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Impostor syndrome (also known as impostor phenomenon, fraud syndrome or the impostor experience) is a concept describing individuals who are marked by an inability to internalize their accomplishments and a persistent fear of being exposed as a "fraud". The term was coined in 1978 by clinical psychologists Pauline R. Clance and Suzanne A. Imes.[1] Despite external evidence of their competence, those exhibiting the syndrome remain convinced that they are frauds and do not deserve the success they have achieved. Proof of success is dismissed as luck, timing, or as a result of deceiving others into thinking they are more intelligent and competent than they believe themselves to be. While early research focused on the prevalence among high-achieving women,[2] impostor syndrome has been found to affect both men and women, in roughly equal numbers.[3][4]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

The impostor syndrome tends to be studied as a reaction to certain stimuli and events. It is not perceived to be a mental disorder, but it has been the topic of research for many psychologists. Though traditionally perceived as an ingrained personality trait, impostor syndrome has more recently been studied as a reaction to certain situations. Under this interpretation, it is a response experienced by many different people to situations that prompt such feelings. Though certain people are more prone to impostor feelings, experience them more intensely than most, and can be identified through the use of personality scales, evidence does not support impostor syndrome to be a distinct personality trait.[5]

The term "impostor syndrome" first appeared in an article written by Pauline R. Clance and Suzanne A. Imes who observed many high-achieving women tended to believe they were not intelligent, and that they were over-evaluated by others.[2] Another framework for understanding impostor syndrome is to re-name it "impostor experience". In the words of Clance, "If I could do it all over again, I would call it the impostor experience, because it's not a syndrome or a complex or a mental illness, it's something almost everyone experiences."[6] Reframing the vocabulary shifts one's perspective to help them understand they are not isolated in this experience.

Signs and symptomsEdit

Impostor experience can take form differently for everyone. Some common signs that someone may be feeling like an impostor are:[7]

Impostor experience can present itself through thoughts such as:[8]

  • "I must not fail"
  • "I feel like a fake"
  • "I just got lucky"

In high achieversEdit

Imes and Clance's theory suggests several behaviours of high-achieving women with impostor syndrome:[2]

Diligence
Gifted people often work hard in order to prevent people from discovering that they are "impostors". This hard work often leads to more praise and success, which perpetuates the impostor feelings and fears of being "found out". The "impostor" person may feel they need to work two or three times as hard, so over-prepare, tinker and obsess over details, says Young. This can lead to burn-out and sleep deprivation.
Feeling of being phony
Those with impostor feelings often attempt to give supervisors and professors the answers that they believe they want, which often leads to an increase in feeling like they are "being a fake". If shown evidence of their competence or that they may suffer from a case of impostor syndrome, they tend to doubt themselves even more.
Use of charm
Connected to this, gifted women often use their intuitive perceptiveness and charm[2] to gain approval and praise from supervisors and seek out relationships with supervisors in order to help them increase their abilities intellectually and creatively. However, when the supervisor gives them praise or recognition, they feel that this praise is based on charm and not on ability. This may also be interpreted as manipulating others for personal gain.
Avoiding display of confidence
Another way that a person can perpetuate their impostor feelings is to avoid showing any confidence in their abilities. A person dealing with impostor feelings may believe that if they actually believe in their intelligence and abilities they may be rejected by others. Therefore, they may convince themselves that they are not intelligent or do not deserve success to avoid this.

While studies primarily focused on women, recent studies have suggested that men may also be prone to impostor syndrome on similar levels.[9][10] In addition, original researcher Clance suggests that the syndrome may be equally prevalent in males, although she proposes that men process and act on it in different ways to women.[3]

EthnicityEdit

A study by Queena Hoang suggested as example people of color may experience imposter syndrome as a result of suspecting they were given their position by affirmative action.[11] The research regarding impostor experience has traditionally highlighted groups who are excelling in areas that were not always readily accessible to them.[2] Likewise, said students have not always had access to institutions of higher education, which is another source that can create feelings of being an impostor.[12]

In 2013, a study conducted at the University of Texas at Austin revealed that Asian-American students are more likely than African-American or Latino students to experience feelings of being an impostor in college. This is potentially dangerous because correlational analyses showed that impostor feelings amongst underrepresented college students was a strong predictor of mental health issues.[13] If these feelings go unnoticed, students may suffer from anxiety, stress, and depression.[2] It may be hard to outwardly identify these students because students who express feeling symptoms of impostor syndrome are "often the most energetic, bright, and hardworking students amongst their peers".[11]

On the other hand, some scholars argue that feelings of impostor experience are potentially healthy and beneficial for career trajectory. This belief stems from understanding that everyone has a comfort zone, and personal/professional growth is likely to occur when one steps out of their comfort zone.[14]

PrevalenceEdit

Psychological research done in the early 1980s estimated that two out of five successful people consider themselves frauds and other studies have found that 70 percent of all people feel like impostors at one time or another. It is not considered a psychological disorder, and is not among the conditions described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (commonly known as the DSM). The term was coined by clinical psychologists Pauline Clance and Suzanne Imes in 1978.[2]

People who have reportedly experienced the syndrome include multiple-award-winning writer Maya Angelou,[15] Academy Award-winning actor Tom Hanks,[16] screenwriter Chuck Lorre,[17] best-selling writer Neil Gaiman,[18][19] best-selling writer John Green, comedian Tommy Cooper,[20] business leader Sheryl Sandberg, US Supreme Court justice Sonia Sotomayor,[21] actress Emma Watson,[22] and entrepreneur Mike Cannon-Brookes.[23]

  • 70% of people will experience at least one episode of this impostor phenomenon in their lives.[24]
  • Impostor syndrome is not a gendered experience.[2][not in citation given]

DemographicsEdit

The impostor syndrome is particularly common among high-achievers. Another demographic group that often suffers from this phenomenon is African Americans. Being the beneficiary of affirmative action may cause a person who belongs to a visible minority to doubt their own abilities and suspect that their skills were not what allowed them to be hired.[25] Impostor syndrome has been commonly reported by graduate students and scientists beginning tenure track positions.[26]

ManagementEdit

Impostor syndrome is not a formal mental disorder and does not have a standard definition, therefore there has not been a clear consensus as to treatment options available.[27] The syndrome has affected approximately 70% of the population worldwide;[28] however, it often goes unrecognized.[29] If it is not addressed, victims can develop anxiety, stress, low self-confidence, depression, shame and self-doubt.[27][30][31][32][33] People who suffer from impostor syndrome tend to reflect and dwell upon extreme failure, mistakes and negative feedback from others. If not addressed, impostor syndrome can limit exploration and the courage to delve into new experiences, in fear of exposing failure.[29][34]

A number of management options are available to ease impostor syndrome. The most prominent is to discuss the topic with other individuals early on in the career path.[29][11] Mentors can discuss experiences where impostor syndrome was prevalent.[29][31] Most people who experience impostor syndrome are unaware that others feel inadequate as well. Once the situation is addressed, victims no longer feel alone in their negative experience. It is also noted that reflecting upon impostor feelings is key to overcoming this burden.[35] Making a list of accomplishments, positive feedback and success stories will also aid to manage impostor syndrome.[11] Finally, developing a strong support system that provides feedback on performance and has discussions about impostor syndrome on a regular basis is imperative for those experiencing impostorship.[31][34]

TherapyEdit

Impostor experience can be addressed with many kinds of psychotherapy.[36][37][38] Group psychotherapy is an especially common and effective way of alleviating the impostor experience.[39][40]

Writing therapy allows the person to organize their thoughts in writing.[41] The written record of the person's objective accomplishments can enable the person to associate those accomplishments with reality, rather than simply dismissing the accomplishments internally. The written record can also remind the person of those accomplishments later. By these methods, writing therapy may alleviate the person's sense of inadequacy.[42]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Clance, P.R.; Imes, S.A. (1978). "The imposter phenomenon in high achieving women: dynamics and therapeutic intervention". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. 15 (3): 241–247. doi:10.1037/h0086006. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Clance, Pauline Rose; Imes, Suzanne A. (1978). "The imposter phenomenon in high achieving women: Dynamics and therapeutic intervention" (PDF). Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice. 15 (3): 241–247. doi:10.1037/h0086006. Retrieved 19 February 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Langford, Joe; Clance, Pauline (Fall 1993). "The impostor Phenomenon: recent research findings regarding dynamics, personality and family patterns and their implications for treatment" (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2017. Studies of college students (Harvey, 1981; Bussotti, 1990; Langford, 1990), college professors (Topping, 1983), and successful professionals (Dingman, 1987) have all failed, however, to reveal any sex differences in impostor feelings, suggesting that males in these populations are just as likely as females to have low expectations of success and to make attributions to non-ability related factors. 
  4. ^ http://uk.businessinsider.com/men-suffer-from-impostor-syndrome-2016-1?r=US&IR=T
  5. ^ McElwee, Rory O'Brien; Yurak, Tricia J. (2010). "The Phenomenology Of The Impostor Phenomenon". Individual Differences Research. Social Sciences Full Text. H.W. Wilson. 8 (3): 184–197. 
  6. ^ Anderson, L.V. "Feeling Like An Impostor Is Not A Syndrome". Slate. Retrieved April 30, 2017. 
  7. ^ Sakulku, Jaruwan (2011). "The Impostor Phenomenon" (PDF). International Journal of Behavioral Science. 6 (1): 73–92. Retrieved April 25, 2017. 
  8. ^ Corkindale, Gill. "Overcoming Imposter Syndrome". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 18, 2017. 
  9. ^ Lebowitz, Shana. "Men are suffering from a psychological phenomenon that can undermine their success, but they are too ashamed to talk about it". Business Insider UK. Business Insider UK. Retrieved 8 February 2016. 
  10. ^ Anderson, L.V. "Feeling Like An Impostor Is Not A Syndrome". Slate. Retrieved April 30, 2017. 
  11. ^ a b c d Queena (2013). "The impostor phenomenon: Overcoming internalized barriers and recognizing achievements". Vermont Connection: 3441–3452. 
  12. ^ Schuh, John (2014). Student services: A handbook for the profession. Jossey-Bass, Inc. 
  13. ^ Weir, Kirsten. "Feel Like a Fraud?". American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 28, 2017. 
  14. ^ Ferro, Shane. "Why Impostor Syndrome Is Good For You". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 21, 2017. 
  15. ^ Richards, Carl (October 26, 2015). "Learning to Deal With the Impostor Syndrome". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-12-15.  Angelou said: "I have written 11 books, but each time I think, 'Uh oh, they're going to find out now. I've run a game on everybody, and they're going to find me out.'"
  16. ^ Hanks, Tom. "Tom Hanks Says Self-Doubt Is 'A High-Wire Act That We All Walk'". NPR.org. Retrieved 2017-01-13. 
  17. ^ High achievers suffering from imposter syndrome News.com Dec 10 2013
  18. ^ Neil Gaiman's commencement speech to the University of the arts graduating class of 2012 Philadelphia,
  19. ^ Ha, Thu-Huong (May 15, 2017). "Neil Gaiman has the perfect anecdote to soothe anyone with impostor syndrome". Quartz. Retrieved June 8, 2017. 
  20. ^ Always leave them laughing (biography of Tommy Cooper) Fisher, John 2007
  21. ^ Women who feel like frauds Forbes October 2011
  22. ^ Emma Watson: I suffered from imposter syndrome after Harry Potter Now magazine 2011
  23. ^ Atlassian billionaire Mike Cannon-Brookes on 'imposter syndrome', Tesla and the SA power crisis
  24. ^ Sakulku, Jaruwan (2011). "The Impostor Phenomenon" (PDF). International Journal of Behavioral Science. 6 (1): 73–92. Retrieved April 25, 2017. 
  25. ^ Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vasquez, Veronica; Corona, Rebecca (2006). "Women of Color". In Yo Jackson. Encyclopaedia of Multicultural Psychology. SAGE knowledge. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. pp. 475–80. Web. 1 October 2012. 
  26. ^ Laursen, Lucas. "No, You're Not an Impostor". Science Careers. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Craddock; Birnbaum; Rodriguez; Cobb; Zeeh (2011). "Doctoral students and the impostor phenomenon: Am I smart enough to be here?". Student Affairs Research and Practice. 48. doi:10.2202/1949-6605.6321. 
  28. ^ Clark, M.; Vardeman, K.; Barba, S. (2014). "Perceived inadequacy: A study of the impostor phenomenon among college and research librarians". College & Research Libraries. 75 (3): 255–271. doi:10.5860/crl12-423. 
  29. ^ a b c d Brookfield (1978). "Understanding and responding to the emotions of learning. In The skillful teacher: On trust, technique and responsiveness in the classroom". 
  30. ^ Dudău, D. P. (2014). "The Relation between Perfectionism and Impostor Phenomenon". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 127 (0): 129–133. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.226. 
  31. ^ a b c Faulkner (2015). "Reflections on the impostor phenomenon as a newly qualified academic librarian". 
  32. ^ Want, J.; Kleitman, S. (2006). "Impostor phenomenon and self-handicapping: Links with parenting styles and self-confidence". Personality and Individual Differences. 40 (5): 961–971. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.10.005. 
  33. ^ Vergauwe, J.; Wille, B.; Feys, M.; De Fruyt, F.; Anseel, F. (2015). "Fear of being exposed: The trait-relatedness of the impostor phenomenon and its relevance in the work context". Journal of Business and Psychology. 3: 565–581. doi:10.1007/s10869-014-9382-5. 
  34. ^ a b Kumar; Jagacinski (2006). "Imposters have goals too: The imposter phenomenon and its relationship to achievement goal theory". Personality and Individual Differences. 40: 147–157. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.014. 
  35. ^ Hutchins, H. M. (2015). "Outing the imposter: A study exploring imposter phenomenon among higher education faculty". New Horizons In Adult Education & Human Resource Development. 27 (2): 3–12. doi:10.1002/nha3.20098. 
  36. ^ Matthews, Gail; Clance, Pauline Rose (February 1985). "Treatment of the impostor phenomenon in psychotherapy clients". Psychotherapy in Private Practice. 3 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1300/J294v03n01_09. 
  37. ^ Leahy, Robert L. (2005). "Work worries: What if I really mess up?". The worry cure: seven steps to stop worry from stopping you. New York: Harmony Books. pp. 273–290 (274). ISBN 1400097657. OCLC 57531355.  Discusses treatment of impostor syndrome with cognitive therapy.
  38. ^ Harris, Russ (2011). The confidence gap: a guide to overcoming fear and self-doubt. Boston: Trumpeter. ISBN 9781590309230. OCLC 694394371.  Discusses treatment of impostor syndrome with acceptance and commitment therapy.
  39. ^ Clance, Pauline Rose; Dingman, Debbara; Reviere, Susan L.; Stober, Dianne R. (June 1995). "Impostor phenomenon in an interpersonal/social context". Women & Therapy. 16 (4): 79–96 (87). doi:10.1300/J015v16n04_07. One of the most exciting and effective treatment modalities for women struggling with the impostor phenomenon is group psychotherapy. 
  40. ^ Lowman, Rodney L. (1993). "Fear of success and fear of failure". Counseling and psychotherapy of work dysfunctions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 74–82 (81). doi:10.1037/10133-004. ISBN 155798204X. OCLC 27812757. Group treatment programs have reported positive results in lowering FOF [fear of failure] (Rajendran & Kaliappan, 1990). The value of groups in countering the so-called impostor phenomenon, in which an individual feels that he or she has succeeded inappropriately and will soon be "found out" to be a fraud, has also been reported (Clance & O'Toole, 1987; J. A. Steinberg, 1986). 
  41. ^ Pennebaker, James W.; Smyth, Joshua M. (2016). Opening up by writing it down: how expressive writing improves health and eases emotional pain (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 9781462524921. OCLC 931646002. 
  42. ^ Bell, Lee; Young, Valerie (1986). "Imposters, fakes, and frauds". In Moore, Lynda L. Not as far as you think: the realities of working women. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. p. 45. ISBN 0669108367. OCLC 12855540. As a result, Myra began to publish to feel her success, to value criticism as a useful process, and ultimately to enjoy expressing herself through writing. 

Further readingEdit