Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced
Joint Entrance Examination – Advanced (JEE-Advanced), formerly the Indian Institutes of Technology-Joint Entrance Examination (IIT-JEE), is an academic examination held annually in India. It is conducted by one of the seven zonal IITs (IIT Roorkee, IIT Kharagpur, IIT Delhi, IIT Kanpur, IIT Bombay, IIT Madras, and IIT Guwahati) under guidance of the Joint Admission Board (JAB). It is the sole prerequisite for admission in the Indian Institutes of Technology. Other universities like the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISERs), and the Indian Institute of Science also uses the score obtained in JEE Advanced as the basis for admission. Any student who was admitted to IIT cannot appear for the JEE-Advanced, but the same is not the case with IISc, IISER, RGIPT and other institutes, because these institutes only use JEE-Advanced scores as a criterion for admission. The examination is organised each year by one of the IIT, on a round robin rotation pattern. It has a very low qualification rate (about 9,369 in 479,651 in 2012; ~1.95%) The qualification rate of the JEE-Advanced in 2017 was approximately 0.92% (about 11,000 out of 1,200,000 who applied for JEE Main).
In 2013 the examination, originally called the IIT-JEE, was renamed as JEE (Advanced), and the AIEEE was renamed JEE (Main). From 2017, IIT began conducting JEE internationally for the admission of foreign residents.
The first institute of IIT, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, started in 1951. In its initial few years (1951-1954), students were admitted on the basis of their academic results followed by an Interview in several centers across the country. From 1955-1959, admissions for Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur were conducted via a national examination held only for IIT Kharagpur (other institutes of the IIT had not started by then). Academic disciplines were allotted to the students through interviews and counseling sessions held at Kharagpur.
The IIT-JEE, initially called the Common Entrance Exam (CEE), was first conducted in 1961, coinciding with the 1961 IIT Act.
In 1978, the English paper was not considered while ranking participants' performance in the examination. In 1998, the English test was discontinued.
In 1997, the IIT-JEE was conducted twice after the question paper was leaked in some centers.
Between 2000 and 2005, an additional screening test was used alongside the main examination, intended to reduce pressure on the main examination by allowing only about 20,000 top candidates to appear for the examination, out of more than 450,000 applicants.
From 2002, an additional exam called the AIEEE was introduced, and it was used for admissions to institutions other than the IIT. In 2012, the AIEEE was changed to JEE (Main) and IIT-JEE was renamed JEE (Advanced); the JEE (Main) had become the screening exam for JEE (Advanced).
From June 2005, The Hindu newspaper led a campaign for reforming the IIT-JEE to eradicate the "coaching mania" and to reduce gender and socio-economic diversity. Two possible solutions were proposed - either a convergence between the screening test and the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE), or a two-tier examination whereby ranks from the first tier can be used for the purposes of gaining admission to the NIT and other engineering colleges in the country.
In September 2005, the group of directors of all the IIT announced major revisions to the examination. These were implemented from 2006 onward. The revised examination consisted of a single objective test, replacing the earlier two-test system. In the revised examination, to be eligible for the main examination, candidates in the general category had to score at least 60% aggregate marks in the 12th grade examinations organized by various educational boards of India, while candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribe (ST) and Persons With Disabilities (PwD) categories must secure a minimum of 55%.
From 2006, the screening exam was abolished with the introduction a single stage multiple-choice exam started in 2006. In 2008, the director and the dean of IIT Madras proposed for further revisions to the examination, arguing that the coaching institutes were "enabling many among the less-than-best students to crack the test and keeping girls from qualifying". They expressed concern that the present system did not allow for applicants' 12 years of schooling to have a bearing on admissions into IIT.
The two-tier reform suggested in 2005 may become a reality as the Indian government has announced plans for a single entrance exam for all engineering colleges from 2018, with students aspiring for the IITs having to pass the nationwide common entrance test (JEE-Main) with high marks and then take the JEE-Advanced to qualify for the IITs.
In 2018, JEE (Advanced) started being conducted online.
Eligibility criteria for appearing in JEE (Advanced) are:
- Candidates should rank among the top candidates in Paper-1 of JEE (Main), broken down per category. For example, for JEE (Advanced) 2019 the top 245,000 were eligible, but only 46.5% of those were open for all, the rest being reserved for special categories.
- Candidates should be less than 25 years of age, with five year relaxation for SC, ST, and PwD candidates.
- Candidates can attempt examination at most two times in two consecutive years.
- Candidates should have qualified the Class XII Board Examination (or equivalent) in the previous year.
- Candidates should not have accepted admission in any of the IIT earlier.
In addition, candidates are required to either be within the category-wise top 20 percentile of successful candidates in the Class XII Board Examination, or secure a 75% mark (65% for SC, ST and PwD).
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This list shows the organizer the of JEE (Advanced) in the recent years.
The number of students enrolling the examination increased substantially each year with over 4,85,000 candidates registering for JEE (Advanced) 2011 (an increase of 30,000 students (6.5%) from 2010).
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In 2011, additional courses were introduced in the IIT. IIT Tirupati and IIT Palakkad were started in 2015 and four more institutes(IIT Bhilai, IIT Dharwad, IIT Goa, and IIT Jammu) started in 2016. In 2018, to ensure minimum female enrollment of 14%, the IIT introduced "female only" and "gender neutral" seats based on 2017 enrollment statistics, and "super-numerary" were created per-institute per-course to reach the 14% target. With this and slight overall seats increases, the total seats availability crossed 12000, including 801 "super-numerary female-only" seats.
In 2012, Super 30 founder and mathematician Anand Kumar criticised the New Admission Norms, saying that the decision of the IIT's council to give chance to students having top 20% from various boards in the class 12 examinations, was "a decision in haste". "This is one decision that will go against the poor, who don't have the opportunity to study in elite schools," he added.
JEE is conducted only in English and Hindi, for which it was criticized as being harder for students where regional languages, like Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Urdu, Oriya, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese or Gujarati, are more prominent. In September 2011, the Gujarat High Court acted on a Public Interest Litigation by the Gujarati Sahitya Parishad, demanding the examinations to be conducted in Gujarati also. A second petition was made in October by Navsari's Sayaji Vaibhav Sarvajanik Pustakalaya Trust. Another petition was made at the Madras High Court for conducting the exam in Tamil. In the petition, it was claimed that not conducting the exam in the regional languages is in violation of article 14 of the Constitution of India. PMK, a political party in Tamil Nadu held a demonstration at Chennai for conducting IIT-JEE and other national entrance exams in regional languages also, particularly Tamil in Tamil Nadu. Pattali Makkal Katchi party has filed Public Interest Litigation in Madras High Court for conducting IIT JEE entrance exam in Tamil also. They claimed that every year 763,000 students were completing grade 12 in Tamil Nadu, 75% of them from Tamil Medium. They had to take the entrance exam in English or Hindi, neither of which was their medium of instruction nor their mother tongue, and so were denied their fundamental right to take up the entrance exam in their medium of instruction, based on their mother tongue. Shiv Sena urged MHRD to conduct IITJEE and other national undergraduate entrance exams in regional languages, particularly Marathi language in Maharashtra. Most of the JEE controversies sparked the nation as the exam is very well known. In 2017, the supreme court ordered JAB to put a bar on the ongoing counseling process. There were three questions comprising a total of 11 marks that were unclear.
Changes made in JEE (Advanced) in 2018Edit
There were several changes made in the exam from 2018. The Joint Admission Board (JAB) decided to conduct the entire exam online from 2018 since it reduces chances of paper leak and makes logistics and evaluation easier. It said that the online exam will neutralise the problem of misprinting.
Preparing for the Joint Entrance Exam normally begins two years before students take the test. 90% of students who passed this exam attended coaching institutes, which had created a ₹232.61 billion industry with annual tuitions of up to ₹1,17,338. These academies included tests multiple times a week, up to 200 students per class, and long hours, in addition to regular high school work. There were hundreds of academies across the country and the most famous—in Kota, Rajasthan—attracted approximately 125,000 students each year. Coaching programs had become major corporations and were now not only listed on the Indian stock market, but also attracted tens of millions of rupees of investment from private equity firms. The high-pressure environments, with much competition and high expectations, were blamed for the significant number of suicides that occurred in these academies.
- . The Hindu. June 14, 2017 http://www.hindustantimes.com/mumbai-news/bonus-marks-improved-success-rate-in-jee-advanced-say-experts-in-mumbai/story-uzx8aAmyyeXxIJ2uNSgL6J.html. Missing or empty
- "Combined JEE from next year". The Calcutta Telegraph. 29 May 2012.
- "IITs to hold entrance exam abroad for foreign students". The Hindu. February 21, 2016.
- Ashish K. Mishra and Shishir Prasad (22 February 2012). "IIT-JEE Will Be Missed".
- S.S. Vasan. Reforming the Joint Entrance Examination system.
- Editorial. Reforming JEE needs wider reach.
- National admission test called for.
- Indrani Dutta. New IIT-JEE format from 2006.
- D Suresh Kumar. JEE fails to get the best: IIT dons. The Times of India. 31 Jul 2008.
- "5 lakh aspirants to sit for IIT-JEE in 2012 - Times of India".
- "IITs hike number of examination centres for JEE - Times of India".
- http://www.hindustantimes.com/education/govt-plans-single-entrance-exam-for-all-engineering-colleges-from-2018/story-0TaCjvwwd4eav8uxpqI9sO.html. Missing or empty
- "Eligibility Criteria for Indian Nationals (Including Pio/Oci) for Appearing in JEE (Advanced) 2019". JEE (Advanced) Office, IIT Roorkee. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Performance in Class XII (Or Equivalent) Board Examination". JEE (Advanced) Office, IIT Roorkee. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
- "Hyderabad boy tops IIT-JEE". sify.com. 25 May 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- "JEE 2011 Counseling Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "JoSAA seat matrix page". Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- "New format of IIT-JEE examination would go against the poor: Anand Kumar". The Times Of India. 27 June 2012.
- "Sahitya Parishad demands entrance tests in Gujarati - Times Of India". indiatimes.com. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Another PIL seeks entrance tests in Gujarati - Times Of India". indiatimes.com. 2011-10-21. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Conduct IIT entrance test in Tamil also: PMK". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 5 March 2012.
- "Court notice on plea for entrance exams in Tamil". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 21 April 2012.
- "Plea to write IIT entrance in Tamil | Deccan Chronicle". deccanchronicle.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Khapre, Shubhangi (March 5, 2011). "Shiv Sena demands IIT entrance test in regional languages". Mumbai: Daily News Analysis. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "The IIT Entrance Exam".
- "Making capital of coaching".
- "Despite high suicide rate, IIT-JEE aspirants made a beeline for a seat in Kotas coaching institutes".
- "Why 57 Young Students Have Taken Their Lives In Kota". Huffington Post India.
- Sudhanshu Mishra (23 April 2013). "Revealed: Inside Kota's Rs 300 crore coaching industry, where 1.5 lakh students brave cut-throat competition to crack IIT-JEE". Daily Mail.