Open main menu


  (Redirected from Ilayaraja)

Ilaiyaraaja (born Gnanathesikan; 2 June 1943) is an Indian film composer, singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, orchestrator, conductor-arranger and lyricist who works in the Indian Film Industry, predominantly in Tamil. Widely regarded as one of the greatest Indian music composers, he is credited for introducing western musical sensibilities in the Indian musical mainstream. Reputed to be the world's most prolific composer,[1] he has composed over 7000 songs, provided film scores for more than 1000 movies and performed in more than 20,000 concerts.[2][3][4][5] Being the first Asian to compose a full symphony with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London, Ilaiyaraaja is known to have written the entire symphony in less than a month.[6][7][8] He is also a gold medalist in classical guitar from Trinity College of Music, London, Distance Learning Channel.[9] In a poll conducted by CNN-IBN celebrating 100 years of Indian cinema in 2013, Ilaiyaraaja was voted as the all-time greatest film-music director of India.[10] US-based world cinema portal "Taste of Cinema" placed Ilaiyaraaja at the 9th position in its list of 25 greatest film composers in the history of cinema and he is the only Indian composer in that list.[11]

Ilaiyaraaja BHung.jpg
Background information
Birth nameGnanathesikan
Also known as
  • Ilaiyaraaja
  • Raaja
  • Maestro
  • Isaignani
  • Raja Sir
  • Ragadevan
Born (1943-06-02) 2 June 1943 (age 76)
Pannaipuram, Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India
Years active1976–present
Associated acts

Ilaiyaraaja is known for integrating Indian folk music and traditional Indian instrumentation with western classical music techniques. His scores are often performed by the Budapest Symphony Orchestra. He is a recipient of five Indian National Film Awards – three for Best Music Direction and two for Best Background Score.[12] In 2010, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third-highest civilian honour in India and the Padma Vibhushan in 2018, the second-highest civilian award by the government of India.[13][14] In 2012, he received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, the highest Indian recognition given to practising artists, for his creative and experimental works in the music field.[15]

In 2003, according to an international poll conducted by BBC, more than half-a million people from 165 countries voted his composition Rakkamma Kaiya Thattu from the 1991 film Thalapathi as the fourth in the world's top 10 most popular songs of all time.[16] According to Achille Forler, board member of the Indian Performing Right Society, the kind of stellar body of work that Ilaiyaraaja has created in the last 40 years should have placed him among the world's Top 10 richest composers, somewhere between Andrew Lloyd Webber ($1.2 billion) and Mick Jagger (over $300 million).[17]

Ilaiyaraaja is nicknamed Isaignani (The musical genius in English) and often referred as Maestro, the prestigious title conferred by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, London.[18] The critically acclaimed Thiruvasagam (2006) is the first Indian oratorio composed by Ilaiyaraaja.[19] Winner of numerous accolades, one of his compositions was part of the playlist for the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics, directed by acclaimed Oscar-winning filmmaker Danny Boyle of Slumdog Millionaire fame.[20]

Early life and familyEdit

Ilaiyaraaja was born as Gnanathesikan in 1943 in Pannaipuram, Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India.[21][22] When he joined school his father changed his name to "Rajaiya", but his village people used to call him "Raasayya".[23] Ilaiyaraaja joined Dhanraj Master as a student to learn musical instruments and the master renamed and called him just "Raaja".[24] In his first movie Annakili, Tamil film producer Panchu Arunachalam added "Ilaiya" (Ilaiya means younger in Tamil language) as a prefix in his name Raaja, and he named him as "Ilaiyaraaja", because in the 1970s there was one more music director A. M. Rajah who was a popular one.[25]

Ilaiyaraaja was married to Jeeva and the couple has three children—Karthik Raja, Yuvan Shankar Raja and Bhavatharini—all film composers and singers.[26][27] His wife Jeeva died on 31 October 2011.[28] Ilaiyaraaja has a brother; Gangai Amaran, who is also a music director and lyricist in the Tamil film industry.[29]

Early exposure to musicEdit

Ilyaraaja music output per year

Ilaiyaraaja grew up in a rural area, exposed to a range of Tamil folk music.[30] At the age of 14, he joined a travelling musical troupe headed by his elder brother Pavalar Varadarajan, and spent the next decade performing throughout South India. While working with the troupe, he penned his first composition, a musical adaptation of an elegy written by the Tamil poet laureate Kannadasan for Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister.[31] In 1968, Ilaiyaraaja began a music course with Professor Dhanraj in Madras (now Chennai),[24] which included an overview of Western classical music, compositional training in techniques such as counterpoint, and study in instrumental performance. Ilaiyaraaja is a gold medalist in classical guitar after completing the course through distance learning channel from Trinity College of Music, London.[32][9]

Session musician and film orchestratorEdit

In the 1970s in Chennai, Ilaiyaraaja played guitar in a band-for-hire, and worked as a session guitarist, keyboardist, and organist for film music composers and directors such as Salil Chowdhury from West Bengal.[33][34][35][36] After being hired as the musical assistant to Legendary Kannada film composer G. K. Venkatesh, he worked on 200 film projects, mostly in Kannada cinema.[37] As G. K. Venkatesh's assistant, Ilaiyaraaja would orchestrate the melodic outlines developed by Venkatesh. This is the time Ilaiyaraaja learned most of it about composing under the guidance of G. K. Venkatesh. During this period, Ilaiyaraaja also began writing his own scores. To listen to his compositions, he used to persuade Venkatesh's session musicians to play excerpts from his scores during their leisure times. Even today Ilaiyaraaja remembers the golden days with his master G. K. Venkatesh.

Film composerEdit

Ilayaraaja receives Padma Vibhushan Award from the president of India Sri Ram Nath Kovind

In 1975, film producer Panchu Arunachalam commissioned him to compose the songs and film score for a Tamil-language film called Annakkili ("The Parrot").[38] For the soundtrack, Ilaiyaraaja applied the techniques of modern popular film music orchestration to Tamil folk poetry and folk song melodies, which created a fusion of Western and Tamil idioms.[39][40] Ilaiyaraaja's use of Tamil music in his film scores injected new influence into the Indian film score milieu.[41] By the mid-1980s Ilaiyaraaja was gaining increasing stature as a film composer and music director in the South Indian film industry.[42] He has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Kannadasan, Vaali, Vairamuthu, O. N. V. Kurup, Sreekumaran Thampi, Veturi Sundararama Murthy, Aacharya Aatreya, Sirivennela Sitaramasastri, Chi. Udaya Shankar and Gulzar and is well known for his association with filmmakers such as Bharathiraja, S. P. Muthuraman, J. Mahendran, Balu Mahendra, K. Balachander, Mani Ratnam, Sathyan Anthikkad, Priyadarshan, Fazil, Vamsy, K. Vishwanath, Singeetam Srinivasa Rao, Bala, Shankar Nag, and R. Balki.

Impact and musical styleEdit

Ilaiyaraaja was one of the earliest Indian film composers to use Western classical music harmonies and string arrangements in Indian film music.[43] This allowed him to craft a rich tapestry of sounds for films, and his themes and background score gained notice and appreciation among Indian film audiences.[44] The range of expressive possibilities in Indian film music was broadened by Ilaiyaraaja's methodical approach to arranging, recording technique, and his drawing of ideas from a diversity of musical styles.[43]

According to musicologist P. Greene, Ilaiyaraaja's "deep understanding of so many different styles of music allowed him to create syncretic pieces of music combining very different musical idioms in unified, coherent musical statements".[42] Ilaiyaraaja has composed Indian film songs that amalgamated elements of genres such as Afro-tribal, bossa nova, dance music (e.g., disco), doo-wop, flamenco, acoustic guitar-propelled Western folk, funk, Indian classical, Indian folk/traditional, jazz, march, pathos, pop, psychedelia and rock and roll.

By virtue of this variety and his intermingling of Western, Indian folk and Carnatic elements, Ilaiyaraaja's compositions appeal to the Indian rural dweller for its rhythmic folk qualities, the Indian classical music enthusiast for the employment of Carnatic Ragas, and the urbanite for its modern, Western-music sound.[45] Ilaiyaraaja's sense of visualization for composing music is always to match up with the story line of the running movie and possibly by doing so, he creates the best experience for the audience to feel the emotions flavored through his musical score. He mastered this art of blending music to the narration, which very few others managed to adapt themselves over a longer time.[46]

Although Ilaiyaraaja uses a range of complex compositional techniques, he often sketches out the basic melodic ideas for films in a very spontaneous fashion.[30][42]

Musical characteristicsEdit

Maestro Ilayaraaja attended the inauguration of 91st Music Academy Concerts & Conferences, 2017 on 15 December as the chief guest. Here he's seen with (from left to right) N. Murali, Sudha Ragunadhan, Chitraveena N Ravikiran, T V Gopalakrishnan, A Kanyakumari etc.

Ilaiyaraaja's music is characterised by the use of an orchestration technique that is a synthesis of Western and Indian instruments and musical modes. He uses electronic music technology that integrates synthesizers, electric guitars and keyboards, drum machines, rhythm boxes and MIDI with large orchestras that feature traditional instruments such as the veena, venu, nadaswaram, dholak, mridangam and tabla as well as Western lead instruments such as saxophones and flutes.[42]

The basslines in his songs tend to be melodically dynamic, rising and falling in a dramatic fashion. Polyrhythms are also apparent, particularly in songs with Indian folk or Carnatic influences. The melodic structure of his songs demand considerable vocal virtuosity, and have found expressive platform amongst some of India's respected vocalists and playback singers, such as T. M. Soundararajan, P. Susheela, MG.Sreekumar, S. Janaki, K. J. Yesudas, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, Rajkumar, Asha Bhosle, Lata Mangeshkar, Jayachandran, Uma Ramanan, S. P. Sailaja, Jency, Swarnalatha, K. S. Chithra, Minmini, Sujatha, Malaysia Vasudevan, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Hariharan, Udit Narayan, Sadhana Sargam and Shreya Ghoshal. Ilaiyaraaja has sung over 400 of his own compositions for films, and is recognisable by his stark, deep voice. He has penned the lyrics for some of his songs in Tamil.[47][48] He identifies himself as the only composer in the world to have composed a song only in the ascending notes.[3]

Non-cinematic outputEdit

Ilaiyaraaja's first two non-film albums were explorations in the fusion of Indian and Western classical music. The first, How to Name It? (1986), is dedicated to the Carnatic master Tyāgarāja and to J. S. Bach. It features a fusion of the Carnatic form and ragas with Bach partitas, fugues and Baroque musical textures.[49] The second, Nothing But Wind (1988), was performed by flautist Hariprasad Chaurasia and a 50-piece orchestra and takes the conceptual approach suggested in the title — that music is a natural phenomenon akin to various forms of air currents (e.g., the wind, breeze, tempest etc.).[50]

He has composed a set of Carnatic kritis that was recorded by electric mandolinist U. Srinivas for the album Ilayaraaja's Classicals on the Mandolin (1994). Ilaiyaraaja has also composed albums of religious/devotional songs. His Guru Ramana Geetam (2004) is a cycle of prayer songs inspired by the Hindu mystic Ramana Maharshi, and his Thiruvasakam: A crossover (2005) is an oratorio of ancient Tamil poems transcribed partially in English by American lyricist Stephen Schwartz and performed by the Budapest Symphony Orchestra.[51][52] Ilaiyaraaja's most recent release is a world music-oriented album called The Music Messiah (2006).[53]

Notable worksEdit

Awards and HonoursEdit


  • Ilaiyaraaja still uses his old harmonium, be it while composing a song in his studio or on stage during a concert with which he has scored more than 7000 songs throughout his career.[58]
  • Academy award-winning musician A.R.Rahman worked as a pianist in Ilaiyaraaja's troupe and went on to work for nearly 500 movies in his troupe.[59]
  • Composer Salil Choudhury once said, "I think Ilaiyaraaja is going to become the best composer in India".[60]
  • Director R. K. Selvamani claims that for his film Chembaruthi (1992), Ilaiyaraaja had composed 9 songs in just 45 minutes which is a record.[61]
  • Cinematographer Santosh Sivan claims that Ilaiyaraaja finished composing for the entire soundtrack of the movie Thalapathi in less than "half a day".[62]
  • During the recording for the song "Sundari" from the movie Thalapathi in Mumbai with R.D. Burman's orchestra, when Ilaiyaraaja gave them the notes, they were so moved and taken in by the composition that all the musicians put their hands together in awe and gave a standing ovation as a mark of respect for Ilaiyaraaja.[63]
  • Ilaiyaraaja claimed that he is the only composer in the world to have composed a song in the ascending notes.[64]


  • The Black Eyed Peas sampled the Ilaiyaraaja composition "Unakkum Ennakum" from Sri Raghavendra (1985), for the song "The Elephunk Theme" on Elephunk (2003).[65]
  • Popular American rapper Meek Mill sampled one of Ilaiyaraaja's hit songs for Indian Bounce.
  • His song "Mella Mella Ennaithottu" from Vaazhkai was sampled by Rabbit Mac in the song Sempoi.[66]
  • The alternative artist M.I.A. sampled "Kaatukuyilu" from the film Thalapathi (1991) for her song "Bamboo Banga" on the album Kala (2007).
  • Alphant sampled Ilaiyaraaja's music for his song An Indian Dream.[66]
  • Gonjasufi sampled Ilaiyaraaja's "Yeh Hawa Yeh Fiza" from the movie Sadma.
  • Ilaiyaraaja's song 'Naanthaan Ungappanda' from the 1981 film 'Ram Lakshman' was part of the playlist for the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympics, directed by acclaimed Oscar-winning filmmaker Danny Boyle of Slumdog Millionaire fame.[20]
  • In 2003, according to an international poll conducted by BBC, more than half-a million people from 165 countries voted his composition Rakkamma Kaiya Thattu from the 1991 film Thalapathi as fourth in the world's top 10 most popular songs of all time.[67]

Live performancesEdit

Ilaiyaraaja rarely performs his music live. His last major live performance, the first in 25 years, was a four-hour concert held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium in Chennai, India on 16 October 2005.[68] He performed in 2004 in Italy at the Teatro Comunale di Modena, an event-concert presented for the 14th edition of Angelica, Festival Internazionale Di Musica, co-produced with the L'Altro Suono Festival.[69]

On 23 October 2005, "A Time For Heroes", sponsored by different agencies including the Melinda and Bill Gates Foundation, saw Hollywood star Richard Gere, Tamil and Telugu stars converging on the city for an evening of "infotainment" – they spoke in one voice on HIV/AIDS. The event organized at the Gachibowli Indoor Stadium, Hyderabad, on Saturday, 22 October 2005, took off with Maestro Ilaiyaraaja's composition rendered by singer Usha Uthup.

A television retrospective titled Ithu Ilaiyaraja ("This is Ilaiyaraja") was produced, chronicling his career.[70] He last performed live at the audio release function of the film Dhoni and before that, he performed a programme that was conducted and telecasted by Jaya TV titled Enrendrum Raja ("Everlasting Raja") on 28 December 2011 at Jahawarlal Nehru Indoor Stadium, Chennai. On 23 September 2012, he performed live in Bangalore at National High School Grounds.

On 16 February 2013, Ilayaraja made his first appearance in North America performing at the Rogers Centre in Toronto, Canada.[71] The Toronto concert was promoted by Trinity Events for Vijay TV in India and produced by Sandy Audio Visual SAV Productions with PA+. Following his show at Toronto, Ilaiyaraaja also performed at the Prudential Center Newark, New Jersey on 23 February 2013 and at the HP Pavilion at San Jose on 1 March 2013. After his North America tour he made a live performance at The O2 Arena in London on 24 August 2013, along with Kamal Haasan and his sons Yuvan Shankar Raja and Karthik Raja.[72]

Ilaiaraaja and his team performed live in North America in 2016. They performed at places like San Jose, Seattle, Dallas, Atlanta and New Jersey. In October 2017, he performed live for the first time in Hyderabad and in November in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In March 2018, he performed live again in the US in Houston, Dallas, Chicago, San Jose, Connecticut, Washington D.C. and Toronto in Canada.

For the first time in his career, Ilaiyaraaja has performed in Sydney with his orchestra in Hillsong Convention Centre on 11 August 2018. Also, in the same month as to celebrate his 75th birth anniversary, a concert was held in Singapore Star Performing Arts Theatre on 18 August.[73]

Ilaiyaraaja organized a concert titled Isai Celebrates Isai in Chennai as a part of his 76th birthday celebrations on June 2, 2019. Usually, the Maestro's orchestra team comprises around 40-50 instrument players, but for the first time ever, the concert had close to 100 artists sharing the stage with Raaja. The 4-hour live concert also saw the reunion of noted singer S. P. Balasubrahmanyam after their fallout over royalties in 2017. The event was an effort to raise funds for Cine Musicians Association.

For the first time, Isaignani Ilaiyaraaja hosted a live concert in Coimbatore on June 9, 2019. Titled Rajathi Raja, the event was held at the Codissia Grounds. Along with Ilaiyaraaja, singers SPB, Mano, Usha Uthup, Haricharan, Madhu Balakrishnan, and Bavatharini also performed at the event, backed by an orchestra from Hungary. Latha Rajinikanth and her daughter Aishwarya were also part of the event. The proceeds from the concert were donated to Peace for Children, an NGO that the former runs.


In 2017, Ilaiyaraaja filed a suit in court for copyrights of his songs. He sent legal notices to SP. Balasubramaniam and Chithra, prohibiting them to sing his compositions. He claims to have filed legal notices in 2015 to various music companies who produced his records.[74] In 2018, Ilaiyaraaja expressed his doubts about the resurrection of Jesus Christ, but claimed that "the one and only person who has truly experienced resurrection is Bhagwan Ramana Maharshi".[75] It created criticism on social media and had lodged complaint with police commissioner by Christian group for controversial speech against an ultimate belief of Christians.[76]

Ilaiyaraaja discographyEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Award Winning Composer ilayaraja's Film Soundtrack Released : Love and Love Only Film Score Available Ahead of Indian-Australian Film Debut - The Indian Telegraph".
  2. ^ "The Hindu : Kerala News : No point in classifying music, says Ilayaraja".
  3. ^ a b "Ilayaraja performs for the first time in Houston". 13 March 2018.
  4. ^ name="Baskaran2009">Baskaran, Sundararaj Theodore (1 January 2009). History through the lens: perspectives on South Indian cinema. Orient Blackswan. p. 82. ISBN 978-81-250-3520-6. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
  5. ^ Emmanuel Anthony Das (1 September 2010). The Best is Yet to Be. Pustak Mahal. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-223-1144-0. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  6. ^ a b [1]
  7. ^ "Mr.Viji Manuel talks about Symphony by Isaignani Ilaiyaraaja". Youtube. 19 October 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  8. ^ "The Hindu : Ilayaraja's books".
  9. ^ a b "MASTER OF MUSIC –"ISAI GNANI"- MR. ILAYARAJA". 9 May 2008.
  10. ^ "NTR is the greatest Indian actor: Times Of India". The Times of India. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  11. ^ "Ilayaraja among 25 Greatest Film Composers in world cinema!".
  12. ^ Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. 2006. Directorate of Film Festivals at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 April 2007). Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Accessed 22 November 2006.
  13. ^ "Ilaiyaraaja gets Padma Vibhushan". 25 January 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Award Shows Modi Govt Respects Tamil People a Lot: Ilayaraja on Getting Padma Vibhushan".
  15. ^ PTI (24 December 2012). "Ilayaraja gets Sangeet Natak Akademi award". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  16. ^ THE WORLD'S TOP TEN Archived 30 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, BBC World
  17. ^ Forler, Achille (28 March 2017). "My songs, my royalties" – via
  18. ^ [2]
  19. ^ [3]
  20. ^ a b "Chennai maestro's Olympic tune: A Tamil song of Ilaiyaraaja to open 2012 London Games".
  21. ^ Anand, S. (25 July 2005). "Tandav Tenor". Outlook. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015.
  22. ^ "Exclusive biography of #Ilayaraja and on his life". FilmiBeat. Archived from the original on 19 February 2017.
  23. ^ "திரை இசையில் திருப்பம் உண்டாக்கிய இளையராஜா கிராமிய இசைக்கு புத்துயிர் அளித்தார்". Maalai Malar. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
  24. ^ a b "Humorist springs a surprise". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 August 2008. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012.
  25. ^ "Raja and his rule". Deccan Herald.
  26. ^ Sangeetha Devi, K. "Music from the past". Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 13 January 2007. Accessed 3 March 2007.
  27. ^ Staff reporter. "Ilaiyaraja's daughter gets engaged". Archived 29 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 5 August 2005. Accessed 3 March 2007.
  28. ^ "Music maestro Ilayaraja's wife passes away". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 1 November 2011. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011.
  29. ^ "Illayaraja: Gangai Amaran get together again". Behindwoods. 12 March 2005. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
  30. ^ a b Mohan, A. 1994. Ilaiyaraja: composer as phenomenon in Tamil film culture. M.A. thesis, Wesleyan University (pp. 106–107).
  31. ^ Rangarajan, M. "Memorable evening in many ways". Archived 16 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 9 July 2004. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  32. ^ Author unknown. "No point in classifying music, says Ilayaraja". Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 19 June 2005. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  33. ^ Gautam, S. "'Suhana safar' with Salilda". Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 13 November 2004. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  34. ^ Chennai, S. "Looking back: flawless harmony in his music". Archived 7 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 20 November 2005. Accessed 15 November 2006.
  35. ^ Choudhury, R. 2005. The films of Salil Chowdhury: Introduction Archived 17 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 16 November 2006.
  36. ^ "One of a kind". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  37. ^ Vijayakar, R. "The prince in Mumbai". Archived 1 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine Screen. 21 July 2006. Accessed 6 February 2007.
  38. ^ "Let down by screenplay – Maayakkannaadi". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 20 April 2007. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012.
  39. ^ Greene, P.D. 2001. "Authoring the Folk: the crafting of a rural popular music in south India". Journal of Intercultural Studies 22 (2): 161–172.
  40. ^ Sivanarayanan, A. 2004. Translating Tamil Dalit poetry. World Literature Today 78(2): 56–58.
  41. ^ Baskaran, S.T. "Music for the people". Archived 4 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 6 January 2002. Accessed 15 November 2006.
  42. ^ a b c d Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542–546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (p. 544).
  43. ^ a b Venkatraman, S. 1995. "Film music: the new intercultural idiom of 20th century Indian music". pp. 107–112 in A. Euba and C.T. Kimberlin (eds.). Intercultural Music Vol. I. Bayreuth: Breitinger (p. 110).
  44. ^ Venkatraman, S. 1995. "Film music: the new intercultural idiom of 20th century Indian music". pp. 107–112 in A. Euba and C.T. Kimberlin (eds.). Intercultural Music Vol. I. Bayreuth: Breitinger (p. 111).
  45. ^ Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542–546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (p. 545).
  46. ^ S. Theodore Baskaran "Jnana To Gana: Consistent eclecticism has kept Tamil film music virile" Archived 16 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., 26 June 2006.
  47. ^ Rangarajan, M. "From Texas to tinsel town". Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu, 15 October 2004. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  48. ^ Ashok Kumar, S.R. "Variety fare for Pongal". Archived 26 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 9 January 2004. Accessed 1 February 2007.
  49. ^ Greene, P.D. 1997. Film music: Southern area. Pp. 542–546 in B. Nettl, R.M. Stone, J. Porter and T. Rice (eds.). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Volume V: South Asia — The Indian Subcontinent. New York: Garland Pub. (pp. 544–545).
  50. ^ Oriental Records. Undated. Nothing But Wind Archived 6 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  51. ^ Viswanathan, S. 2005. A cultural crossover Archived 7 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Frontline 22 (15), 16 July–29. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  52. ^ Parthasarathy, D. 2004. Thiruvasagam in 'classical crossover' Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. The Hindu, Friday, 26 November. Accessed 1 March 2007.
  53. ^ Soman, S. 2006. 'The Music Messiah' Archived 5 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine. The Hindu, Saturday, 30 December. Accessed 27 February 2007.
  54. ^ Dongre, A. and Malik, R. 1997. A day in the life of India Archived 9 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Hinduism Today, February. Accessed 19 November 2006.
  55. ^ TIME Magazine. 2005. 23220, nayakan, 00.html All-TIME 100 Movies. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  56. ^ Loewenstein, L. 2001. Hey Ram (review). "Variety", 29 January. 381 (10): 60.
  57. ^ Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. 2003. Feature film: Nizhalkkuthu
  58. ^ [4]
  59. ^ [5]
  60. ^ "One of a kind". The Hindu. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  61. ^ [6]
  62. ^ Ramachandran 2014, p. 140.
  63. ^ "The Raja still reigns supreme". The Hindu. 21 October 2005. Archived from the original on 31 August 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  64. ^ [7]
  65. ^ Mehar, R. 2007. Hip-hopping around the world Archived 16 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. The Hindu, 17 October. Accessed 14 March 2008.
  66. ^ a b [8]
  67. ^ BBC World Service. 2002. BBC World Service 70th Anniversary Global Music Poll: The World's Top Ten Archived 30 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  68. ^ Rangarajan, M. "The Raja still reigns supreme". Archived 10 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 21 October 2005. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  69. ^ Van Ryssen, S. "Ilaiyaraaja's Musical Journey". Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine Leonardo Digital Review. December 2005. Accessed 7 March 2007.
  70. ^ "Ithu Ilaiyaraja". Archived 1 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu. 1 July 2005. Accessed 13 October 2006.
  71. ^ Trinity Events [9] Archived 1 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 24 February 2013
  72. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) accessed on 13 December 2013
  73. ^ "Ilaiyaraaja live in concert singapore".
  74. ^ "Illayaraja's legal notice to SPB: SP Balasubrahmanyam says he will obey the law". 20 March 2017.
  75. ^ "Ilaiyaraaja's comments on resurrection of Jesus Christ take social media by storm".
  76. ^ "Christ remark: Plaint filed against Ilayaraja".

Further readingEdit

  • Prem-Ramesh. 1998 Ilaiyaraja: Isaiyin Thathuvamum Alagiyalum (trans.: Ilaiyaraja: The Philosophy and Aesthetics of Music). Chennai: Sembulam.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1998 Vettaveli Thanil Kotti Kidakkuthu (trans.: My Spiritual Experiences) (3rd ed.). Chennai: Kalaignan Pathipagam. → A collection of poems by Ilaiyaraaja
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1998 Vazhithunai. Chennai: Saral Veliyeedu.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 1999 Sangeetha Kanavugal (trans.: Musical Dreams) (2nd ed.). Chennai: Kalaignan Pathipagam. → An autobiography about Ilaiyaraaja's European tour and other musings.
  • Ilaiyaraaja. 2000 Ilaiyaraajavin Sinthanaigal (trans.: Ilaiyaraaja's Thoughts). Chennai: Thiruvasu Puthaka Nilayam.
  • Srinivasan, Pavithra (20 September 2010). "Making Music, Raja-style". Retrieved 15 October 2010.

External linksEdit