In Through the Out Door
In Through the Out Door is the eighth and final studio album by the English rock band Led Zeppelin. It was recorded over a three-week period in November and December 1978 at ABBA's Polar Studios in Stockholm, Sweden, and released by Swan Song Records on 15 August 1979. In 1980, Led Zeppelin disbanded following the death of drummer John Bonham.
|In Through the Out Door|
One of picture sleeve variants for original 1979 vinyl release, also used for digital and 2010s vinyl re-releases
|Studio album by|
|Released||15 August 1979|
|Studio||Polar, Stockholm, Sweden|
|Led Zeppelin chronology|
|Singles from In Through the Out Door|
|Original paper bag sleeve|
One of paper bag sleeve variants for original vinyl release, whose stamped logo was also used as part of front cover for original tape releases
The album is a reflection of the personal turmoil that the band members had been going through before and during its recording. Frontman Robert Plant and his wife had gone through a serious car accident, and their young son, Karac, died from a stomach illness, while all four band members also felt weary of dealing with record companies and other associates.
The release became a huge commercial success, particularly in the United States (sitting at the No. 1 slot on Billboard's chart in just its second week on the chart). In Through the Out Door was the band's eighth and final studio release to reach the top of the charts in America.
The album was named by the group to describe its recent struggles amidst the death of Robert Plant's son Karac in 1977, and the taxation exile the band took from the UK. The exile resulted in the band being unable to tour on British soil for over two years, and trying to get back into the public mind was therefore like "trying to get in through the 'out' door".
The group began rehearsing material in September 1978, and after six weeks they were ready to record material. The group travelled to Polar Studios in Stockholm, Sweden to begin recording. In contrast to previous Led Zeppelin albums, In Through the Out Door features much greater influence on the part of bassist and keyboardist John Paul Jones and vocalist Robert Plant, and relatively less from drummer John Bonham and guitarist Jimmy Page. This diminished input by Page and Bonham is attributed to the two band members often not showing up on time at the recording studio, with Bonham struggling with alcoholism and Page battling heroin addiction. Jones later said, "there were two distinct camps by then, and we [Plant and I] were in the relatively clean one." Many of the songs were consequently put together by Plant and Jones during the day, with Page and Bonham adding their parts late at night. Jones had also been inspired to create new material after purchasing a Yamaha GX-1 synthesizer prior to the album's recording, and he was "working closely with Robert, which was something that had not happened before".
Following the recording sessions at Polar, the album was mixed at Page's personal studio at his home in Plumpton. "Wearing and Tearing", "Ozone Baby" and "Darlene" were recorded during sessions for this album, but were dropped because of space constraints. All later appeared on Coda.
The music on In Through the Out Door was dominated by Jones. Two songs from the album—"South Bound Saurez" and "All My Love"—were the only two original Led Zeppelin songs that Page had no part in writing. Aside from "Darlene", a boogie-woogie based song credited to all band members (which was eventually released on the 1982 album, Coda), Bonham did not receive writing credits for any of the songs.
"In The Evening" was planned as the opening track for the album as "a full-blown epic", in order to show that Led Zeppelin could still make good music. Page played the guitar with a violin bow, as he had done in the early days of the band. The track features a contrast between the powerful riffs in the main part of the track, against a relatively quiet middle section.
"South Bound Saurez" was a straightforward rocker. Jones played piano on the track.
"Fool in the Rain" was an attempt to combine a samba rhythm with a basic rock tune, resulting in a polyrhythm part way through the song. The idea was inspired by Plant explaining that the group must explore new musical territory in order to remain current.
"Carouselambra" is a ten-minute track, dominated by Jones' keyboards and covering a variety of musical styles. Page played his Gibson EDS-1275 double neck guitar, which was normally only used for live performances. The group had intended to play the song live for the planned 1980 US tour, which was cancelled after Bonham's death.
"All My Love" was a love song composed by Plant and Jones when they were the first to arrive at the studio. Jones played a classically inspired synthesizer solo in the middle of the track.
"I'm Gonna Crawl" was a relaxed blues. Plant arranged the track to be in the style of mid-1960s soul music such as Wilson Pickett and Otis Redding. Jones contributed a string synthesizer arrangement.
Packaging and artworkEdit
The original album featured an unusual gimmick: the album had an outer sleeve which was made to look like a plain brown paper bag (reminiscent of similarly packaged bootleg album sleeves with the title rubber-stamped on it), and the inner sleeve featured black and white line artwork which, if washed with water, would become permanently fully coloured. There were also six different sleeves featuring a different pair of photos (one on each side), and the external brown paper sleeve meant that it was impossible for record buyers to tell which sleeve they were getting.[a] The pictures all depicted the same scene in a bar (in which a man burns a Dear John letter), and each photo was taken from the separate point of view of someone who appeared in the other photos. The walls are covered with thousands of yellowed business cards and dollar bills. The photo session in a London studio was meant to look like a re-creation of the Old Absinthe House, in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Release and promotionEdit
The album was intended to be released before the band's twin concerts at Knebworth in 1979, but production delays meant that it was released shortly after their performances at this event, on 20 August. Plant jokingly referred to the delays at times during the performance on 4 August.
The album went to No. 1 on Billboard's chart in its second week on the chart, reportedly selling 1.7 million copies within days of release. On this album's release, Led Zeppelin's entire catalogue made the Billboard 200 between the weeks of 23 October and 3 November 1979, an unprecedented feat, topping their own record in 1975, when all their albums up to Physical Graffiti were on the chart. The album remained on the US top spot for seven weeks and sold three million copies by the end of September 1979. It was credited with helping to revive the US record industry, which had begun to struggle. In January 1980, "Fool in the Rain" was released as a single to further promote the album, but it narrowly missed the top 20 of the singles chart.
In Through the Out Door is the Led Zeppelin album that has spent the most weeks on the top of the charts (tied along with Led Zeppelin II and Physical Graffiti). To date, the album has sold six million copies in the US.
|The Daily Telegraph|||
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
|The Village Voice||B+|
In Through the Out Door divided contemporary critics and Led Zeppelin fans; some found its synthesizer-influenced music inevitable but forward-thinking while others felt the band had forsaken their heavy, fast sound. According to Jimmy Page biographer Martin Power, "predictably, in the wake of punk, In Through the Out Door received a rough ride from some critics, with Zep's veteran status in the music business now used as a stick with which to beat them."
Reviewing the album in Rolling Stone, Charles M. Young said Page's diminishing creativity resulted in little good material to work with for Plant, whose lyrics Young found inane, and Bonham, whose drumming was viewed as heavy handed. This brought to the forefront the keyboard playing of Jones, who Young said "functions best behind Page, not in front of him". Chris Bohn from Melody Maker said "the impressionable first play" of the record "had everyone in the office rolling around laughing", while accusing the band of being "totally out of touch" and "displaying the first intimations of mortality". By contrast, NME journalist Nick Kent argued that the album was "no epitaph", believing its "potential points of departure" deserved further listening. Robert Christgau also wrote positively of the record in The Village Voice, observing the usual "lax in the lyrics department", but regarding the album as the group's best since Houses of the Holy (1973). He said "the tuneful synthesizer pomp on side two confirms my long-held belief that this is a real good art-rock band", while "the lollapalooza hooks on the first side confirms the world's long-held belief that this is a real good hard rock band". At the end of the year, In Through the Out Door was nominated for the 1980 American Music Awards, in the category of "Favorite Pop/Rock Album".
Following the album's release, Plant, Page and Bonham all expressed reservations about the record. Plant later said that he enjoyed the variation in styles from previous albums, though he appreciated the album was "a bit sanitised". Page said in 2004, "we wanted, after In Through the Out Door, to make something hard-hitting and riff-based again. Of course, we never got to make that album." He is also quoted as saying, "It wasn't the most comfortable album. I think it was very transitional ... a springboard for what could have been." In Through the Out Door was Led Zeppelin's final album to be released while all the original members were still living. Drummer John Bonham died the next year on 25 September 1980.
In The Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004), Gaylord Fields said the album was "maligned upon its release a retreat from heaviness" but "now stands as an art-rock oddity with some alluring tangents". Colin Larkin appraised it in his Encyclopedia of Popular Music (2006) as "lacking the definition" of the band's previous records, yet "a strong collection on which John Paul Jones emerged as the unifying factor". Neil McCormick, however, reinforced past complaints about the album, ranking it as the band's worst album in a 2014 retrospective on the band in The Daily Telegraph: "Muddy production, perky synths, jaunty pop rhythms and an orchestral ballad make these songs barely recognisable as the heaviest band in history."
A remastered version of In Through the Out Door, along with Presence and Coda were reissued on 31 July 2015. The reissue comes in six formats: a standard CD edition, a deluxe two-CD edition, a standard LP version, a deluxe two-LP version, a super deluxe two-CD plus two-LP version with a hardback book, and as high resolution 96k/24-bit digital downloads. The deluxe and super deluxe editions feature bonus material containing alternative takes and alternatively titled tracks, "Southbound Piano", "The Epic", "The Hook", and "Blot". The reissue was released with a black and white version of the original album's artwork as its bonus disc's cover. A replica of the brown bag and the colourable line drawing are included in this edition.
The reissue was met with generally positive reviews. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream publications, the album received an average score of 73, based on eight reviews. Q magazine said "it's aged remarkably well and All My Love is breathtakingly beautiful", while Tim Batcup from Classic Rock observed in the bonus material "a scruffier, rambunctious Hot Dog and a sparser In The Evening, the drone intro truncated and Jones's synths high in the mix". PopMatters reviewer Andrew Doscas was more critical, especially of the bonus disc: "While In Through the Out Door does have some merit, it's cruel of Led Zeppelin to think that anyone, even a dedicated fan, could muster the strength to listen to the album twice in a row."
|1.||"In the Evening"||6:48|
|2.||"South Bound Saurez"||4:11|
|3.||"Fool in the Rain"||6:08|
|2.||"All My Love"||5:51|
|3.||"I'm Gonna Crawl"||5:28|
- Sides one and two were combined as tracks 1–7 on CD reissues.
|2015 deluxe edition bonus disc|
|1.||"In the Evening" (Rough mix)||6:53|
|2.||"Southbound Piano" ("South Bound Saurez") (Rough mix)||4:15|
|3.||"Fool in the Rain" (Rough mix)||6:08|
|4.||"Hot Dog" (Rough mix)||3:16|
|5.||"The Epic" ("Carouselambra") (Rough mix)||10:48|
|6.||"The Hook" ("All My Love") (Rough mix)||5:51|
|7.||"Blot" ("I'm Gonna Crawl") (Rough mix)||5:33|
- John Bonham – drums, percussion
- John Paul Jones – bass guitar, keyboards
- Jimmy Page – guitars, Gizmotron
- Robert Plant – lead vocals
- John Davis – remastering (2015 reissues)
- Barry Diament – mastering (original 1988 Compact Disc release)
- Peter Grant – executive producer
- Hipgnosis – record sleeve
- George Marino – remastering (1994 reissues)
- Leif Mases – engineering
- Jeff Ocheltree – drum tech for John Bonham
- Lennart Östlund – assistant engineering
- Jimmy Page – producer
|Chart (1979–80)||Peak position|
|Australian KMR Albums Chart||3|
|Austrian Albums Chart||15|
|Canadian RPM Albums Chart||1|
|French Albums Chart||7|
|Italian Albums Chart||12|
|Japanese Albums Chart||2|
|New Zealand Top 50 Albums Chart||1|
|Norwegian Albums Chart||14|
|Spanish Albums Chart||5|
|Swedish Albums Chart||17|
|UK Albums Chart||1|
|US Billboard 200||1|
|West German Albums Chart||28|
|Chart (2015)||Peak position|
|Swiss Albums Chart||17|
|1980||"Fool in the Rain"||US Billboard Hot 100||21|
|Australia (ARIA)||2× Platinum||140,000^|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Platinum||15,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Platinum||300,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||6× Platinum||6,000,000^|
^shipments figures based on certification alone
- There is actually a code on the spine of the album jacket which indicated which sleeve it was—this could sometimes be seen while the record was still sealed
- The Complete Studio Recordings (Boxed set booklet). Led Zeppelin. New York City: Atlantic Records. 1993. In Through the Out Door details section. 82526-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Dolan, Jon (5 December 2007). "Led Zeppelin: Complete Album-By-Album Guide". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
...Zeppelin's eighth and final studio album.
- Lewis 1990, p. 59.
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- Lewis 1990, p. 62.
- Lewis 1990, p. 60.
- Lewis 1990, p. 23.
- Lewis 1990, pp. 23, 60.
- Lewis 1990, p. 61.
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- Welch 1994, pp. 89-90.
- AllMusic review
- McCormick, Neil (23 April 2014). "Led Zeppelin's albums ranked from worst to best". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- Larkin, Colin (2006). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. 5 (4th ed.). MUZE. p. 141. ISBN 0195313739.
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- Fields, Gaylord (2004). "Led Zeppelin". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (eds.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. pp. 479–80. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- Starr, Red. "Albums". Smash Hits (20 September – 3 October 1979): 25.
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- Power, Martin (2016). "Chapter 27: Wearing and Tearing". No Quarter: The Three Lives of Jimmy Page. Omnibus Press. ISBN 1783235365.
- Young, Charles M. (18 October 1979). "In Through The Out Door". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
- "Favorite Pop/Rock Album – 18 January 1980". rockonthenet. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
- Mat Snow, "Apocalypse Then", Q magazine, December 1990, p. 82.
- Charles Shaar Murray, "The Guv'nors'", Mojo, August 2004, p. 75.
- Liner notes for the Led Zeppelin boxed set.
- "In Through The Out Door [Remastered] - Led Zeppelin". Metacritic. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
- Batcup, Tim (August 2015). "Led Zeppelin Presence / In Through The Out Door / Coda". Classic Rock. pp. 102–03.
- Richardson, Mark (28 July 2015). "Led Zeppelin: Presence / In Through the Out Door / Coda". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
- Doscas, Andrew (22 September 2015). "Led Zeppelin: In Through the Out Door (Deluxe Edition)". PopMatters. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- Anon. (September 2015). "Review". Q. p. 121.
- Grow, Kory (3 June 2015). "Led Zeppelin Announce Final Three Deluxe Reissues". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- In Through the Out Door (Liner notes). Led Zeppelin. New York City: Swan Song Records. 1976. LP record labels. SS 10002.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Top 75 Albums – 15 October 1979". austriancharts.at. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
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-  Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
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- "New Zealand album certifications – Led Zeppelin – In Through the Out Door". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
- "British album certifications – Led Zeppelin – In Through the Out Door". British Phonographic Industry. Select albums in the Format field. Select Platinum in the Certification field. Type In Through the Out Door in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Led Zeppelin – In Through the Out Door". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
- In Through the Out Door at MusicBrainz (list of releases)
- Images of the six covers
- Storm Thorgerson's official website – includes an In Through The Out Door feature
- Rick Barrett In Through The Out Door Album Covers