another group of 81 retired civil servants, judges and academics disputed these allegations, made counter-allegations, and stated that the ECI acted fairly and similarly in alleged violations by either side. The group states that such political attacks on the ECI are a "deliberate attempt to denigrate and delegitimise the democratic institutions".[30][31]

Economic performance

According to The Times of India, the major economic achievements of the incumbent NDA government include an inflation rate less than 4 per cent, the GST reform, the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code. Its programs, in recent years, that have positively touched many among the Indian masses, include the Jan Dhan Yojana, rural cooking gas and electricity for homes.[32] According to the IMF, the Indian economy has been growing in recent years, its GDP growth rate is among the highest in the world for major economies, and India is expected to be the fastest growing major economy in 2019–2020 and 2020–2021, with real GDP projected to grow at 7.3 per cent.[33][34][35] The GDP growth data has been disputed[32] by a group of Indian social scientists, economists and the political opposition's election campaign, while a group of Indian chartered accountants has defended the data, the GDP calculation methodology, and questioned the motivations of those disputing the recent Indian GDP statistics.[36]

The opposition's election campaign has claimed that both the demonetisation and GST law have "seriously hit small business, farmers and casual labour", states The Times of India.[32][37] The incumbent has claimed that they inherited a country from the previous Congress-led government that was "a legacy of policy paralysis, corruption and economic fragility", and that the BJP-led government policies have placed India on better economic fundamentals and a fast gear.[38] Modi claims that his government pursued demonetisation in the national interest, his government has identified and de-registered 338,000 shell companies, identified and recovered 130,000 crore (US$19 billion) in black money since 2014, and almost doubled India's tax base.[39][40] The Congress party disputes the incumbents' claims, and has alleged that BJP offices have "become hubs of creating black money", and seeks a judicial inquiry into the Rafale deal with France and BJP's role in corruption.[41]

National security and terrorism

In response to the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian Air Force conducted airstrikes inside Pakistan — for the first time since the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The ongoing conflict with Pakistan became a significant factor in the election. The opposition parties accused of politicising the army, whilst the BJP countered their accusations by stating that such allegations raised by them were adversely affecting the morale of armed forces.[42]

According to the Pew Research Center, both before and after the outbreak of recent India-Pakistan tensions, their 2018 and 2019 surveys suggest that the significant majority of the voters consider Pakistan as a "very serious threat" to their country, and terrorism to be a "very big problem".[43][44]

Unemployment

According to the Pew Research Center, a majority of Indian voters consider the lack of employment opportunities as a "very big problem" in their country. "About 18.6 million Indians were jobless and another 393.7 million work in poor-quality jobs vulnerable to displacement", states the Pew report.[44]

A report on unemployment prepared by the National Sample Survey Office's (NSSO's) periodic labour force survey, has not been officially released by the government. According to Business Today, this report is the "first comprehensive survey on employment conducted by a government agency after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced demonetisation move in November 2016". According to this report, the 2017–2018 "usual status"[note 3] unemployment rate in India is 6.1 per cent, which is a four-decade high.[45][note 3] The government has claimed that the report was not final.[50] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) – a United Nations agency, unemployment is rising in India and the "unemployment rate in the country [India] will stand at 3.5 percent in 2018 and 2019 – the same level of unemployment seen in 2017 and 2016", instead of dropping to 3.4 percent as it had previously projected.[51] According to the ILO's World Employment Social Outlook Report, the unemployment rate in India has been in the 3.4 to 3.6 percent range over the UPA-government led 2009–2014 and the NDA-government led 2014–2019 periods.[51]

Opposition parties have claimed in their election campaign that the unemployment in India has reached crisis levels. The NDA government has denied the existence of any job crisis.[52] Prime minister Narendra Modi claimed that jobs are not lacking but the accurate data on jobs has been lacking.[53][54]

The opposition has attacked the NDA government's performance with the NSSO reported 6.1 percent unemployment data. Modi and his government have questioned this job statistics report, stating that "most surveys that try to capture unemployment rate are skewed since these did not cover the unorganised sector, which accounts for 85–90 per cent of jobs [in India]".[55]

Agrarian and rural distress

The Congress party campaign has highlighted "agrarian distress" as an election issue.[56] The BJP campaign has highlighted that the Congress party had been in power for five generations of the Nehru dynasty and its past promises and campaign issues have been empty. It claims that the recent farmer loan waivers by Congress have not reached "even 10% of the farmers" nor has it helped the financial situation of the farmers. BJP highlights that its "Kisan Samman Nidhi" helps the small farmers at the time of seed planting through a direct deposit of ₹6000 to their accounts.[57] The opposition has accused this as being an attempt to lure voters.[58]

According to The Times of India, a group of farmer associations have demanded that the 2019 election manifesto of competing political parties should promise to "keep agriculture out of the World Trade Organization (WTO)" and that the interests of Indian farmers must not be compromised in global trade treaties.[59] They have also demanded loan waivers and income support for the agriculture sector.[59] According to the Business Standard and the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization, India has witnessed record crop harvests in recent years including 2017 when its farmers grew more foodgrains than ever before.[60][61] However, the farmers consider the "low remunerative prices" they receive in the free market to be too low and a need for the Indian government to establish higher minimum support prices for agricultural products. These farmers consider this an issue for the 2019 general elections.[60]

Dynasty politics

The BJP has highlighted that the Congress party has relied on Nehru's dynasty for leadership since India's independence, its lack of internal party institutions and claimed that whenever Congress has been in power, the freedom of press and Indian government institutions have "taken a severe beating".[62][63] During the election campaign, its leaders have mentioned the Emergency of 1975, the nepotism, corruption and widespread abuses of human rights under the Congress rule in the past.[62][64][65] Congress-led alliance leader H. D. Kumaraswamy – the son of a former prime minister of India and the current chief minister of Karnataka, has countered that "India developed because of dynasty politics", stating that "dynasty politics are not the main issue, rather country's problems are".[66] The Congress has alleged hypocrisy by the BJP, claiming that the BJP itself forms alliances with dynasty-based parties such as the Akali Dal in Punjab, and that family relatives of senior BJP leaders such as Rajnath Singh and Arun Jaitley have been in politics too.[67]

According to an IndiaSpend report published by the BloombergQuint, the smaller and regional parties such as the Jammu and Kashmir National Conference, Lok Jan Sakti Party, Shiromani Akali Dal, Biju Janata Dal and Samajwadi Party have higher densities of dynasty-derived candidates and elected representatives in recent years.[68][69] While both the Congress and the BJP have also nominated candidates from political dynasties, states the report, the difference between them is that in Congress "top party leadership has been handed down from generation to generation within the same [Nehru Gandhi dynasty] family", while there has been a historic non-dynastic diversity in the top leadership within the BJP. According to the report, while BJP has also nominated candidates from political dynasties, its better public relations operation "can leap to its defence when attacked on the same grounds".[68] In contrast to the IndiaSpend report, analysis of Kanchan Chandra, a prominent professor of Politics, of the 2004, 2009 and 2014 general elections included a finding that the Congress party has had about twice or more dynastic parliamentarians than the BJP at those elections, and higher than all major political parties in India except the Samajwadi Party.[70][note 4] Many of these dynastic politicians in India who inherit the leadership positions have never held any jobs and lack state or local experience, states Anjali Bohlken – a professor and political science scholar, and this raises concerns of rampant nepotism and appointments of their own friends, relatives and cronies if elected.[71] The BJP has targeted the Congress party in the 2019 elections for alleged nepotism and a family dynasty for leadership.[68][62]

Campaign controversies

Income tax raids

In April 2019, raids conducted by the Income Tax Department found bundles of unaccounted for cash amounting to 281 crore (US$41 million), along with liquor and documentary evidence in premises of people with close connections to Madhya Pradesh chief minister Kamal Nath of the Congress. Modi has highlighted this evidence to attack the Congress in its election campaign, alleging corruption is part of Congress party's culture.[72][73]

Social media abuses and fake news

According to The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, the election had attracted a systematic attempt to spread misinformation through social media.[74][75] Facebook said that over a hundred of these advocacy accounts spreading disinformation were traced to "employees of the Pakistani military public relations wing".[74][75] Some others have been linked to the INC and BJP.[75][74][75]

Political parties spent over 53 crore (US$7.7 million) with the largest spending by BJP on digital platforms for online ads. The BJP placed 2,500 ads on Facebook while the Congress placed 3,686 ads.[76] According to a study by Vidya Narayanan and colleagues at the Oxford Internet Institute, social media was used by all the major parties and alliances, and all of them linked or posted divisive and conspiratorial content and images. According to Narayanan, "a third of the BJP's images, a quarter of the INC's images, and a tenth the SP-BSP's images were catalogued as divisive and conspiratorial".[77][78] The Narayanan et al. study added that "we observed very limited amounts of hate speech, gore or pornography in either platform samples" by BJP, Congress or SP-BSP, but the election did include proportionally more polarising information on social media than other countries except for the US presidential election in 2016.[78]

NaMo TV and Modi biopic

According to The Financial Times and other news sources, on 31 March 2019, the cable and satellite operators – such as Tata Sky, DishTV, and Videocon – added a new "NaMo TV" channel to the dozens of news and entertainment channels they already offer.[79][80][81] Further, independently, a Bollywood biopic named "PM Narendra Modi" starring Vivek Oberoi was due for release in early April. The NaMo TV channel exclusively focuses on replaying Narendra Modi's speeches, the live coverage of rallies by Modi and key leaders of the Bharatiya Janata Party, and presenting the incumbent government's initiatives and achievements in the last five years to the audience that chooses to tune to the channel.[79] The election time Bollywood biopic, states The Financial Times, is "adulatory, which depicts his [Modi's] rise from humble origins as the son of a railway station tea-seller to a strongman who vows to avenge Pakistani terror attacks".[79]

The Indian opposition led by the Congress Party and activists opposed to the incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party have expressed outrage and alleged that it violates India's election laws and the regulations on "broadcast channels" under the Programme Codes of the Cable TV Act of 1994.[79][80] The Bharatiya Janata Party and its supporters claim that this is an exercise of the "Right to Free Speech" protected by the Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, a means to address the bias against them and to communicate directly to the voters.[79] They also claim that the NaMo TV does not violate any regulations or laws, as similar "Direct-to-Home (DTH) operator channels" have already been distributed by cable and satellite operators in the past since 2006.[80] Others state that the audience has a choice to ignore or tune into the channel, and "only Modi's most devoted loyalists were likely to tune in". However, they state that if the BJP pressures public facilities and commercial establishments to show it exclusively during the elections then that would lead to abuse.[79] The Congress Party and activists have filed a complaint to the Indian Election Commission, demanding that the NaMo TV channel be stopped.[79] The Election Commission announced on 12 April that any content broadcast on the NaMo TV must be pre-approved by its committee, and only pre-certified content can be broadcast.[81] On 13 April 2019, the BJP submitted the contents of NaMo TV to the Election Commission designated "certification and monitoring committee" for its review and pre-certification.[82] The Election Commission ruled on 19 April 2019, that live speeches of Narendra Modi and other BJP leaders can be broadcast on NaMo TV as well as Twitter platform tweets can be broadcast by Rahul Gandhi and Congress leaders during the silence period. However, neither should mention the constituency or candidates covered by the silence period immediately prior to the polling date.[83]

The ECI blocked the release of the Modi biopic while the election is in progress.[84] The producers appealed this "stay" to the Supreme Court.[85] The film was released on 24 May 2019 finally.

EC actions under Article 324

Election Commission curtailed West Bengal campaigning by one day, after a bust of 19th century Bengali icon Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was vandalised during 7th phase poll violence.[86]

Party campaigns

Party Manifestos

Highlights of the Congress manifesto

The Congress released its manifesto, titled Congress Will Deliver on 3 April.[95][96] Some of its highlights:[95][97][98]

  • Introduce a Nyuntam Aay Yojana welfare program wherein 72,000 (US$1,000) per year will be transferred directly to the bank account of a woman-member in each family in the poorest 20 percent households.
  • Create 1 million "Seva Mitra" jobs in rural and urban local government bodies. Fill all 400,000 central government vacancies before March 2020, and encourage state governments to fill their 2,000,000 vacancies. Enact a law that requires all non-government controlled employers with over 100 employees to implement an apprentice program.
  • Enact a permanent National Commission on Agricultural Development and Planning and introduce a "Kisan Budget" (Farmer Budget) in the parliament every year. Waive all farmer loans in all states with any amounts outstanding.
  • Enact a Right to Homestead Act that will provide free land to every household that does not own a home.
  • Enact a Right to Healthcare Act and guarantee every citizen free diagnostics, free medicines, free hospitalisation, and free out-patient care. Double spending on healthcare to 3 percent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Double spending on education to 6 percent of its GDP by 2024.
  • Revise the national GST law from three tax tiers to a single moderate rate of tax. Reduce taxes on exported products to zero. Exempt from the GST essential goods and services that are currently not exempt. Enact a new Direct Taxes Code.
  • Augment and rapid construction of national highways. Modernise Indian railway infrastructure. Promote green energy. Manufacturing promotion.
  • Increase defence spending.
  • Enact a National Election Fund, wherein public funds will be distributed to recognised political parties to run their campaign
  • Preserve special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.[98]
  • Amend the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958. End the Sedition law (Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code).

Highlights of the BJP manifesto

The BJP released its manifesto sub-titled Sankalpit Bharat, Sashakt Bharat (lit. "Resolute India, Empowered India") on 8 April.[99][100] Some of its highlights:[101][100][98]

  • Double farmer incomes by 2022 by completing all major and micro-irrigation infrastructure projects, opening adequate markets and modern farm produce storage centres, implement minimum price supports for farmer produce, farmer loans and all-weather rural roads. Introduce a pension bill for small and marginal farmers to provide social security after 60 years of age.
  • Bring all secondary schools under the national board quality purview. Invest 100,000 crore (US$14 billion) in higher education, open new and increase seats at existing engineering, management and law schools. Establish skills and innovations centre at block-level in every town. Enhance higher education opportunities for women by introducing financial support and subsidies programs. Source 10 percent of government procurement from companies with more than 50 percent female employees.
  • Ensure a pucca (lit. brick-solid, modern) house, safe potable water, toilet, LPG gas cylinder, electricity, and banking account for every family. Reduce the percentage of families living under the poverty line to a single digit by 2024.
  • Double the length of national highways. Improve fuel quality by mandating 10 percent ethanol in petrol. Scale renewable energy capacity to 175 GW.
  • Electrify and convert to broad gauge all railway tracks.
  • Establish 150,000 health and wellness centres. Start 75 new medical colleges. Raise doctor-to-population ratio to 1:1400. Triple childcare facilities. Achieve 100 percent immunisation of all babies.
  • Raise India's ranking further in "ease of doing business". Double exports, introduce single-window compliance procedures for all businesses.
  • Reduce air pollution by eliminating all crop residue burning.
  • Digitise paperwork and proceedings, modernise the courts.
  • Launch and promote a National Digital Library with e-books and leading journals to provide free knowledge accessible to all students. Launch a "Study in India" program to bring foreign students to institutes of higher education.
  • Zero tolerance for terrorism, fund resources to strengthen national security, guarantee veterans, and soldier welfare, modernise police forces.
  • End special status and special rights to natives of Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 and 35A.[98]

Other parties

Other national and regional parties have released their manifestos too:

  • The Tamil Nadu-based regional parties AIADMK and DMK released their manifesto on 18 March 2019, with each promising to release the seven Tamils jailed after being found guilty for their role in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, a former Congress party leader and prime minister of India. The AIADMK promised to press for the political rights of the Tamil people in the Eelam region of Sri Lanka, while the DMK has promised Indian citizenship to all Sri Lankan expats. According to the Deccan Herald, the AIADMK has promised a cash transfer of 18,000 (US$260) per year to "all families below the poverty level, destitute women, widows without income, differently-abled, landless agricultural labourers, rural and urban manual labourers and destitute senior citizens". The AIADMK also promised to raise the tax exemption limit and revisions to the GST law. The DMK promised a probe into Rafale fighter jet deal, and a plan to distribute free sanitary napkins to working women along with starting martial arts schools for girls.[102]
  • Biju Janata Dal (BJD) released its manifesto on 9 April 2019. It promised a 100,000 (US$1,400) zero-interest crop loan to farmers every year, a 500,000 (US$7,200) zero-interest loan to women-run self-help groups, 75 percent jobs reservation in Odisha-based companies to Odisha youth, free education to all girls and a marriage assistance grant of 25,000 (US$360) to daughters of poor families. It also promised to complete two expressways.[103]
  • Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPIM) manifesto promised to raise the minimum wage to 216,000 (US$3,100) per year, an old age pension of 72,000 (US$1,000) per year and universal public distribution of 35 kilograms of foodgrains per family. It also stated the restoration of inheritance tax and an increase in the taxes on individuals and corporations.[104] It also promised spending 6 per cent of GDP on education, enacting a Right to Free Health Care with 3.5 per cent of GDP on health in the short term and 5 per cent in the long term, introduction of price controls on essential drugs, breaking monopoly of drug multinationals, as well as enact a Right to Guaranteed Employment in urban areas.[105]
  • Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) promised to open talks with Pakistan on terrorism. It also promised to expand trade and political relationship with Russia, and seek to weaken Russia's ties with China and Pakistan.[106]
  • Samajwadi Party promised an annual pension of 36,000 (US$520) to poor families in a form of a cash transfer to women. It has also proposed a new property tax of 2 percent on homes valued above 25,000,000 (US$360,000) as well as raising income taxes on the affluent. It also promised to create 100,000 new jobs every year.[107]
  • Telugu Desam Party released its manifesto on 5 April 2019. It promised zero-interest loans to farmer without any caps, a grant of 15,000 (US$220) per year to each farmer as investment support, a grant of 100,000 (US$1,400) to each family with a daughter in the year of her marriage, an unemployment allowance of 3,000 (US$43) for any youth who has completed intermediate education, and free laptops to all students at the intermediate level.[108]
  • AITMC's manifesto was released on 27 March 2019. It promised a judicial probe into demonetisation, a review of GST law, and sought to bring back the Planning Commission. It also promised free medical care, expanding the "100-day work scheme" currently operating in India to "200-day work scheme" along with a pay increase.[109]
  • Aam Aadmi Party released its manifesto on 25 April 2019 promising full statehood for Delhi to give the Delhi government control over police and other institutions.[110] The manifesto promised 85 per cent reservations in the Delhi-based colleges and jobs for the voters of Delhi and their families.[111][112]

Campaign finance

Several organisations have offered varying estimates for the cost of election campaign. The Centre for Media Studies in New Delhi estimates the election campaign could exceed $7 billion.[113] According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR), an election watchdog, in the financial year 2017–18 BJP received 4,370,000,000 (US$63 million), about 12 times more donations than Congress and five other national parties combined.[113]

The electoral bonds in denominations ranging from 1,000 rupees to 10 million rupees ($14 to $140,000) can be purchased and donated to a political party. The bonds don't carry the name of the donor and are exempt from tax.[114][114][note 5] Factly – an India data journalism portal, traced the electoral bond donations for 2018 under India's Right to Information Act. According to Factly, electoral bonds worth about 10,600,000,000 (US$150 million) were purchased and donated in 2018. According to Bloomberg, this accounted for 31.2 percent of political donations in 2018, while 51.4 percent of the total donated amount were each below 20,000 (US$290) and these too were from unknown donors. About 47 percent of the donations to political parties were from known sources.[114] Between 1 January and 31 March 2019, donors bought 17,100,000,000 (US$250 million) worth of electoral bonds and donated.[118] The spending in elections boosts national GDP, and the 2009 election spending contributed about 0.5 percent to GDP.[119]

According to Centre for Media Studies, the BJP spent over Rs 28,000 crore (or 45 per cent) of the Rs 60,000 crore spent by all political parties during the polls.[120] Congress questions BJP over its poll expenditure [121]

Candidates with criminal charges

According to the Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) – an Indian advocacy group, 464 of the total 2,856 contestants in the first two phases of the election have disclosed criminal cases against themselves in their nomination papers, as required by Indian election disclosure laws.[122] In the first two phases of elections, the Congress Party topped the list, having nominated 23 candidates with pending criminal cases to compete in the parliamentary elections. The BJP and BSP ranked next, each with 16 candidates.[122]

Parties and alliances

More than 50 parties contested in these elections. Most of them were small with regional appeal. The main parties are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress (INC). With the exception of 2014, no single party has won the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha since 1984, and therefore,forming alliances is the norm in Indian elections.[123][124]

There were four main national pre-poll alliances. They are the NDA headed by the BJP, the UPA headed by the INC, the grand alliance of regional parties, and the left front of Communist-leaning parties. Given the volatile nature of coalition politics in India, alliances may change during and after the election. It was the first time when BJP (437) contested more seats than Congress (421) in the Lok Sabha elections.[123][124]

The INC has not formed an alliance in states where it is in direct contest with the BJP. These states include Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. It has formed alliances with regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, and Kerala.[125]

In January 2019, Bahujan Samaj Party and Samajwadi Party announced a grand alliance (Mahagathbandhan) to contest 76 out of the 80 seats in Uttar Pradesh leaving two seats, namely Amethi and Rae Bareli, for INC and another two for other political parties.[126]

Parties and alliances contesting for the 2019 elections
Party States/UTs contested Seats Alliance
Contested Won
Bharatiya Janata Party Andhra Pradesh 25 437 0 National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
Arunachal Pradesh 2 2
Assam 10 9
Bihar 17 17
Chhattisgarh 11 9
Goa 2 1
Gujarat 26 26
Haryana 10 10
Himachal Pradesh 4 4
Jammu and Kashmir[127] 6 3
Jharkhand 13 11
Karnataka 27 25
Kerala 15 0
Madhya Pradesh 29 28
Maharashtra 25 23
Manipur 2 1
Meghalaya 2 0
Mizoram[128] 1 0
Odisha 21 8
Punjab 3 2
Rajasthan 24 24
Sikkim 1 0
Tamil Nadu 5 0
Telangana 17 4
Tripura 2 2
Uttar Pradesh 78 62
Uttarakhand 5 5
West Bengal 42 18
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 0
Chandigarh 1 1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Daman and Diu 1 1
Delhi 7 7
Lakshadweep 1 0
Shiv Sena[129] Maharashtra 23 39 18
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Gao 1 0
Karnataka 2 0
Bihar 13 0
Chhattisgarh 9 0
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[130] Tamil Nadu 20 1
Janata Dal (United)[131] Bihar 17 19 16
Lakshadweep 1 0
Manipur 1 0
Shiromani Akali Dal[132] Punjab 10 2
Pattali Makkal Katchi[130] Tamil Nadu 7 0
Lok Janshakti Party[131] Bihar 6 6
Bharath Dharma Jana Sena Kerala 4 0
Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam[133] Tamil Nadu 4 0
Asom Gana Parishad Assam 3 0
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Uttar Pradesh 2 2
All Jharkhand Students Union[134] Jharkhand 1 1
Puthiya Tamilagam[135] Tamil Nadu 1 0
Tamil Maanila Congress Tamil Nadu 1 0
Puthiya Needhi Katchi[136] Tamil Nadu 1 0
All India N.R. Congress[137] Puducherry 1 0
Bodoland People's Front[138] Assam 1 0
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Nagaland 1 1
Kerala Congress (Thomas)[139] Kerala 1 0
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Rajasthan 1 1
Indian National Congress Andhra Pradesh 25 421 0 United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
Arunachal Pradesh 2 0
Assam 14 3
Bihar 9 1
Chhattisgarh 11 2
Goa 2 1
Gujarat 26 0
Haryana 10 0
Himachal Pradesh 4 0
Jammu and Kashmir 5 0
Jharkhand 7 1
Karnataka 21 1
Kerala 16 15
Madhya Pradesh 29 1
Maharashtra[140] 24 1
Manipur 2 0
Meghalaya 2 1
Nagaland 1 0
Odisha 18 1
Punjab 13 8
Rajasthan 25 0
Sikkim 1 0
Tamil Nadu 9 8
Telangana 17 3
Tripura 2 0
Uttar Pradesh[141] 67 1
Uttarakhand 5 0
West Bengal 40 2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 1
Chandigarh 1 0
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Daman and Diu 1 0
Delhi 7 0
Lakshadweep 1 0
Puducherry 1 1
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[142] Tamil Nadu 20 + 23
Nationalist Congress Party[140] Maharashtra 20 27 4
Lakshadweep 1 1
Manipur 1 0
Assam 2 0
Bihar 3 0
Rashtriya Janata Dal Bihar 19 20 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Janata Dal (Secular)[143] Karnataka 7 9 1
Arunachal Pradesh 2 0
Rashtriya Lok Samta Party Bihar 7 0
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha[144] Jharkhand 4 9 1
Odisha 1 0
Bihar 4 0
Jan Adhikar Party[141] Uttar Pradesh 3 9 0
Bihar 6 0
Jan Adhikar Party (Loktantrik) Bihar 1 0
Communist Party of India (State level)[142][145] Odisha 1 3 0
Tamil Nadu 2 2
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level)[142] Odisha 1 3 0
Tamil Nadu 2 2
Hindustani Awam Morcha Bihar 3 0
Indian Union Muslim League[142] Kerala 2 6 2
Tamil Nadu 1 1
Andhra Pradesh 3 0
Vikassheel Insaan Party Bihar 6 0
Jharkhand Vikas Morcha[144] Jharkhand 2 0
Swabhimani Paksha[140] Maharashtra 2 0
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi[142] Tamil Nadu 2 7 1
Karnataka 2 0
Andhra Pradesh 3 0
Bahujan Vikas Aaghadi[140] Maharashtra 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation (State level) Bihar 1 0
Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi[142] Tamil Nadu 1 0
Kerala Congress (M) Kerala 1 1
Kongunadu Makkal Desia Katchi[142] Tamil Nadu 1 0
Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[142] Tamil Nadu 1 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party (State level)[146] Kerala 1 1
Bahujan Samaj Party[147] Andhra Pradesh 3 338 0 Mahagathbandhan

(Grand Alliance)

Bihar 40 0
Chhattisgarh 11 0
Gujarat 26 0
Haryana 8 0
Jammu and Kashmir 2 0
Jharkhand 14 0
Karnataka 28 0
Madhya Pradesh 26 0
Maharashtra 44 0
Odisha 14 0
Punjab 3 0
Rajasthan 25 0
Tamil Nadu 37 0
Telangana 5 0
Uttar Pradesh 38 10
Uttarakhand 4 0
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Daman and Diu 1 0
Delhi 5 0
Puducherry 1 0
Samajwadi Party[126] Madhya Pradesh 2 47 0
Maharashtra 4 0
Uttar Pradesh 37 5
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Assam 1 0
Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Lok Dal Uttar Pradesh 3 0
Gondwana Ganatantra Party[148] Madhya Pradesh 1 0
Loktantra Suraksha Party[149] Haryana 2 0
Punjab Ekta Party[150] Punjab 3 0
Lok Insaaf Party[150] Punjab 3 0
Punjab Front[150] Punjab 1 0
Communist Party of India (State level)[150] Andhra Pradesh 2 4 0
Punjab 2 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist) (State level) Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Revolutionary Marxist Party of India (State level)[150] Punjab 1 0
Jana Sena Party[151] Andhra Pradesh 18 23 0
Telangana 5 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist)[152] Assam 2 68 0 Left Front
Bihar 1 0
Haryana 1 0
Himachal Pradesh 1 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Karnataka 1 0
Kerala 16 1
Lakshadweep 1 0
Madhya Pradesh 1 0
Maharashtra 1 0
Odisha 1 0
Telangana 2 0
Tripura 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
West Bengal 33 0
Lakshadweep 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Communist Party of India Bihar 2 17 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Kerala 4 0
West Bengal 3 0
Lakshadweep 1 0
Manipur 1 0
Karnataka 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Assam 2 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Revolutionary Socialist Party West Bengal 3 0
All India Forward Bloc Andhra Pradesh 3 15 0
Arunachal Pradesh 1 0
West Bengal 3 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Delhi 1 0
Assam 2 0
Bihar 4 0
Telugu Desam Party Andhra Pradesh 25 3 Other parties
YSR Congress Party Andhra Pradesh 25 22
Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangh Maharashtra TBF 2 0
Karnataka 2 0
Amma Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam Puducherry 1 39 0
Tamil Nadu 38 0
Makkal Needhi Maiam Puducherry 1 38 0
Tamil Nadu 37 0
Biju Janata Dal Odisha 21 12
Telangana Rashtra Samithi Telangana 16 9
Social Democratic Party of India Tamil Nadu 1 3 0
Karnataka 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen Maharashtra 1 3 1
Telangana 1 1
Bihar 1 0
Naam Tamilar Katchi Puducherry 1 39 0
Tamil Nadu 38 0
Aam Aadmi Party[153] Bihar 3 34 0
Delhi 7 0
Goa 2 0
Haryana 3 0
Punjab 13 1
Uttar Pradesh 4 0
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party (Lohiya) Bihar 3 96 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Delhi 2 0
Haryana 1 0
Jammu and Kashmir 1 0
Karnataka 2 0
Madhya Pradesh 2 0
Odisha 2 0
Tamil Nadu 2 0
Uttar Pradesh 79 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party Jammu and Kashmir 4 0
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Jammu and Kashmir 4 3
National People's Party Arunachal Pradesh 1 10 0
Assam 6 0
Manipur 1 0
Meghalaya 1 1
Mizoram 1 0
Nagaland 1 0
Jannayak Janata Party Haryana 7 0
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal Uttarakhand 4 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation Andhra Pradesh 2 9 0
Bihar 4 0
Jharkhand 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star Andhra Pradesh 1 4 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Jharkhand 1 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Socialist Unity Centre of India (Communist) Bihar 10 33 0
Chhattisgarh 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Delhi 1 0
Puducherry 1 0
Tripura 1 0
Karnataka 7 0
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Assam 6 0
All India Trinamool Congress Assam 8 72 0
Bihar 2 0
Jharkhand 3 0
Odisha 10 0
Tamil Nadu 7 0
West Bengal 42 22
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 0
Tripura 1 0
Indian Gandhiyan Party Bihar 2 66 0
Jharkhand 3 0
Odisha 10 0
Tamil Nadu 7 0
Uttar Pradesh 2 0
West Bengal 42 0
All India Hindustan Congress Party Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 2 0
Karnataka 1 0
Chandigarh Ki Aawaz Party Chandigarh 1 0
Hindustan Shakti Sena Chandigarh 1 0
Akhil Bhartiya Apna Dal Chandigarh 1 0
Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Lokswaraj Party Chandigarh 1 0
Sarvjan Sewa Party Chandigarh 1 0
Ambedkar National Congress Chandigarh 1 5 0
Delhi 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Jankranti Party Chandigarh 1 0
Bhartiya Kisan Party Chandigarh 1 5 0
Delhi 1 0
Chhattisgarh 3 0
Samaj Adhikar Kalyan Party Chandigarh 1 0
Bharat Prabhat Party Chandigarh 1 7 0
Delhi 2 0
Karnataka 2 0
Bihar 2 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Bhartiya Manavadhikaar Federal Party Chandigarh 1 0
Bahujan Mukti Party Bihar 11 18 0
Chandigarh 1 0
Karnataka 1 0
Assam 1 0
Uttarakhand 2 0
Chhattisgarh 3 0
Janral Samaj Party Chandigarh 1 0
Bhartiya Rashtrawadi Party Chandigarh 1 0
Bhartiya Jan Samman Party Chandigarh 1 0
Republican Party of India (A) Chandigarh 1 22 0
Delhi 5 0
Karnataka 4 0
Andhra Pradesh 5 0
Assam 3 0
Bihar 2 0
Chhattisgarh 2 0
Republican Party of India Bihar 1 0
Bhartiya Tribal Party Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 3 0
Chhattisgarh 2 0
Navsarjan Bharat Party Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 0
Rashtriya Rashtrawadi Party Delhi 3 4 0
Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Samrasta Party Delhi 3 0
Ekta Samaj Party Delhi 1 17 0
Peoples Party of India (Democratic) Bihar 7 0
Delhi 5 0
Uttarakhand 4 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Prism Delhi 5 0
Rashtriya Jansambhavna Party Delhi 1 10 0
Karnataka 1 0
Bihar 8 0
Kanshiram Bahujan Dal Delhi 1 0
Right to Recall Party Delhi 2 3 0
Karnataka 1 0
Sanatan Sanskriti Raksha Dal Delhi 3 0
Aapki Apni Party (Peoples) Delhi 6 0
Mazdoor Kirayedar Vikas Party Delhi 5 0
Proutist Bloc, India Delhi 3 5 0
Karnataka 2 0
Bihar 1 0
Bharat Lok Sewak Party Delhi 3 0
Rashtra Nirman Party Delhi 3 0
Pyramid Party of India Delhi 5 29 0
Karnataka 6 0
Andhra Pradesh 18 0
Bhartiya Insan Party Delhi 3 0
Challengers Party Delhi 2 0
Uttarakhand Pragatisheel Party Delhi 1 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Satya Bahumat Party Delhi 3 0
National Apni Party Delhi 1 0
The National Road Map Party of India Delhi 1 0
Assam 1 0
Jai Prakash Janata Dal Delhi 2 7 0
Bihar 5 0
Anjaan Aadmi Party Delhi 1 0
Akhil Bharatiya Manavata Paksha Delhi 1 0
Corruption Abolition Party Delhi 1 0
Akhand Rashtrawadi Party Delhi 2 0
Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party Delhi 1 0
Bihar 1 0
Atulya Bharat Party Delhi 1 0
Sanyukt Vikas Party Delhi 1 0
Bihar 1 0
Sanjhi Virasat Party Delhi 1 0
Bhartiya Janta Dal (Integrated) Delhi 1 0
Sarvodaya Prabhat Party Delhi 1 0
Bhartiya Pragatisheel Congress Delhi 1 0
Socialist Janata Party Delhi 1 0
Hum Bhartiya Party Delhi 1 0
Voters Party International Delhi 1 11 0
Assam 6 0
Bihar 4 0
Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh Bihar 1 2 0
Delhi 1 0
National Youth Party Delhi 2 0
Parivartan Samaj Party Delhi 1 0
Jai Maha Bharath Party Delhi 1 0
Sikkim 1 0
Jan Samman party Delhi 1 0
Rashtriya Jan Adhikar Party Delhi 1 0
Rashtriya Janshakti Party (Secular) Delhi 1 0
Agila India Makkal Kazhagam Puducherry 1 0
Anti Corruption Dynamic Party Puducherry 1 0
Puducherry Development Party Puducherry 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) (Liberation) Bihar 4 8 0
Puducherry 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Republican Party of India (Kamble) Gao 1 0
North East India Develop Manipur 1 0
Manipur People's Party Manipur 1 0
Manipur Democratic Peoples's Front Manipur 1 0
Rashtriya Janhit Sangharsh Party Manipur 1 0
Naga Peoples Front Manipur 1 0
North East India Development Party Manipur 1 0
Mizo National Front Mizoram 1 1
Peoples Representation for Identity and Status of Mizoram (PRISM) Party Mizoram 1 0
United Democratic Party Meghalaya 1 0
Sikkim Democratic Front Sikkim 1 0
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Sikkim 1 1
Hamro Sikkim Party Sikkim 1 0
Sikkim Republican Party Sikkim 1 0
Sikkim United Front Sikkim 1 0
All Indians Party Sikkim 1 0
Indigenous People's Front of Tripura Tripura 2 0
Amra Bangalee Tripura 2 0
Tripura Peoples Party Tripura 1 0
Ambedkarite Party of India Tripura 1 14 0
Karnataka 1 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Bihar 2 0
Chhattisgarh 10
Secular Democratic Congress Karnataka 1 0
Republican Party of India (Karnataka) Karnataka 3 0
Karnataka Jantha Paksha Karnataka 2 0
Raita Bharat Party Karnataka 1 0
Hindustan Janta Party Karnataka 3 0
Uttama Prajaakeeya Party Karnataka 26 0
Karnataka Karmikara Paksha Karnataka 4 0
Indian Christian Front Karnataka 2 0
Democratic Prajakranthi Party Secularist Karnataka 1 0
Republican Sena Karnataka 4 0
Karnataka Pragnyavantha Janatha Party Karnataka 1 0
Bharatiya Prajagala Kalyana Paksha Karnataka 2 0
Gareeb Aadmi Party Karnataka 1 0
Jai Vijaya Bharathi Party Karnataka 1 0
Sarva Janata Party Karnataka 3 0
Pragatishil Samajwadi Party (Lohia) Bihar 4 8 0
Karnataka 2 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha Karnataka 1 0
Indian Labour Party (Ambedkar Phule) Karnataka 3 4 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Samajwadi Forward Bloc Karnataka 1 2 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Akhil Bharatiya Muslim League (Secular) Karnataka 1 0
Praja Satta Party Karnataka 1 0
Bahujan Maha Party Karnataka 2 3 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
National Development Party Karnataka 1 0
Purvanchal Janta Party (Secular) Karnataka 1 7 0
Assam 5 0
Bihar 1 0
Bhartiya BahujanKranti Dal Karnataka 1 0
Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena Karnataka 1 0
Bharatiya Jan Kranti Dal (Democratic) Karnataka 1 5 0
Bihar 4 0
Karnataka Praja Party (RaithaParva) Karnataka 2 0
Indian New Congress Party Karnataka 3 0
Samajwadi Janata Party(Karnataka) Karnataka 1 0
Ambedkar Samaj Party Karnataka 4 0
India Praja Bandhu Party Karnataka 1 6 0
Andhra Pradesh 4 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Azad Mazdoor Kissan Party Karnataka 1 0
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha Karnataka 2 0
BhartiyaBahujanKranti Dal Karnataka 1 0
haratiya Peoples Party Karnataka 1 0
Marxist Leninist Party of India (Red Flag) Karnataka 1 0
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Star Karnataka 2 4 0
Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Aihra National Party Karnataka 1 0
Engineers Party Karnataka 1 0
Proutist Sarva Samaj Karnataka 1 2 0
Bihar 1 0
Bharat Bhoomi Party Karnataka 1 3 0
Chhattisgarh 2 0
Jana Jagruti Party Andhra Pradesh 8 0
Republican Party of India (Khobragade) Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Janasena Party Andhra Pradesh 16 0
Dalita Bahujana Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Vishwa Jana Party Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Radical Democrats Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Navodayam Party Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Mundadugu Praja Party Andhra Pradesh 4 0
All Peoples Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
All India Praja Party Andhra Pradesh 3 0
Hardam Manavtawadi Rashtriya Dal Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Praja Shanthi Party Andhra Pradesh 4 0
Navarang Congress Party Andhra Pradesh 3 0
National Dalitha Dhal Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Rajyadhikara Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Anna YSR Congress Party Andhra Pradesh 2 0
Rayalaseema Rashtra Samithi Andhra Pradesh 1 0
B. C. United Front Andhra Pradesh 1 0
National Nava Kranthi Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Nava Samaj Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Marxist Communist Party of India (United) Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Rashtriya Praja Congress (Secular) Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Navataram Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Janapaalana Party (Democratic) Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Andhra Rastra Praja Samithi Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Samaanya Praja Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
Andhra Chaitanya Party Andhra Pradesh 1 0
People's Party of Arunachal Arunachal Pradesh 2 0
Autonomous State Demand Committee Assam 1 0
All India United Democratic Front Assam 3 1
National Republican Congress Assam 2 0
National Republican Congress Assam 1 0
Bharatiya Gana Parishad Assam 4 0
Hindusthan Nirman Dal Assam 5 8 0
Uttarakhand 1 0
Bihar 2 0
Bharatiya National Janta Dal Assam 1 0
Swarna Bharat Party Assam 1 0
Asom Jana Morcha Assam 4 0
Bodoland Peoples Front Assam 1 0
United People's Party, Liberal Assam 2 0
Assam Dristi Party Assam 1 0
Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (Democratic) Uttarakhand 4 0
UTTARAKHAND PARIVARTAN PARTY Uttarakhand 1 0
Bhartiya Sarvodaya Party Uttarakhand 1 0
Pragatisheel Lok Manch Uttarakhand 1 0
Sarv Vikas Party Uttarakhand 1 0
Bihar Lok Nirman Dal Bihar 7 0
Bhartiya Kranti Vir Party Bihar 1 0
Shoshit Samaj Dal Bihar 6 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Hindustani Awam Morcha (Secular) Bihar 3 0
Akhil Hind Forward Bloc (Krantikari) Bihar 2 0
Swaraj Party (Loktantrik) Bihar 2 0
Bhartiya Dalit Party Bihar 3 0
Bharatiya Momin Front Bihar 7 0
Bhartiya Lokmat Rashtrwadi Party Bihar 2 3 0
Chhattisgarh 1 0
Jantantrik Vikas Party Bihar 4 0
Rashtriya Dal United Bihar 1 0
Suheldev Bharatiya Samaj Party Bihar 5 0
Mithilanchal Mukti Morcha Bihar 1 0
Bharatiya Rashtriya Morcha Bihar 1 0
Moolniwasi Samaj Party Bihar 2 0
Public Mission Party Bihar 2 0
Moulik Adhikar Party Bihar 1 0
Aam Janta Party Rashtriya Bihar 3 0
Janta Dal Rashtravadi Bihar 2 0
Bharat Bhrashtachar Mitao Party Bihar 1 0
Sathi Aur Aapka Faisala Party Bihar 2 0
Bajjikanchal Vikas Party Bihar 8 0
Rajnaitik Vikalp Party Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Samta Party (Secular) Bihar 4 0
Bharatiya Bahujan Congress Bihar 4 0
Lok Jan Vikas Morcha Bihar 2 0
Rashtriya mahan Gantantra Party Bihar 3 0
Bhartiya Mitra Party Bihar 3 0
Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic Bihar 1 0
Aadarsh Mithila Party Bihar 2 0
Aam Adhikar Morcha Bihar 4 0
Rashtra Sewa Dal Bihar 1 0
Asli Deshi Party Bihar 4 0
Janhit Kisan Party Bihar 1 0
Garib Janshakti Party Bihar 3 0
Rashtravadi Janata Party Bihar 2 0
Baliraja Party Bihar 2 0
Akhil Bhartiya Mithila Party Bihar 1 0
Maanavvaadi Janta Party Bihar 2 0
Bhartiya New Sanskar Krantikari Party Bihar 1 0
Jago Hindustan Party Bihar 2 0
Rashtriya Hind Sena Bihar 5 0
Sankhyanupati Bhagidari Party Bihar 2 0
Janata Party Bihar 4 0
Aap Aur Hum Party Bihar 1 0
Bharat Nirman Party Bihar 1 0
Yuva Krantikari Party Bihar 4 0
National Jagaran Party Bihar 1 0
Samagra Utthan Party Bihar 1 0
Purvanchal Mahapanchayat Bihar 3 0
Bahujan Nyay Dal Bihar 3 0
Rashtriya Ulama Council Bihar 1 0
Loktantrik Jan Swaraj Party Bihar 1 0
Rashtrawadi Chetna Party Bihar 1 0
Apna Kisan Party Bihar 1 0
Bharatiya Aam Awam Party Bihar 1 0
Vanchit Samaj Party Bihar 5 0
Rashtriya Sarvjan Vikas Party Bihar 1 0
Janvadi Party(Socialist) Bihar 1 0
Wazib Adhikar Party Bihar 1 0
Bahujan Azad Party Bihar 1 0
Kisan Party of India Bihar 1 0
Bharatiya Samta Samaj Party Bihar 1 0
Swatantra Samaj Party Bihar 1 0
Rashtriya Sahyog Party Bihar 1 0
Jai Hind Party Bihar 1 0
Lok Sewa Dal Bihar 1 0
Janta Raj Vikas Party Bihar 1 0
Lok Chetna Dal Bihar 2 0
Rashtriya Pragati Party Bihar 2 0
Sapaks Party Bihar 2 0
Naga People's Front 1
Akhil Bharat Samagra Kranti Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Gondvana Gantantra Party Chhattisgarh 10 0
Swabhiman Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Rashtriya Jansabha Party Chhattisgarh 7 0
Bhartiya Sarvjan Hitey Samaj Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Adhikar Vikas Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Chhattisgarh Swabhiman Manch Chhattisgarh 1 0
Bhartiya Shakti Chetna Party Chhattisgarh 5 0
Sarvadharam Party (Madhya Pradesh) Chhattisgarh 1 0
Rashtriya Gondvana Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Sunder Samaj Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Chhattisgarh Vikas Ganga Rashtriya Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Bhartiya Panchyat Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Kisan Mazdoor Sangharsh Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Bharatiya Bahujan Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Sarvodaya Bharat Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Shakti Sena (Bharat Desh) Chhattisgarh 1 0
Republican Paksha (Khoripa) Chhattisgarh 1 0
Forward Democratic Labour Party Chhattisgarh 1 0
Independent politicians Andhra Pradesh 99 0 None
Arunachal Pradesh 2 0
Assam 44 1
Bihar 238 0
Chhattisgarh 54 0
Goa 4 0
Gujarat 0
Haryana 0
Himachal Pradesh 0
Jammu and Kashmir 0
Jharkhand 0
Karnataka 255 1
Kerala 0
Madhya Pradesh 0
Maharashtra 1
Manipur 4 0
Meghalaya 3 0
Mizoram 3 0
Nagaland 1 0
Odisha 0
Punjab 0
Rajasthan 0
Sikkim 2 0
Tamil Nadu 0
Telangana 0
Tripura 9 0
Uttar Pradesh 0
Uttarakhand 17 0
West Bengal 0
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 9 0
Chandigarh 13 0
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 4 1
Daman and Diu 1 0
Delhi 43 0
Lakshadweep 0 0
Puducherry 8 0

Voter statistics

According to the ECI, 900 million people were eligible to vote, with an increase of 84.3 million voters since the last election in 2014,[154][155] making it the largest-ever election in the world.[156] 15 million voters aged 18–19 years became eligible to vote for the first time.[157][158] 468 million eligible voters were males, 432 million were females and 38325 identified themselves belonging to third gender. Total 71,735 overseas voters also enrolled.[citation needed]

The residents of the former enclaves exchanged under the 2015 India-Bangladesh boundary agreement voted for the first time.[159]

Electronic voting machines and security

The ECI deployed a total of 1.74 million voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) units and 3.96 million electronic voting machines (EVM) in 1,035,918 polling stations.[160][161][162][163] Approximately 270,000 paramilitary and 2 million state police personnel provided organisational support and security at various polling booths.[164] On 9 April 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the ECI to increase VVPAT slips vote count to five randomly selected EVMs per assembly constituency, which means ECI has to count VVPAT slips of 20,625 EVMs before it certifies the final election results.[165][166][167]

Turnout

In the first phase, 69.58 per cent of the 142 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect their representatives for 91 Lok Sabha seats.[168] The voter turnout was 68.77 per cent in the same constituencies in the 2014 general elections.[168] In the second phase, 156 million voters were eligible to vote for 95 Lok Sabha seats and the turnout was 69.45 per cent, compared to 69.62 per cent in 2014.[168] For the third phase, 189 million voters were eligible to elect 116 Lok Sabha representatives.[168] According to ECI, the turnout for this phase was 68.40 per cent, compared to 67.15 per cent in 2014.[168] In the fourth of seven phases, 65.50 per cent of the 128 million eligible voters cast their vote to elect 72 representatives to the Indian parliament while the turnout for the same seats in the 2014 election was 63.05 per cent.[168] The fifth phase was open to 87.5 million eligible voters, who could cast their vote in over 96,000 polling booths.[169] In the sixth phase, 64.40 per cent of the 101 million eligible voters cast their vote in about 113,000 polling stations.[170]

The final turnout stood at 67.11 per cent, the highest ever turnout recorded in any of the general elections till date. The percentage is 1.16 per cent higher than the 2014 elections whose turnout stood at 65.95 per cent.[171] Over 600 million voters polled their votes in 2019 Indian General elections.

State/UT Total Voter turnout by phase[168][a]
Phase 1

11 April

Phase 2

18 April

Phase 3

23 April

Phase 4

29 April

Phase 5

6 May

Phase 6

12 May

Phase 7

19 May

Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%) Seats Turnout (%)
Andhra Pradesh 25 79.70   25 79.70    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Arunachal Pradesh 2 78.47   2 78.47    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Assam 14 81.52   5 78.27   5 81.19   4 85.11    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Bihar 40 TBA 4 53.44   5 62.92   5 61.21   5 59.18   5 57.08   8 58.48  8 51.38
Chhattisgarh 11 71.48   1 66.04   3 74.95   7 70.73    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Goa 2 74.94    –  –  –  – 2 74.94    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Gujarat 26 64.11    –  –  –  – 26 64.11    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Haryana 10 70.34   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 10 70.34   –  –
Himachal Pradesh 4 70.22  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 4 70.22 
Jammu and Kashmir[b] 6 TBA 2 57.38   2 45.66   13 13.68   13 10.32   1​13 19.92    –  –  –  –
Jharkhand 14 TBA  –  –  –  –  –  – 3 64.97   4 65.99   4 65.42  3 55.59
Karnataka 28 68.63    –  – 14 68.80   14 68.47    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Kerala 20 77.67    –  –  –  – 20 77.67    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Madhya Pradesh 29 71.10    –  –  –  –  –  – 6 74.90   7 69.14   8 65.24   8 75.64  
Maharashtra 48 60.79   7 63.04   10 62.85   14 62.36   17 57.33    –  –  –  –  –  –
Manipur 2 82.75   1 84.20   1 81.24    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Meghalaya 2 71.43   2 71.43    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Mizoram 1 63.12   1 63.12    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Nagaland 1 83.09   1 83.09    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Odisha 21 73.06   4 73.82   5 72.56   6 71.62   6 74.38    –  –  –  –  –  –
Punjab 13 65.96  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 13 65.96 
Rajasthan 25 TBA  –  –  –  –  –  – 13 68.17   12 63.71    –  –  –  –
Sikkim 1 78.81   1 78.81    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tamil Nadu[c] 38 72.02    –  – 38 72.02    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Telangana 17 62.71 17 62.71  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Tripura 2 83.20   1 83.21    –  – 1 83.19    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Uttar Pradesh 80 TBA 8 63.92   8 62.46   10 61.42   13 59.11   14 58.00   14 54.44 13 47.82
Uttarakhand 5 61.48   5 61.48    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
West Bengal 42 TBA 2 83.80   3 81.72   5 81.97   8 82.84   7 80.09   8 84.50 9 78.73
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 1 65.08   1 65.08    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Chandigarh 1 70.62  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 1 70.62
Dadra and Nagar Haveli 1 79.59    –  –  –  – 1 79.59    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Daman and Diu 1 71.83    –  –  –  – 1 71.83    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Delhi 7 60.51   –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 7 60.51   –  –
Lakshadweep 1 84.96   1 84.96    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Puducherry 1 81.21    –  – 1 81.21    –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –
Total 542 67.11   91 69.58   95 69.45   116​13 68.40  71​13 65.50   50​13 64.16   59 64.40 59 61.71
  1. ^  /  indicate change from the 2014 elections.
  2. ^ Polling in Anantnag was scheduled over three days.
  3. ^ Tamil Nadu has 39 constituencies. Polling in Vellore was cancelled.

Opinion polls, exit polls and seat projections

 
Number of seats projected in opinion polls per alliance over time.
 
Indian General Election Trends - 2019

Various organisations have carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intentions in India. Results of such polls are displayed in this list. The date range for these opinion polls is from the previous general election, held in April and May 2014, to the present day. The ECI banned the release of exit polls from 11 April to 19 May, the last phase of the elections.[172] The commission also banned the publication or broadcast in the media of predictions made by astrologers and tarot card readers.[173]

Poll type Date published Polling agency Others Majority Ref
NDA UPA
Exit polls India Today-Axis 352 ± 13 93 ± 15 82 ± 13 70 ± 13 [174]
News24-Today's Chanakya 350 ± 14 95 ± 9 97 ± 11 68 ± 14 [175]
News18-IPSOS
CNN-IBN-IPSOS
336 82 124 64 [176][177]
VDP Associates 333 115 94 61 [178]
Sudarshan News 313 121 109 41 [179]
Times Now-VMR 306 ± 3 132 ± 3 104 ± 3 34 ± 3 [180]
Republic-Jan Ki Baat 305 124 113 33 [181]
Suvarna News 305 124 102 33 [179]
India TV-CNX 300 ± 10 120 ± 5 122 ± 6 28 ± 10 [182]
India News-Polstrat 287 128 127 15 [183]
Republic-CVoter 287 128 127 15 [177]
News Nation 286 122 134 14 [184]
ABP-CSDS 277 130 135 5 [174]
NewsX-Neta 242 164 137 Hung [177]
Opinion polls 8 April 2019 Times Now-VMR 279 149 115 7 [185]
6 April 2019 India TV-CNX 275 126 142 3 [186]
1 Feb – 4 April 2019 Jan Ki Baat 310 122 111 38 [187]
Mar 2019 Times Now-VMR 283 135 125 11 [188]
Mar 2019 News Nation 270 134 139 Hung [189]
Mar 2019 Republic-CVoter 264 141 138 Hung [190]
Mar 2019 India TV-CNX 285 126 132 13 [191]
Mar 2019 Zee 24 Taas 264 165 114 Hung [192]
Feb 2019 VDP Associates 242 148 153 Hung [193]
Jan 2019 Times Now-VMR 252 147 144 Hung [194]
Jan 2019 ABP News-CVoter 233 167 143 Hung [195]
Jan 2019 India Today-Karvy 237 166 140 Hung [196]
Jan 2019 VDP Associates 225 167 150 Hung [197]
Dec 2018 India Today 257 146 140 Hung [198]
Dec 2018 ABP News-CVoter 247 171 125 Hung [199]
Dec 2018 India TV-CNX 281 124 138 9 [200]
Nov 2018 ABP News-CVoter 261 119 163 Hung [201]
Oct 2018 ABP News 276 112 155 4 [202]
Aug 2018 India Today-Karvy 281 122 140 9 [203]
May 2018 ABP News-CSDS 274 164 105 2 [204]
Jan 2018 Republic-CVoter 335 89 119 63 [205]
Jan 2018 India Today 309 102 132 37 [206]

Results


353 91 98
NDA UPA Others


 
Results map for the election, including minor parties
 
Results of the election by political party
 
Results of the election by alliance

Seat share of parties in the election

  BJP (55.80%)
  INC (9.57%)
  DMK (4.24%)
  AITC (4.05%)
  YSRCP (4.05%)
  SS (3.31%)
  JD(U) (2.95%)
  BJD (2.21%)
  BSP (1.84%)
  TRS (1.66%)
  Other (10.32%)

Vote share of parties in the election

  BJP (37.36%)
  INC (19.49%)
  AITC (4.07%)
  BSP (3.63%)
  SP (2.55%)
  YSRCP (2.53%)
  DMK (2.26%)
  SS (2.10%)
  TDP (2.04%)
  CPI(M) (1.75%)
  Other (22.22%)

The Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA won the elections with the BJP itself winning a clear majority. The BJP become the single largest party in the House and surpassed expectations to win 303 seats, with its alliance partners bringing the NDA to a total of 353 seats.[207] Reasons attributed to the victory included the personal popularity of Narendra Modi, effective voter turnout drives by the NDA, a surge in public nationalism following the Pulwama attack, the consolidation of Hindu voters in a multi-caste coalition and the successful implementation of social welfare programmes during the First Modi ministry's term.[208]

The counting of votes was held on 23 May 2019, and was completed early the following day.[209] Initial returns showed the BJP leading in all 303 constituencies it eventually won, and opposition leader Rahul Gandhi conceded defeat prior to the official certification of most results.[210]

With the results, the BJP was able to gain 21 seats in the House, having won 282 in the 2014 Indian general election.[211][10] It was the second time in India's independent history that voters re-elected the same party to power with a bigger majority to the Lok Sabha – India's lower house of parliament. The BJP's total vote share stood at 37.4 per cent, an increase of over 6 percentage points from 31.34 per cent in 2014. The National Democratic Alliance secured a vote share of 45 per cent, compared to 38 per cent in 2014. In contrast, the vote share of Indian National Congress remained the same at 19.5 per cent.[212][213] About 1.04 percent of the voters in India chose to vote for None Of The Above (NOTA) in the 2019 elections, with Bihar leading with 2.08 percent NOTA voters.[214]

Modi became the only Indian prime minister in history whose government was re-elected with both an increase in the total percentage of votes along with a full majority.[212] His opponent, Rahul Gandhi, ran in two constituencies, winning from Wayanad, but losing from the Amethi constituency – the seat he, his mother (Sonia Gandhi), his father (Rajiv Gandhi), and his uncle (Sanjay Gandhi) had collectively held for decades. In addition, many candidates who were members of popular political dynasties were defeated across India in favour of the BJP or other parties' candidates.[215][216][217]

The election had been called a referendum on Modi and the BJP's Hindu nationalistic policies and advocacy.[218][219] According to The Wall Street Journal, Modi's victory "sets (sic) the stage for further economic change in one of Asia’s fastest-growing economies."[211] Alasdair Pal and Mayank Bhardwaj, in an article published by Reuters, claimed that the result was a mandate for business-friendly policies and tougher national security positions, reinforcing "a global trend of right-wing populists sweeping to victory, from the United States to Brazil and Italy, often after adopting harsh positions on protectionism, immigration and defence."[220]

According to a data analysis by the Mint, "Overall, the BJP’s appeal seems to transcend the divides of caste, education, and affluence, but there are some differences — with the BJP less successful in more educated constituencies" in a study of about 140 seats where Congress and Others were more successful. The BJP was favored in all income groups, states the Mint. The newspaper added, "In constituencies with high presence of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (SCs/STs), the BJP is more popular than other parties, but in constituencies with high presence of Muslims, it is less popular."[221]

Results[222][209]
Alliance Party Leader Votes Seats
Share Total Swing Won Swing
National Democratic Alliance[10] Bharatiya Janata Party Amit Shah

Narendra Modi

37.36% 229,075,170   6.02   5.42 303 353   21   17
Shiv Sena Uddhav Thackeray 2.1% 12,858,904 18  
Janata Dal (United) Nitish Kumar 1.46% 8,926,679 16   14
Lok Jan Shakti Party Ram Vilas Paswan 0.52% 3,206,979 6  
Apna Dal (Sonelal) Ashish Singh Patel

Anupriya Patel

0.17% 1,039,478 2  
Shiromani Akali Dal Sukhbir Singh Badal 0.62% 3,778,574 2   2
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam O. Panneerselvam

E. K. Palaniswami

1.28% 7,830,520 1   36
All Jharkhand Students Union Sudesh Mahto 0.11% 648,277 1   1
Mizo National Front Pu Zoramthanga 0.04% 224,286 1   1
National People's Party Conrad Sangma 0.07% 425,986 1  
Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party Chingwang Konyak 0.08% 500,510 1   1
Rashtriya Loktantrik Party Hanuman Beniwal 0.11% 660,051 1   1
United Progressive Alliance[10] Indian National Congress Rahul Gandhi 19.49% 119,494,885   0.03   1.59 52 91   8   31
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam M. K. Stalin 2.26% 13,877,622 23   23
Nationalist Congress Party[note 6] Sharad Pawar 1.39% 8,500,331 5   1
Indian Union Muslim League K. M. Kader Mohideen 0.26% 1,592,467 3   1
Jammu & Kashmir National Conference Farooq Abdullah 0.05% 280,356 3   3
Janata Dal (Secular) H. D. Deve Gowda 0.56% 3,457,107 1   1
Jharkhand Mukti Morcha Shibu Soren 0.31% 1   1
Kerala Congress (M) K. M. Mani 0.07% 1  
Revolutionary Socialist Party T. J. Chandrachoodan 0.12% 709,685 1  
Viduthalai Chiruthaigal Katchi Thol. Thirumavalavan 0.08% 1   1
Mahagathbandhan Bahujan Samaj Party Mayawati 3.63% 22,246,455 10 98   10   48
Samajwadi Party Akhilesh Yadav 2.55% 15,647,182 5  
Left Front Communist Party of India (Marxist) Sitaram Yechury 1.75% 10,744,779 3   6
Communist Party of India S. Sudhakar Reddy 0.58% 3,576,184 2   1
Non-aligned parties and Independents All India Trinamool Congress Mamata Banerjee 4.07% 24,929,325 22   14
Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy 2.53% 15,534,558 22   13
Biju Janata Dal Naveen Patnaik 1.66% 10,172,041 12   8
Telangana Rashtra Samithi K. Chandrashekar Rao 1.26% 7,696,848 9   2
Telugu Desam Party N. Chandrababu Naidu 2.04% 12,513,061 3   13
All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen Asaduddin Owaisi 0.2% 1,201,542 2   1
Aam Aadmi Party Arvind Kejriwal 0.44% 2,716,629 1   3
All India United Democratic Front Badruddin Ajmal 0.23% 1,402,088 1   2
Naga People's Front T. R. Zeliang 0.06% 1  
Sikkim Krantikari Morcha Prem Singh Tamang 0.03% 1   1
Rest minor parties 0 0
Sumalatha (Independent candidate supported by BJP in Mandya) 2.69% 703,660 4   1
Navaneet Kaur (Independent candidate supported by INC in Amravati) 510,947
Naba Kumar Sarania (Independent candidate in Kokrajhar) 484,560
Mohanbhai Sanjibhai Delkar (Independent candidate in Dadra and Nagar Haveli) 90,421
Rest Independents 14,677,631 0
NOTA 1.06% 6,513,315 0.04%  
Invalid

Reactions

National

The benchmark BSE Sensex and Nifty50 indices hit intraday record highs and the Indian rupee strengthened after the exit polls and on the day the election results were announced.[223]

Indian National Congress party leaders such as Rahul Gandhi and others conceded defeat and congratulated Modi and his party.[210] Other opposition parties and political leaders such as Sharad Pawar,[224] Mamata Banerjee and Omar Abdullah,[225] congratulated PM Modi and BJP for their victory.

International

The leaders of Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada, China, Comoros, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kuwait, Latvia, Lesotho, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia , Maldives, Malta, Mexico, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, North Korea, Nigeria, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Sri Lanka, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe congratulated Narendra Modi and the BJP on their victory.[226]

Timeline

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Two seats are reserved for Anglo-Indians and filled through Presidential nomination, while the poll in one constituency was cancelled.
  2. ^ In 9 states and union territories of India – such as Arunachal Pradesh, Kerala and Uttarakhand – more women turned out to vote than men in 2019.[7]
  3. ^ a b The unemployment data in India is not collected on a monthly or an annual basis, rather it is determined through a sample survey once every 5 years, with a few exceptions. The survey methodology is unlike those in major world economies, and sub-classifies unemployment into categories such as "usual status unemployment" and "current status unemployment" based on the answers given by the individuals interviewed. Its methodology and results have been questioned by various scholars.[46][47][48] The report and the refusal of the BJP government to release it has been criticised by economist Surjit Bhalla.[47] According to Bhalla, the survey methodology is flawed and its results absurd, because the sample survey-based report finds that India's overall population has declined since 2011–12 by 1.2 per cent (contrary to the Census data which states a 6.7 per cent increase). The report finds that India's percent urbanisation and urban workforce has declined since 2012, which is contrary to all other studies on Indian urbanisation trends, states Bhalla.[47] According to NSSO's report's data, "the Modi government has unleashed the most inclusive growth anywhere, and at any time in human history" – which is as unbelievable as the unemployment data it reports, states Bhalla.[47] The NSSO report suggests the inflation-adjusted employment income of casual workers has dramatically increased while those of the salaried wage-earners has fallen during the 5-years of BJP government.[47] The NSSO has also changed the sampling methodology in the latest round, state Bhalla and Avik Sarkar,[49] which is one of the likely sources of its flawed statistics and conclusions.[47]
  4. ^ According to Chandra: in 2009 after the persistently dynastic Samajwadi party, the larger Biju Janata Dal ranked next, followed by the Congress party. In 2004 and 2014, Congress ranked second.[71]
  5. ^ Stanley Kochanek in 1987 published about the "briefcase politics" tradition in Indian politics during the decades when the Congress party dominated Indian national politics.[115] Similarly, Rajeev Gowda and E Sridharan in 2012 have discussed the history of campaign financing laws in India and the role of black money in Indian elections.[116] Devesh Kapur and Milan Vaishnav discuss the rise of "briefcase" black money donations in India triggered by the 1969 campaign financing bans proposed and enacted by Indira Gandhi, and the campaign finance law reforms thereafter through 2017. They call the recent reforms as yielding "greater transparency than ever before, though limited".[117]
  6. ^ Contested the seat of Lakshadweep without pre-poll seat sharing

References

  1. ^ "EC may announce Lok Sabha election schedule in March first week: Sources – Times of India". The Times of India.
  2. ^ Staff, Scroll. "2019 General Elections: Voting to be held in 7 phases from April 11 to May 19, counting on May 23". Scroll.in. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Lok Sabha Election 2019 Dates Schedule LIVE, Assembly Elections Dates For Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, 2019 Election Date Time for Polling, Counting and Results". timesnownews.com. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Lok Sabha elections will begin on April 11 and polling will be held over seven phases through May 19, followed by counting of votes on May 23. Lok Sabha Election 2019 : Key Dates, Live News Updates, Election Calendar". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  5. ^ At 67.1%, 2019 turnout's a record: Election Commission, The Times of India (20 May 2019)
  6. ^ Polls Are Closed in India's Election: What Happens Next?, The New York Times, Douglas Schorzman and Kai Schultz (19 May 2019)
  7. ^ Women turn out in greater numbers than in previous elections, The Economic Times, Aanchal Bansal (20 May 2019)
  8. ^ "India Election Results: Modi and the B.J.P. Make History". NYT. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  9. ^ "Modi thanks India for 'historic mandate'". 23 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d "Lok Sabha Election 2019 - Party Alliance Details, General Elections". India Today. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Narendra Modi government will not have Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha again". Prabhash K Dutta. India Today. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Congress Fails To Get Leader Of Opposition Post In Lok Sabha, Again". Puneet Nicholas Yadav. Outlook. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Assembly polls in 4 states with Lok Sabha elections but not in J&K- Malayala Manorama". english.manoramaonline.com. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  14. ^ "Lok Sabha elections 2019: Congress MP favours more seats for RJD in Bihar". 4 September 2018. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  15. ^ https://www.news18.com/news/politics/aiadmk-proves-it-mettle-in-tamil-nadu-maintains-hold-on-govt-after-winning-9-bypoll-seats-2157319.html
  16. ^ Electoral system IPU
  17. ^ Lok Sabha Election 2019 Phase 3 voting: How to vote without voter ID card, Business Today (April 23, 2019)
  18. ^ "General Voters". Systematic Voters' Education and Electoral Participation. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  19. ^ Singh, Vijaita (1 September 2018). "General election will be held in 2019 as per schedule, says Rajnath Singh". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Lok Sabha Elections dates announced: Polls to be held from April 11 in 7 phases, counting on May 23". The Economic Times. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Announcement of Schedule for General Elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha & Sikkim, 2019". Election Commission of India. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
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  23. ^ "Election cancelled in Vellore Lok Sabha seat after money seized from DMK leaders". The News Minute. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  24. ^ "Lok Sabha polls in Vellore cancelled due to use of money power". The Economic Times. 16 April 2019.
  25. ^ "Three-tier security at 17 counting centres in Tripura".
  26. ^ "Polling in Tripura East deferred to April 23". The Hindu. Special Correspondent. 16 April 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 May 2019.CS1 maint: others (link)
  27. ^ "Mamata's Opposition rally top quotes: 'One ambition — save India, save democracy'". The Indian Express. 19 January 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  28. ^ T Ramavarman (27 January 2019). "Opposition united only for corruption, undermining institutions, alleges PM Modi". Times of India. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  29. ^ Election Commission endorsing Modi violations: Congress, The Telegraph (28 April 2019)
  30. ^ a b Countering Criticism Of EC, 81 Civil Servants Write Counter-letter To The President Reposing Their Faith In The Poll Body. Read Here, Republic World (16 April 2019)
  31. ^ In its attack on Modi government, the Opposition has failed to distinguish between political executive and independent institutions, The Indian Express (30 April 2019)
  32. ^ a b c SWOT analysis shows NDA well ahead of UPA, The Times of India, SA Aiyar (14 April 2019)
  33. ^ Narendra Modi's Challenge In India's Upcoming Elections, The Forbes, Harry Broadman (29 March 2019)
  34. ^ India to be global growth leader in 2019–20: IMF, India Today (22 January 2019); At 7.5%, 7.7% India to be top growing economy in 2020: IMF, The Hindu (21 January 2019)
  35. ^ India: Report, International Monetary Fund (2019)
  36. ^ 131 accountants from India just responded to the open letter from economists and social scientists challenging official GDP data, Business Insider, D Dhillon (18 March 2019)
  37. ^ Mayawati again blasts both BJP, Congress, Business Standard, IANS (8 April 2019)
  38. ^ Congress put India in fragile five, we put it in fastest gear even in challenging environments: Arun Jaitley, The Economic Times, Deepshikha Sikarwar and Vinay Pandey (4 April 2019)
  39. ^ Demonetisation was done in national interest: PM Narendra Modi, Live Mint, Shashi Shekhar (6 April 2019)
  40. ^ Corruption-free government is possible: Prime Minister Narendra Modi, The New Indian Express, GS Vasu, HK Singh and M Anand (16 April 2019)
  41. ^ Nyay will be game changer, lead to creation of jobs: Ashok Gehlot Interview, The Times of India, Subodh Ghildiyal (15 April 2019)
  42. ^ Kumar, Nikhil (14 March 2019). "Unemployment a key issue as India's Narendra Modi seeks re-election". CNN. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  43. ^ Indian Elections Nearing Amid Frustration with Politics, Concerns about Misinformation, Pew Research Center, Washington DC (25 March 2019)
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Further reading

  • Surjit S. Bhalla. Citizen Raj: Indian Elections 1952-2019 (2019 [1]
  • Prannoy Roy, Dorab R. Sopariwala . he Verdict:Decoding India's Elections (2019) [2]

External links