By 1994, a section of militants who felt marginalized by the ISI's favoring of the Islamist Hizbul Mujahideen over other groups sought alternate avenues. The Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen was formed by Mohammad Yusuf Parray, better known as Kuka Parray and by early 1994, the group sided with the Indian security forces to fight the Islamist militants backed by the Pakistani government. Besides Ikhwan, other groups operated by Javed Ahmad Shah (who had the backing of the state police's Special Operations Group) and Liaqat Khan (who operated in Kashmir's Anantnag district). By the end of 1994, all three groups had merged into one entity known as Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen.
After the 1996 assembly elections, due to the public’s detestation of their ruthless tactics and several publicity campaigns by pro-freedom organisations, the Ikhwan quickly found themselves ostracised by the political establishment. The official cover for the armed group was stripped soon after by the Indian government which led to a huge spike in casualties. Ikhwan is expected to have lost over 150 members. According to a 2003 report by The Hindu, nearly 350 to 500 members of Ikhwan remained on active duty with the Jammu and Kashmir Police and the Indian Army and were paid a regular stipend.
Kuka Parray was killed by militants in 2003 while he was on his way to inaugurate a cricket match in Sonawari, District Bandipore. Javed Ahmad Shah was also killed a month earlier by militants at the Greenway Hotel in Srinagar. Liaqat Khan continues to live in Kashmir.
- "The Hindu : India's forgotten army". www.thehindu.com.
- "The Hindu : Kuka Parrey shot dead". www.thehindu.com.
- "Militants killed MLC: J&K DGP". www.rediff.com.
- "I Killed for India in Kashmir, Does That Make Me a Bad Indian?". The Quint.
- "A terrorist who became a decorated Armyman dies fighting for nation". 27 November 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2019.
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