Indian WhatsApp lynchings

The Indian WhatsApp lynchings are a spate of mob-related violence and killings following the spread of rumours, primarily relating to child-abduction and organ harvesting, via the WhatsApp message service. The spate of lynchings commenced in May 2017 with the killing of seven men in Jharkhand, but did not become a matter of national attention until the beginning of the following year. Fake messages customised with locally specific details are circulated along with real videos attached to fake messages or claims.

Indian WhatsApp lynchings
TypeMoral panic, mass hysteria, lynchings, mob violence
CauseFake news spread via social media

In almost all of the lynching locations, no child abductions had been recorded in the previous three months.[1]

The majority of the attacks have occurred deep within the interior regions of villages. The lynch mobs included men, women and children. In some cases the mobs were composed largely of illiterate or poorly educated men that were unemployed or working as day labourers as well as being under the influence of alcohol at the time of the attack.[2] In at least some of the cases prime instigators have used child-abduction fears to stir up the violence and settle old scores.

ResponsesEdit

The Indian Government does not track public lynchings and there are no official statistics from the Indian Crime Records Bureau regarding their occurrence across India.[3]

Media coverage over the killings and efforts to debunk fake news have also been concentrated in the English and Hindi language media, with little attention given to local language reporting.[4]

On 4 July 2018 – WhatsApp offered $50,000 in funding for researchers to develop technological and social ideas that prevent the spread of fake news.[5]

On 10 July 2018 – WhatsApp launched a newspaper advertising campaign warning against fake news and announced changes for Indian users of the platform that labels forwarded messages as such.[6]

Notable casesEdit

2020 Palghar mob lynchingEdit

On 16 April 2020, a vigilante group lynched two Hindu Sadhus and their drivers in Gadchinchale Village, Palghar District, Maharashtra, India. The incident was fuelled by WhatsApp rumours, about thieves operating in the area, during the country wide lockdown due to the coronavirus. The vigilante group of villagers had mistaken the three passengers as thieves and killed them.[7] The policemen who intervened were also attacked, with four policemen and a senior police officer getting injured.[8][9]

As of 20 April, 101 villagers have been arrested by the Maharashtra police on charges of murder of the three men and an investigation is ongoing.[10][11] After the incident, rumours were spread to stoke religious tension.[12] On 22 April, Maharashtra Home Minister, Anil Deshmukh posted a complete list of people arrested, and said that none of the people arrested were Muslims.[10][13] The government said that both the attackers and the victims were of same religion.[12][9]

2018 Karbi Anglong lynchingEdit

The 2018 Karbi Anglong lynching occurred when two men who were visiting the Kangthilangso waterfall to search for ornamental fish stopped their vehicle to ask villagers for directions. A mob of inebriated villagers suspected them to be child abductors and attacked them with machetes, bamboo poles and wood. The two men succumbed to their injuries before they could be taken to hospital. A video was circulated of the two men covered in blood and begging for mercy.

List of attacks and lynchingsEdit

Date Victims Location State
Deaths
Injuries
Arrests
Circumstances
May 12, 2017 Two men Jadugora, East Singhbhum district Jharkhand 2 Two people were beaten to death and as many injured by a mob on suspicion that they were child lifters in Jadugora.[14]
May 17, 2017 Unidentified man Shobhapur village, Kolhan Jharkhand 1 One man beaten to death on suspicion of being a child abductor.[15]
May 17, 2017 Two unidentified men Sosomoli village Jharkhand 2 Two men beaten to death on suspicion of being child abductors.[15]
April 10, 2018 Rukmani (female, 65), Chandrasekaran (male, 34), Mohan Kumar (male, 34), Venkatesan (51), Gajendran Athimur, Tiruvannamalai Tamil Nadu 1 3 42[16] 65 year old Rukmani and her family was travelling from Chennai to visit the family temple when they stopped to ask an elderly lady for directions. Whilst stopping they gave chocolates to local children. The lady told the rest of the village that they must be child traffickers. A mob of 200 gathered, stripped the family and beat them,[17] killing Rukmani, critically injuring the other three and overturning their vehicle. Police were present but unable to stop the violence until an ambulance arrived.[18] Videos taken of the attack were circulated and used to identify perpetrators.[19] Claims that 52 children in the district had been abducted were circulating on WhatsApp prior to the lynching.[16] Police commence awareness campaign against fake news in the days following the attack.
April 29, 2018 1 man (30s) Parasuramapatti, Gudiyatham, Vellore Tamil Nadu 1 A 30 year old Hindi-speaking migrant worker is suspected of being a child-abductor and beaten to death.[20] Police commence a public awareness campaign.
May 11, 2018 Ganesh (30s) Tiruvaller, Chennai Tamil Nadu 1 20[21] A mentally-ill man who had been seen roaming the streets for several months was attacked by 90 villagers who accused him of being a child kidnapper. They broke his nose, gouged out an eye, and hung him from a bridge near Pulicat Lake.[20][22] The cause was fake videos and messages circulating via WhatsApp.
May 17, 2018 Uttam Kumar Verma (male), Ganesh Kumar Gupta (male), Vikas Verma (25), Gautam Verma (27), elderly woman (80s) Nagadih Jharkhand 4 Two brothers working for the Swachh Bharat campaign and a friend were beaten to death by tribals in front of their 80-year-old grandmother. Their older brother sustained injuries in the attack. Police failed to rescue them, with witnesses accusing them of standing and watching. WhatsApp rumours were blamed for the attack.[23][24] Angry villagers torched two police vehicles.[25] It was reported that the grandmother was also beaten and died later.[26][27]
June 8, 2018 Bharat Sonavne (male), Shivaji Shinde (male), and 7 other men Chandgaon, Vaijapur taluka Maharashtra 2 7 400 Two men were beaten to death and seven others were injured, one of them critically, after a mob of villagers attacked them with wooden sticks after receiving social media messages about a gang of robbers in the area.[28]
July 1, 2018 2 men, 2 women, 1 child Malegaon Maharashtra 0 4 A family of daily wage labourers were accused by a teenager of being child abductors and set upon by surrounding crowd. All five were rescued by police. The crowd attacked police and overturned a police vehicle. The four are critically injured in hospital.[29] Cause believed to be fake videos originating in Karnataka.[30]
July 1, 2018 Dadarao Bhosale, Bharat Bhosale, Aappa Ingole, Bharat Malve and Raju Bhosale[31] Rainpada village, Dhule district Maharashtra 5 5 people belonging to the nomadic community Nath Panthi Davari Gosavi were lynched to death on the suspicion of being child traffickers. Rumours on social media suggested that child abductors were active in the area.[32]
July 16, 2018 Mohammed Azam (28), Salham Eid Al Kubasi, Noor Mohammed, 1 other man Bidar district Karnataka 1 3 32[33]

[34]

IT worker, Mohammed Azam was visiting a relative with three friends when they saw some children in the village to whom they gave Qatari chocolates. Villagers, suspecting them to be child-snatchers turned hostile. The group fled in their car, but residents called ahead to the next village of Murki who blocked the road. The car flipped into a ditch and the men dragged them out of the vehicle[original research?] and beaten with sticks and stones. By the time the police arrived, Azam was dead whilst the others had sustained critical injuries.[35] Eight policemen were injured, two seriously.[36]
July 19, 2018 1 woman (25) Bhosh village, Morwa, Singrauli Madhya Pradesh 1 14 Following the circulation of WhatsApp messages a group of tribal men suspected a homeless, mentally-disabled woman, attacking her with sticks, rods and a pick-axe. Her body was dumped in the jungle, but found shortly afterwards by the police.[37]
April 18, 2020 Sushil Giri Maharaj (35), Nilesh Telgane (35), and Chikane Maharaj Kalpavrikshgiri (70) Palghar Maharashtra 3 110 See 2020 Palghar mob lynching. Three men who were driving to a funeral during coronavirus lockdown were lynched by the vigilante group on the suspicion of being thieves after rumours were floated in the area.[7][38]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Murderous mob — 9 states, 27 killings, one year: And a pattern to the lynchings". The Indian Express. 15 July 2018.
  2. ^ "An Express Investigation Part 2: Look who all make up the murderous lynch mob". The Indian Express. 15 July 2018.
  3. ^ Gupta, Apar (10 July 2018). "Blaming WhatsApp for Deaths due to Lynchings has Shielded Government Accountability". Tech2.
  4. ^ Milko, Victoria (10 July 2010). "India's fight against fake news has a problem: More needs to be done on regional languages". The Splice Newsroom.
  5. ^ "WhatsApp offers $50,000 for ideas to stop fake news spread as India orders it to take action over lynchings". The Telegraph. 4 July 2018.
  6. ^ Rahman, Shaikh Azizur (13 July 2018). "'Fake news often goes viral': WhatsApp ads warn India after mob lynchings". The Guardian.
  7. ^ a b "Police arrest 110 people over lynching in western India". Reuters. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  8. ^ PalgharApril 17, Divyesh Singh; April 17, 2020UPDATED; Ist, 2020 17:15. "3 men lynched in Maharashtra on suspicion of being robbers". India Today. Retrieved 21 April 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ a b "Palghar Lynching: Maha govt warns against floating 'communal angle', says attackers and victims were of 'same religion'". DNA India. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  10. ^ a b "No Muslims among 101 accused for Palghar sadhu lynching: Maha Home Minister Anil Deshmukh". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  11. ^ "110 arrested over latest deadly lynch mob attack in India". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  12. ^ a b "More than 100 arrested over India lynching". BBC News. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  13. ^ Apr 22, ANI; 2020; Ist, 12:30. "Palghar mob lynching: Anil Deshmukh releases list of 101 people arrested". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 22 April 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Bhattacharya, Ravik (22 May 2017). "Jharkhand lynching: Amid WhatsApp rumours, tribals stopped school, outdoors for kids". The Indian Express.
  15. ^ a b Surendran, Vivek (27 June 2017). "Politics of lynching, the new normal in India". India Today.
  16. ^ a b Karthikeyan, Divya (25 May 2018). "WhatsApp Rumours, Fake Videos Lead to Lynching and Deaths in Tamil Nadu". The Wire.
  17. ^ Jayarajan, Sreedevi (10 May 2018). "TN horror: Mob mistakes 65-year-old woman for child trafficker, lynches her to death". The News Minute.
  18. ^ "Tamil Nadu: Mob Of 200 Lynches To Death 65-Yr-Old Woman Mistaking Her For A Child Trafficker". The Logical Indian. 10 May 2018.
  19. ^ "23 men arrested for lynching 65-year-old Chennai woman". The Times of India. 11 May 2018.
  20. ^ a b Thirumurthy, Priyanka; Jayarajan, Sreedevi (11 May 2018). "False Whatsapp messages on child abduction trigger violence in TN, killing two". The News Minute.
  21. ^ "Tamil Nadu: Two lynched to death in 24 hours; how fake WhatsApp messages spread panic". Financial Express. 11 May 2018.
  22. ^ Selvaraj, A. (11 May 2018). "Mob Justice On Chennai Streets, Two Men Lynched Within 24 Hours For Alleged Child Theft". Indian Times.
  23. ^ Bhattacharya, Ravik (20 May 2017). "Seven lynched by mob in Jharkhand over kidnap rumours". The Indian Express.
  24. ^ Murty, B Vijay (22 May 2017). "Jharkhand lynching: Community leaders, activists blame 'curse of social media'". Hindustan Times.
  25. ^ "Six persons lynched in two separate incidents in Jharkhand following suspicion of child-lifting". First Post. 19 May 2017.
  26. ^ "Anatomy of a lynching: How fake forwards create killer mobs". The Times of India. 16 June 2018.
  27. ^ "4-year RI for 12 in Rajnagar lynching". The Telegraph. 17 July 2018.
  28. ^ "WhatsApp Rumour Triggers Lynching of 2 Men in Maharashtra's Aurangabad". News 18. 13 June 2018.
  29. ^ "5 Lynched in Dhule, 4 Battered in Malegaon: Fake WhatsApp Message Haunts Maharashtra Now". News 18. 2 July 2018.
  30. ^ Niranjakumar, Nivedita (3 July 2018). "How A Video From Karnataka Spurred A Mob Attack In Malegaon". The Quint.
  31. ^ Shantha, Sukanya (5 July 2018). "State Apathy, Not WhatsApp Rumours, Behind Victimisation of Maharashtra's Nomadic Tribe". The Wire. Archived from the original on 20 April 2020. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  32. ^ "Fuelled by WhatsApp rumours, Dhule mob wanted to burn bodies of 'child abductors'". Hindustan Times. 4 July 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  33. ^ Busby, Mattha (16 July 2018). "2,000-strong mob kill engineer over child-kidnapping rumours in India's latest lynching". Independent.
  34. ^ Ram, Theja (14 July 2018). "Hyd man lynched to death after mob in K'taka accuses him of being a child abductor". The News Minute.
  35. ^ "Google techie's lynching in Karnataka: How an act of kindness turned deadly". Business Standard. 16 July 2018.
  36. ^ "'He looked like a terrorist': How a drive in Karnataka ended in mob lynching". Hindustan Times. 30 July 2018.
  37. ^ "Mentally challenged homeless woman lynched by mob over child lifting rumours in Madhya Pradesh". The New Indian Express. 23 July 2018.
  38. ^ "3 Men Brutally Killed By Mob In Maharashtra's Palghar, Police Arrest 110". NDTV. 18 April 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.