Identifying marks on euro coins

Before the introduction of the euro, the current eurozone members issued their own individual national coinage, most of which featured mint marks, privy marks and/or mint master marks. These marks have been continued as a part of the national designs of the euro coins, as well. This article serves to list the information about the various types of identifying marks on euro coins, including engraver and designer initials and the unique edge inscriptions found on the €2 coins.

Date stamps on euro coinsEdit

Since the euro was officially introduced in 1999, most of the EMU member countries began producing their coins ahead of the 2002 introduction date. There is individual national legislation in place which governs the mintage of coins issued from each country. These coinage acts regulate the coin production parameters for each country.

Mintage dateEdit

The coinage acts of countries with a mintage date stipulation specify that the year the coin is minted, regardless of when the coins are issued, should appear on each coin. Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands and Spain have mintage date stipulations.

Issue dateEdit

The coinage acts of countries with an issue date stipulation specify that the year the coin is issued, regardless of when the coins are minted, should appear on each coin. Austria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, San Marino and the Vatican City have issue date stipulations.

ConclusionEdit

Since the euro was first issued in 2002, the countries which have an issue date stipulation are all dated 2002 onward, even though these coins were minted in previous years to prepare for the adoption of the euro. As a result, there are no euro coins dated 1999, 2000 and 2001 issued from countries with an issue date stipulation. Luxembourg has no domestic mint, so their coins are minted elsewhere. Regardless of the mintage location of these coins, the issue date stipulation in their coinage act must be followed by whichever country mints their coins and the date stamp is therefore applied accordingly. Since Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City do not have their own coinage acts, the date stamp is applied in accordance with the coinage act of whichever country mints these coins. France produces the euro coins for Monaco and follows the mintage date stipulation; it began minting Monégasque euro coins only in 2001, since the mintage quantities were so low. Sammarinese and Vatican euro coins are minted in Italy and follow the issue date stipulation.

National identifying marks of euro coinsEdit

As per a recommendation defined by the Economic and Financial Affairs Council of the European Union,[1] the national designs of each member's euro coin should contain a national identification in the form of spelling or abbreviation of the country's name. Of the fifteen members of the Eurozone at the time these recommendations were made, five national designs—those of Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany and Greece—did not meet the criteria outlined. Of these five, two (Finland in 2007 and Belgium in 2008) have changed or amended their design to follow these recommendations, and the other three are expected to follow suit in the coming years.

National identifying marks on euro coins by country
Country Type Description Image
Andorra Text ANDORRA  
Austria Symbol Flag of Austria
 
Belgium Symbol Monogram of King Albert II
 
Abbreviation BE (België/Belgique/Belgien in Dutch, French and German)[2]  
Cyprus Text ΚΥΠΡΟΣ/KIBRIS (in both Greek and Turkish)  
Estonia Text EESTI (Estonia)  
Finland Abbreviation FI (Finland)[3]  
France Abbreviation stylised RF (République française)  
Germany Symbol Eagle  
Greece none    
Ireland Text / Symbol ÉIRE (in Gaelic type) Harp
Italy Abbreviation stylised RI (Repubblica Italiana)  
Latvia Text LATVIJA  
Lithuania Text LIETUVA  
Luxembourg Text LËTZEBUERG (Luxembourg in Luxembourgish)  
Malta Text MALTA  
Monaco Text MONACO  
Netherlands Text WILLEM-ALEXANDER KONING DER NEDERLANDEN (Willem Alexander, King of the Netherlands)
Portugal Text PORTUGAL  
San Marino Text SAN MARINO  
Slovakia Text SLOVENSKO  
Slovenia Text SLOVENIJA  
Spain Text ESPAÑA
Vatican City Text CITTÀ DEL VATICANO (Vatican City)  

Mint marksEdit

The use of mint marks on euro coins takes one of these three forms:

  • a single letter representing a city or country
  • the abbreviation of the country's mint
  • the symbol of the country's mint
Mint marks on euro coins by country
Country Mint location Mint mark Mint mark description Notes
Belgium Brussels
 
Head of archangel St. Michael, patron saint of Brussels. Prior to 2008, Belgian marks had only been used on commemorative issues. Since 2008, the marks are used on both standard issue and commemorative issue coins.
Finland Vantaa
 [3]
Logo of the Rahapaja Oy mint
France Pessac
 
Cornucopia, Different of the Monnaie de Paris[4]
Germany German Euro coins are minted at 5 locations in Germany
A, D, F, G, J
Letters A for Berlin, D for Munich, F for Stuttgart, G for Karlsruhe, J for Hamburg,

while B, C, E and H used to be mint locations that had been closed prior to the introduction of the euro.

Greece (2002) Madrid, Spain
Pessac, France
Vantaa, Finland
Athens
E (20c),
F (1c, 2c, 5c, 10c and 50c),
S[5] (€1 and €2)
Letters E for Spain (España), F for France, S for Finland (Suomi).
The initial supply of Greek euro coins were produced at three locations, in addition to the Athens mint, due to their late entry into the European Monetary Union (EMU) just before the introduction date on 1 January 2002; only certain denominations of Greek coins with the date stamp of "2002" have these mint marks. Greek euro coins dated 2002 without these mint marks were produced in Athens, Greece.
All Greek euro coins bear the standard Greek mint mark symbol of the Athens mint.
Greece (2002–present) Athens
 
Stylised acanthus leaf
Italy Rome
R
Letter
Lithuania Vilnius
 
Lietuvos monetų kalykla (Lithuanian Mint House, LMK) logo
Luxembourg (2002–2004) Utrecht, Netherlands
 
Mercury's wand, the logo of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Luxembourg (2005–2006) Vantaa, Finland
S,[5]  
Letter, logo of the Rahapaja Oy mint
Luxembourg (2007–2008) Pessac, France
F,  
Letter, Cornucopia, Different of the Monnaie de Paris[4]
Luxembourg (2009–present) Utrecht, Netherlands
 
Mercury's wand, the logo of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Malta (2008–2009) Paris, France
F
Letter
Monaco Pessac, France
 
Cornucopia, Different of the Monnaie de Paris[4] (Paris Mint)
Netherlands Utrecht
 
Mercury's wand, the logo of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Poland Warsaw
 
Mennica Polska (Polish Mint) logo Poland is not yet part of the Eurozone. When the euro is introduced, this is the mintmark which will be used.
The Polish Mint logo is the letter M on top of the letter W and comes from Mennica Warszawa or Warsaw Mint
Portugal Lisbon
INCM
Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda (National Currency – Mint House) abbreviation
San Marino Rome, Italy
R
Letter
Slovakia Kremnica
 
Mincovňa Kremnica (Kremnican Mint, MK) logo
Slovenia (2007) Vantaa, Finland
Fi[5]
Abbreviation
Slovenia (2008–present) Utrecht, Netherlands
 
Mercury's wand, the logo of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint)
Spain Madrid
 
Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre (National Factory of Currency and Stamps) logo
Vatican Rome, Italy
R
Letter

Mint master marks and privy marksEdit

Mint master marks or privy marks are symbols representing directors, chief engravers or chief executive officers of mints.

BelgiumEdit

The directors of the Monnaie Royale de Belgique/Koninklijke Munt van België (Royal Belgian Mint) in Brussels uses mint master's marks on all €2 commemorative coins and on all Belgian euro coins with a datestamp from 2008 onwards minted at this location.

Mint master marks on Belgian euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Scale Romain Coenen 1999–2009 (€2 commemorative coins)
2008–2009 (standard issue euro coins)
[6] Quill Serge Lesens 2009-2012 (€2 commemorative coins)
2010–2012 (standard issue euro coins)
[7] Cat Bernard Gillard 2012-2016 (Commemorative coins)
2013-2016 (standard issue euro coins)
[8] Coat of arms Ingrid van Herzele 2017–present

FinlandEdit

The director of the Rahapaja Oy (Mint of Finland, LTD.) mint in Helsinki-Vantaa used a mint master's mark on Finnish euro coins minted at this location with the date stamp between 1999 and 2006.

Mint master mark on Finnish euro coins 1999–2006
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
M
Letter Raimo Makkonen 1999–2006

FranceEdit

The directors of Monnaie de Paris in Pessac use mint master's marks on all French euro coins minted at this location.

Mint master marks on French euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Bee Pierre Rodier 1999–2000
 
Horseshoe Gérard Buquoy 2001–2002
 
Stylised heart with the initials of the mint master Serge Levet 2003
 
[4]
Hunting horn, a wave and a fish Hubert Larivière 2004–2010
[9] Pentagon with letters AG, MP and YS Yves Sampo 2011–present

LuxembourgEdit

Luxembourg euro coins dated 2002 were minted in the Netherlands in 2000 and thus bear the mint master mark of E. J. van Schauwenburg, Temporary Director of the Utrecht Mint during the year of coin production. The Coinage Act of Luxembourg stipulates that national coins cannot have a date stamp prior to the year of issue. Therefore, Luxembourg euro coins bear the mint master mark of the Temporary Director at the time of minting, despite the date on the coins.

Coins dated 2003–2004 bear the mint master mark of Maarten Brouwer, Director of the Utrecht Mint from 2003–2015. Luxembourgian euro coins dated 2005–2006 were produced at Rahapaja Oy, in Helsinki-Vantaa, Finland. Since the mint director does not affix a mint master mark to coins in production at that location, these coins do not bear a mint master mark.

Luxembourg euro coins dated 2007-2008 were produced at Monnaie de Paris, in Pessac, France and bear the mint master mark of Hubert Larivière, Director of the Paris Mint. As of 2009, coins are again minted at the Royal Dutch Mint in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Until 2015 it was again the mint master mark of Maarten Brouwer. From 2016-2017 Kees Bruinsma was the Temporary Director of the Utrecht Mint.

Luxembourg is the only member of the Eurozone to have all of their coins produced at three different foreign mints.

Mint master marks on Luxembourgian euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Bow and arrow with a star[10] E. J. van Schauwenburg 2002
 
Sailboat Maarten Brouwer 2003–2004
 [4]
Hunting horn, a wave and a fish Hubert Larivière 2007–2008
 
Sailboat Maarten Brouwer 2009–2015
Sailboat with a star[10] Kees Bruinsma 2016–2017

MonacoEdit

Monegasque euro coins are produced by Monnaie de Paris, in Pessac, France beginning in 2001 and thus bear the mint master mark of Gérard Buquoy, Serge Levet, Hubert Larivière and Yves Sampo Directors of the Mint from 2001–2002, 2003, 2004–2010 and 2011–present respectively.

Mint master marks on Monegasque euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Horseshoe Gérard Buquoy 2001–2002
 
Stylised heart with the initials of the mint master Serge Levet 2003
 
[4]
Hunting horn, a wave and a fish Hubert Larivière 2004–2010[11]
[9] Pentagon with letters AG, MP and YS Yves Sampo 2011–present

NetherlandsEdit

The mint masters of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt (Royal Dutch Mint) in Utrecht use mint master's marks on all Dutch euro coins minted at this location.[12]

Mint master marks on Dutch euro coins
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Bow and arrow Drs. Chr. van Draanen 1999
 
Bow and arrow with a star[10] E. J. van Schauwenburg 2000
 
Vine branch and fruits R. Bruens 2001
 
Vine branch and fruits with a star[10] Maarten Brouwer 2002
 
Sailboat Maarten Brouwer 2003–2015
Sailboat with a star[10] Kees Bruinsma 2016–2017
[13]
Bridge Stephan Satijn 2017–present

SloveniaEdit

Slovenian euro coins dated 2008 were produced at Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and bear the mint master mark of Maarten Brouwer, director of the Royal Dutch Mint from 2003 until 2015.

Mint master mark on Slovenian euro coins 2008
Mark Mark description Name of mint master Coin dates
 
Sailboat Maarten Brouwer 2008

Designer, sculptor and engraver initials on euro coinsEdit

Each country had the opportunity to design its own national side of the euro coin. Most coins bear the initials or the name of the designer somewhere in the national design. For example, all eight motives of the common reverse sides of the euro coins bear the stylised initials "LL" for Luc Luycx.  

Designer, sculptor and engraver initials on standard euro coinsEdit

Inscriptions of initials on standard issue euro coins by country
Euro coin denomination Inscription image Inscription text Name Title
France
1, 2, 5 cent
 
F. COURTIADE Fabienne Courtiade designer
10, 20, 50 cent
 
[14]
L. JORIO d'ap. O.ROTY Laurent Jorio, Oscar Roty[15] designer
1, 2 euro
 
J. JIMENEZ Joaquim Jimenez designer
Greece
All denominations
 
ΓΣ (stylised) Georges Stamatopoulos designer
Italy
1 cent
 
ED (stylised) Eugenio Driutti engraver
2 cent
 
LDS (stylised) Luciana De Simoni engraver
5 cent
 
ELF Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
10 cent
 
CM Claudia Momoni engraver
20 cent
 
M.A.C. Maria Angela Cassol engraver
50 cent
 
M (stylised) Roberto Mauri engraver
1 euro
 
LC (stylised) Laura Cretara engraver
2 euro
 
M.C.C. Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
Luxembourg
All denominations
 
YGC (stylised) Yvette Gastauer-Claire designer
Malta
1, 2 and 5 cent
 
NGB Noel Galea Bason designer
Portugal
All denominations
 
VS (stylised) Vítor Manuel Fernandes dos Santos designer
San Marino
All denominations
 
Ch (stylised) Frantisek Chochola sculptor
All denominations
 
ELF INC.[16] Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
Slovakia
1, 2, 5 cent
 
Z Drahomír Zobek designer
10, 20, 50 cent
 
JČ (stylised) and 'PK' (stylised) Ján Černaj and Pavol Károly designers
1, 2 euro
 
IŘ (stylised) Ivan Řehák designer
Vatican City (first series)
1, 2 and 5 cent
 
GV • UP INC.[16] Guido Veroi (sculptor)
Uliana Pernazza (engraver)
10, 20 and 50 cent
 
GV • UP INC.[16] Guido Veroi (sculptor)
Uliana Pernazza (engraver)
1 and 2 euro
 
[14]
GV • UP INC.[16] Guido Veroi (sculptor)
Uliana Pernazza (engraver)
Vatican City (second series)
All denominations
 
D. LONGO Daniela Longo sculptor
1 cent
 
M.A.C. INC.[16] Maria Angela Cassol engraver
2 cent
 
LDS (stylised) INC.[16] Luciana De Simoni engraver
5 cent
 
ELF INC.[16] Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
10 cent
 
M.C.C. INC.[16] Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
20 cent
 
M.A.C. INC.[16] Maria Angela Cassol engraver
50 cent
 
LDS (stylised) INC.[16] Luciana De Simoni engraver
1 euro
 
ELF INC.[16] Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
2 euro
 
M.C.C. INC.[16] Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
Vatican City (third series)
All denominations
 
D.L. Daniela Longo sculptor
1 and 2 cent
 
LDS INC.[16] Luciana De Simoni engraver
5 cent
 
ELF INC.[16] Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
10 cent
 
M.C.C. INC.[16] Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
20 and 50 cent
 
M.A.C. INC.[16] Maria Angela Cassol engraver
1 euro
 
ELF INC.[16] Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
2 euro
 
M.C.C. INC.[16] Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver

Designer, sculptor and engraver initials on €2 commemorative coinsEdit

Inscriptions of initials on €2 commemorative coins by year
Country Inscription image Inscription text Name Title
2004
Finland
 
M M Pertti Mäkinen (designer)
Raimo Makkonen (mint master)
Italy
 
UP (stylised) Uliana Pernazza engraver
San Marino
 
E.L.F. Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
Vatican
 
 [14]
VEROI
L.D.S. INC.[16]
Guido Veroi (designer)
Luciana De Simoni (engraver)
2005
Belgium
 
LL (stylised) Luc Luycx designer
Finland
 
K Tapio Kettunen designer
Italy
 
M.C.C. Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
San Marino
 
LDS (stylised) INC.[16] Luciana De Simoni engraver
Vatican
 
 [14]
LONGO
ELF INC.[16]
Daniela Longo (designer)
Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini (engraver)
2006
Finland
 
M (the two marks reflect the mirror motif of the coin) Raimo Makkonen mint master
Germany
 
HH Heinz Hoyer designer
Italy
 
M.C.C. Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
San Marino
 
LDS (stylised) Luciana De Simoni engraver
Vatican
 
 
O.ROSSI
MCC INC.[16]
Orietta Rossi (designer)
Maria Carmela Colaneri (engraver)
2007
Germany
 
HH Heinz Hoyer designer
Monaco
 
R.B.BARON R. B. Baron designer
Portugal
 
[17]
I Vilar (signature) Irene Vilar designer
San Marino
 
E.L.F. Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
Vatican
 
 
LONGO
MCC INC.[16]
Daniela Longo (designer)
Maria Carmela Colaneri (engraver)
2008
Finland
 
K Tapio Kettunen sculptor
Germany
 
OE (stylised) Erich Ott designer
Italy
 
MCC Maria Carmela Colaneri engraver
San Marino
 
[14]
E.L.F. Ettore Lorenzo Frapiccini engraver
Vatican
 
VEROI Guido Veroi engraver

€2 edge inscriptionsEdit

With each member of the Eurozone comes a set of individual coin designs. Included in the individuality of the national obverse face of the euro coins, whose design is left to the member states, is the edge of the €2 coin. Each member was allowed to design a unique inscription that would appear on the €2 coin's edge. Some of these edge inscriptions are carried over from the coins of the yielded currencies in circulation prior to the introduction of the euro.

Standard issue €2 edge inscriptionsEdit

Standard €2 edge inscriptions by country
Country Edge inscription Description
Austria   The sequence "2 EURO ★★★" repeated four times alternately upright and inverted.
Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourg, Monaco, Spain     The sequence "2 ★ ★" repeated six times alternately upright and inverted.
Cyprus   The sequence "2 ΕΥΡΩ 2 EURO" repeated twice (2 EURO in Greek and Turkish).
Estonia   "EESTI ○" (ESTONIA in Estonian) upright and inverted.
Finland   "SUOMI FINLAND" (FINLAND in Finnish and Swedish, the two official languages in Finland), followed by three lion's heads.
Germany   "EINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT" (UNITY AND JUSTICE AND FREEDOM in German), Germany's national motto and the beginning of Germany's national anthem, followed by the Federal Eagle.
Greece   "ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ ★" (ELLINIKI DIMOKRATIA ★: "HELLENIC REPUBLIC" in Greek).
Italy, San Marino, Vatican   The sequence "2 ★" repeated six times alternately upright and inverted.
Latvia   "DIEVS ★ SVĒTĪ ★ LATVIJU ★" (GOD BLESS LATVIA)
Lithuania   "LAISVĖ ★ VIENYBĖ ★ GEROVĖ ★" ("Freedom, Unity, Prosperity" in Lithuanian)
Malta   The sequence "2✠✠" repeated six times alternately upright and inverted
Netherlands   "GOD ★ ZIJ ★ MET ★ ONS ★" (GOD BE WITH US in Dutch). The same lettering had been applied to the larger denomination guilder coins.
Portugal   The edge design features the seven castles and five coats of arms also found on the national side, all equally spaced.
Slovakia   "SLOVENSKÁ REPUBLIKA" (SLOVAK REPUBLIC in Slovak) with two stars and linden leaf between.
Slovenia   "SLOVENIJA •" (SLOVENIA in Slovene)

Commemorative issue €2 edge inscriptionsEdit

Generally the edge inscription of a €2 commemorative coin does not change from the standard issue counterpart. There are a few exceptions.

Commemorative €2 edge inscriptions by issue date
Year and Country Edge inscription Description
2005, Finland
 
"YK 1945–2005 FN" ("UN 1945–2005 UN" in Finnish and Swedish, the official languages of Finland) followed by three lion's heads. "YK" stands for "Yhdistyneet Kansakunnat" and "FN" stands for "Förenta Nationerna". Issued to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations and Finland's 50 year membership in the UN.[18]
2007, Finland
 
"ROMFÖRDRAGET 50 ÅR EUROPA" ("TREATY OF ROME 50 YEARS EUROPE" in Swedish, one of the official languages of Finland. The same words in Finnish - "ROOMAN SOPIMUS 50 V EUROOPPA" - appear on the face of this coin). Issued to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome.[19]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "OJ 2005/ L 186/1" (PDF). Official Journal of the European Union. 18 July 2005.
  2. ^ As applied to the 2008 amended design onward.
  3. ^ a b As applied to the 2007 amended design onward.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Monnaie de Paris "About our mint master's mark"". Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
  5. ^ a b c Coins minted in Finland have "FI", "F" or "S" as the mint mark.
  6. ^ http://markyourcoin.weebly.com/lesens-serge.html
  7. ^ https://www.catawiki.com/catalog/coins/privy-marks/1825881-cat-bernard-gillard-2012-2016
  8. ^ https://www.hln.be/regio/wapenschild-van-herzele-op-euromunten~a1e21909/
  9. ^ a b http://www.muenzenwoche.de/de/Archiv/8?&id=566&type=n
  10. ^ a b c d e The star represents a temporary director.
  11. ^ There are no Monegasque coins issued into general circulation with this mint master mark on them. Coins minted from 2004–2006 were minted in proof quality for collector sets only and none were produced in 2007.
  12. ^ The span between 1999 and 2003 marks the first time in Dutch currency history where five different mint master's marks were used in consecutive years.
  13. ^ http://www.knm.nl/onthulling-nieuw-muntmeesterteken/nl/news/990/
  14. ^ a b c d e The image has been rotated 90 degrees clockwise for presentation purposes.
  15. ^ In 1898, Oscar Roty created the famous character of La Semeuse (the Sower) for the silver coins of the 3rd Republic. The 'Sower' is represented on the 10, 20 and 50 cent French euro coins. The original design of that character is attributed to him in this inscription.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w INC is the Italian abbreviation for 'engraver'.
  17. ^ The image has been rotated 90 degrees counter-clockwise for presentation purposes.
  18. ^ 2005 commemorative euro coins from the European Commission
  19. ^ Celebrating 50 years of Europe with the euro from the European Commission

ReferencesEdit