Iceman (Marvel Comics)
Iceman (Robert Louis "Bobby" Drake) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics and is a founding member of the X-Men. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963).
Art by Carlos Pacheco
|First appearance||The X-Men #1 (September 1963)|
|Created by||Stan Lee (Writer) |
Jack Kirby (Artist)
|Alter ego||Robert Louis "Bobby" Drake|
|Notable aliases||Drake Roberts, Mister Friese, Frosty|
Iceman is a member of a subspecies of humans known as mutants, who are born with superhuman abilities. He has the ability to manipulate ice and cold by freezing water vapor around him. This allows him to freeze objects, as well as turn his body into ice. The character received widespread media attention when it was revealed that he was gay in All-New X-Men #40.
The character has been frequently present in X-Men and Spider-Man-related comics, video games, animated series, and movies. Shawn Ashmore portrayed Iceman in the X-Men films, and voices the character in The Super Hero Squad Show.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Fictional character biography
- 2.1 Main Timeline Iceman
- 2.1.1 Early life
- 2.1.2 Champions and Defenders
- 2.1.3 X-Factor
- 2.1.4 Back with the X-Men
- 2.1.5 Second mutation
- 2.1.6 Rogue's Team
- 2.1.7 Blinded by the Light
- 2.1.8 Messiah Complex
- 2.1.9 Divided We Stand
- 2.1.10 Secret Invasion and Utopia
- 2.1.11 Second Coming
- 2.1.12 Post Schism
- 2.1.13 Extraordinary X-Men
- 2.1.14 Fantastic Four Returns
- 2.2 Time-displaced Iceman
- 2.1 Main Timeline Iceman
- 3 Powers and abilities
- 4 Characterization
- 5 Other versions
- 6 In other media
- 7 References
- 8 External links
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2015)
Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-writer Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in X-Men #1 (September 1963). Lee later admitted that Iceman was created essentially as a copy of the Human Torch, only using the opposite element for his power.
Iceman was featured in two self-titled limited comic book miniseries, one in 1984-85 written by J. M. DeMatteis and another in the 2000s by Andy Lanning and Dan Abnett, with art by Karl Kerschl. DeMatteis said of the first series, "It was my idea, so there was no one to blame but myself. I'll just say that it was a mistake and if the series made any sense whatsoever it was due to [editor] Bob Budiansky. That was a case where the editor's input was really needed - and Bob was a big help."
A mainstay in most X-Men titles, Iceman has been a main character in both Uncanny X-Men and the second volume of X-Men and was also featured in The Champions from 1975 to 1978 and The New Defenders from 1983 to 1986 as a member. He was a main character in the first volume of X-Factor, and a star in flashback stories when he was a teenager in X-Men: The Hidden Years and X-Men: First Class.
In April 2015, in issue 40 of All-New X-Men, a time-displaced version of the teenaged Iceman was revealed as gay by his teammate, Jean Grey, who discerned this with her telepathic ability. This raised questions, because the character's adult, present-day counterpart had previously been portrayed dating women. In Uncanny X-Men #600, which was published in November that year, the young Iceman confronts his older self, who confirms that he is gay as well but repressed his true self, not wanting to be both gay and a mutant. In 2017, Iceman received his first ongoing solo series, which focused on the adult Bobby Drake coming to terms with life as an out gay man, his Omega-level superpowers, his legacy as a hero and fighting some of the biggest villains in the Marvel Universe. The book had been cancelled, with its last issue being in early 2018. However, Marvel later reversed the decision and announced that a new book written by original writer Sina Grace will be a part of their Fresh Start initiative and will be released in 2019.
|Iceman (X-Men: Icons)||Iceman (X-Men: Icons) 1-4||2002||978-0785108894|
|X-Men: Iceman||Iceman 1-4, Bizarre Adventures 27||2012||978-0785162759|
|Iceman Vol. 1: Thawing Out||Iceman (2017) 1-5||January 2018||978-1302908799|
|Iceman Vol. 2: Absolute Zero||Iceman (2017) 6-11||May 2018||978-1302908805|
|Iceman Vol. 3: Amazing Friends||Iceman (2018) 1-5||April 2019||978-1302914837|
Fictional character biographyEdit
Main Timeline IcemanEdit
Robert Louis "Bobby" Drake was born in Floral Park, Long Island, New York, to William Robert Drake and Madeline Beatrice Bass-Drake. His father is Irish-American Catholic, and his mother is Jewish. Bobby's powers first manifested when he was on a date with Judy Harmon, and a local bully by the name of Rocky Beasely tried to take Judy away for himself. Knowing Judy could not put up a good fight, Bobby pointed his hand at Beasely and encased him in a block of ice. Later, the local townspeople, having heard of the incident, came looking for him in the form of an angry mob. The local sheriff had no choice but to put Bobby in jail for his own "protection". While Bobby sat in his cell at the sheriff station, the outer wall was blown open, and a young man named Scott Summers walked in and offered to take Bobby with him. After Bobby turned him down, the two mutants got into a short battle, which was soon ended by the arrival of Professor Charles Xavier.
After Xavier spoke with Bobby and his parents, Bobby's parents suggested that he go with Professor Xavier to his "school for gifted youngsters". Bobby took the suggestion and left with Professor Xavier and Cyclops to become the second member of the X-Men. He is later joined by Henry "Hank" McCoy, Jean Grey, and Warren Worthington III as the founding members of the X-Men. Drake remains self-conscious regarding the fact that he is the youngest member of the group. Appearing in his original snow covered form, he first battles Magneto along with the rest of the team, and later the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants. Bobby Drake's first girlfriend is Zelda. Not long after, he takes on a new ice-covered form. He then teams up with the Human Torch for the first time. The two would become close friends as time went on. With the X-Men, he visits the Savage Land and meets Ka-Zar for the first time. He then battles the Juggernaut, and is badly injured in his first battle against the Sentinels. He next battles Magneto by himself. Later, he visits Subterranea for the first time. Then, he and Beast battle the Maha Yogi. During his original stint with the X-Men, Drake pursues a relationship with Lorna Dane, although the relationship does not last. Iceman is among the original X-Men captured by Krakoa, leading to a new incarnation of X-Men of which he is not a member. With most of the original team, he quits the X-Men.
Champions and DefendersEdit
Iceman is then abducted by Master Mold, and alongside Angel, he encounters the Hulk. Iceman next aids the Thing in battling the Circus of Crime. Drake retires from life as a superhero to earn a college degree in accounting - but apparently at a college on the east coast, not UCLA. While in college, he briefly rejoins the X-Men to rescue the captives of Arcade's henchman, Miss Locke.
Iceman is reunited with Beast, encounters Cloud, and then returns as a full-time superhero in an incarnation of the Defenders alongside his former teammates, Angel and Beast. He also battles Professor Power's Secret Empire while with the Defenders. After the Defenders disband, Drake embarks on his career as an accountant.
Some time later, Iceman encounters Mirage, the "daughter" of Oblivion. Iceman journeys back in time and meets his parents before he was born, and battles Oblivion and Mirage. He then reconciles with his parents.
During his time with the team, Loki captures Bobby, hoping to use him to gain control over the Frost Giants. Loki enhances Bobby's powers and then extracts them to restore the size of the Frost Giants. Iceman is rescued by Thor. Loki's tampering increases Bobby's powers to such an extent that he begins to lose control of his abilities. During a later battle with the Right, he is fitted with a power-dampening belt which actually helps him control his abilities. Once able only to sheathe his own body in a protective coating of ice, Bobby finds he can encase the entirety of the Empire State Building. With time, Bobby gains sufficient control over his augmented powers and is able to stop using the inhibitor belt. Believing he has achieved his full potential, Bobby does not attempt to develop his abilities further.
With X-Factor, Bobby then defeats Apocalypse's Horsemen. Iceman helps watch over many of the younger superheroes, something he once was. Most notably, he and Beast help Boom Boom gain a more normal life. For a brief while, he also helps supervise the New Mutants and their sister team, the X-Terminators. They, in turn, save him from the deadly kiss of Infectia.
Bobby also develops a romantic relationship with Opal Tanaka. After a session of ice sledding, she discovers threatening mail in her mailbox, a precursor to harassment by her cybernetically-enhanced relatives of the Tatsu Clan of the Yakuza, which Bobby helps her out with.
Back with the X-MenEdit
When he rejoined the X-Men it seemed that he learned to control his powers and no longer needed the inhibitor belt, this made him believe he reached the limit of his powers. The X-Men were separated into two groups, Iceman was placed in the gold team, led by Storm, along with fellow original X-Men Jean Grey (now without a code name) and Archangel.
One day he took Opal to eat with his parents, however his dad began humiliating her because of her Japanese heritage. The four are attacked by the Cyber-Samurai, which added to William Drake's prejudices about the girl. When Bobby came across Mikhail Rasputin he used his mutant abilities on him. Bobby discovered that his potential was still far from being reached as he converted his body into ice, not just covered by it. By turning his entire body to ice, instead of just wearing an icy exterior, Bobby now was capable of using his power in new, aggressive ways, adding spikes and padding to his ice structure.
Too busy with the many threats that the X-Men faced every day, Bobby let his relationship with Opal deteriorate and, when they finally saw each other again after weeks, it was only to save her from an attack by mutant haters. Annoyed that she could only gain his attention by nearly getting killed, Opal broke off their relationship.
Later, as he was checking on Emma Frost who was in a comatose state after the mutant Trevor Fitzroy unleashed the mutant-hunting Sentinels on Emma Frost and her students known as the Hellions, the mansion was hit by an electricity breakdown. Emma woke up disoriented, possessed Bobby's mind, and used his powers in ways Bobby never had; she froze an entire river and traveled through water. She was looking for her pupils but after finding out they were dead, she left Bobby's body.
Bobby invites Rogue to tag along on a visit to his parents. Wrongly assuming a romantic relation, his father disapproves of Rogue, verbally attacking them with the same prejudices he expressed with Opal. This time, Bobby had enough and left after telling his father that he should just accept the fact that he is a mutant and he would never fit the definition he has of normal. He was upset that Emma exhibited greater control of his powers than he had. Since Rogue was having problems with Gambit, the two of them go on a road trip to ease their minds.
During the Legion Quest, Iceman was one of the X-Men who went back in time to stop Legion from killing Magneto. They succeed, but only partially. Legion does not kill Magneto, but instead accidentally murdered Xavier, his own father, years before Legion had been conceived much less born. This paradox caused the events of the Age of Apocalypse. At the last moment before the original reality ended, Iceman's fellow X-Men, Rogue and Gambit shared a kiss. When reality resumed, Rogue's mind-absorbing touch renders Gambit comatose. Having absorbed some secret haunting memories, she needs to get away from the X-Men and Iceman volunteers to join her on a road trip, though at the same time he was starting to see visions of Emma Frost. When Gambit awoke from his coma, he tracked them down and confronted Rogue about what she saw in his mind. She broke off their relationship, Iceman and Gambit returned to the X-Men.
When the entity known as Onslaught first appeared, Iceman was chosen as one of his test subjects, along with Storm, Cyclops and Wolverine. They were pitted against a servant of Onslaught named Post, in a specific battle area of harsh environment to test the extent of their abilities. They won and were returned to the mansion. However, Iceman's chest had been shattered in his ice form during battle, making it impossible to change back to human form. He confronted Emma Frost and demanded to know what she did to his powers in his body and how to save himself. She refused to help since she knew that Bobby would have to do it himself. When he captured her with his ice powers, she telepathically showed him his insecurities. By confronting Opal and his father in her simulation, Iceman realized that Emma was right and managed to transform back to his human body with his chest fully intact.
When Graydon Creed was running for President (with a heavy anti mutant campaign), Bobby was chosen to infiltrate in the campaign. His father stood out in a crowd and spoke in favor of the mutants, which came as a surprise to Bobby. His father's connection with Bobby was discovered, so the people that worked for Graydon captured him and almost beat him to death. Bobby decided to stay away from the X-Men for a while to be with his dad.
Zero Tolerance came across and Bobby found and helped Cecilia Reyes who was trying to keep a secret that she was a mutant. They also joined with Charlotte Jones and the morlock Marrow. After Bastion was defeated, he took Cecilia and Marrow to the mansion, and soon left the X-Men again for a while to be with his parents.
Much later, the X-Men found evidence in one of Destiny's journals of a group known as the Twelve, including Xavier, Magneto, Cyclops, Phoenix, Iceman, Polaris, Storm, Cable, Bishop, Sunfire, Mikhail Rasputin and the Living Monolith. They also learned that the Apocalypse's Horsemen had been kidnapping these mutants from around the globe. Iceman was captured in the woods near his home by Deathbird, who had become the Horseman War. Gathering the remaining Twelve, the X-Men traveled to Egypt and confronted Apocalypse and the Skrulls. Apocalypse and his forces captured all of the Twelve during the battle, using them in a ritual to give the Chaos-Bringer a new body and incredible power. Magneto and Polaris created opposite magnetic polarities, Iceman, Storm, and Sunfire provided elemental extremes, Cyclops, Phoenix, and Cable gave the sheer power of family, Xavier represented the power of mind and Bishop and Mikhail stood for time and space, while the Monolith linked all their energies together. Nate Grey was to be Apocalypse's new host, a powerhouse to store his massive lifeforce. The Twelve managed to free themselves and Cyclops sacrificed his own body and life force to keep Apocalypse from getting Nate. Though the new Apocalypse was defeated, Cyclops seemed lost forever.
After that incident, Iceman helped the Beast to secretly enter Genosha, as he wanted to study the legacy-infected mutates. When the High Evolutionary released his anti-mutation wave, they were trapped in the war-ravaged country. With the aid of Magneto, they escaped and joined forces with the rest of the scattered X-Men. They raided the Evolutionary's satellite, disabled the mutation field and defeated Sinister, who had been manipulating the Evolutionary.
Iceman was recruited by the living ship Prosh, along with other mutants, like Jean Grey, Mystique, Toad and Juggernaut, to preserve evolution and save it. In this journey Iceman developed his powers even further, which led him to no longer be afraid of the natural course of his powers and he returned to the X-Men. He joined a new team of X-Men, consisting of Angel, Nightcrawler, Wolverine and Chamber. He was using his abilities in a whole new way now, just channeling the power and not turning his body into ice.
This article needs editing for compliance with Wikipedia's Manual of Style. (March 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
During a heated battle with a recently evolved Black Tom Cassidy, he received a chest wound. After returning to normal his chest did not fully recover and some parts of it remained icy, and he was unable to return them to normal. At first he became afraid of it but in time it made him gain a new attitude in life, even rude at some times.
Nobody seemed to realize it at the time, but evidently this was an early sign of Iceman undergoing a secondary mutation of his own. When he repeatedly tried to evade his regular medical check-ups, school nurse Annie Ghazikhanian recognized that something odd was going on with him and pressured him to show her the wound. Bobby made her promise not to tell anyone and showed her that parts of his chest are now made of ice and he is unable to change them back to flesh and blood. Iceman wonders if he will entirely turn into ice on a permanent basis.
He developed an attitude that, to some of the newer addition to the X-Men, like Stacy X, Juggernaut and Northstar, he comes across as rather arrogant, denouncing their status as team members, as they have not been around as long as he. Iceman even went as far as offending Nightcrawler by claiming that only the original five, and no one else, has the right to call themselves an X-Man.
Bobby was further frustrated when Havok and Polaris announced their imminent wedding, him having carried a torch for Lorna for quite some time. In his frustration he turned to Annie, who had problems with the wedding too, as she was secretly in love with Havok. The nurse surprised him with the accusation of him being a racist - feeling comfortable as a mutant who could pass like a human when needed, opposed to being a fully obvious mutant or a "mere" human. With his secondary mutation manifesting, though, Iceman was in danger of losing this status. Shocked by the truth of her words, Bobby fully opened up about his fears, that as a man fully made of ice he could never feel the warmth of a physical relationship again. Touched, Annie allowed him to kiss her, but when Havok called off the wedding, wanting to be with Annie instead, she quickly dumped Bobby.
Upon encountering Azazel and his followers, Iceman's body is shattered from the neck down. Afterward, he regains his entire ice form, but cannot change back to his human appearance. As a result, Bobby becomes both bitter and despondent because of this drastic change.
Iceman joins Rogue's team after she tells him that she wants him as a member.[volume & issue needed] Their first mission as a team is to fight a new threat, a powerful group known as the Children of the Vault. The team is successful and during this time, Bobby learns that he can be completely destroyed but then pull himself back together again. It was shown several times during the arc.
The next mission for the team was to locate a man called Pandemic and defeat him. The team was again successful, but Rogue was infected with a virus called Strain 88. Cable took the team, including Bobby, to his island so Rogue could get treatment.
While on Cable's island, the team and Iceman began working to defeat the Shi'ar weapon known as the Hecatomb. During the chaos, he shared a passionate kiss with Mystique. Even as he did so, he saved many lives by containing the explosion of the Conquistador, and, later, the Hecatomb itself.
Blinded by the LightEdit
As the team recovers from Hecatomb attack in Rogue's childhood home, it appears that Mystique and Iceman begin a romantic relationship. This was a front, as Mystique was using Iceman and the X-Men as a Marauder spy for Mister Sinister. Marauders soon infiltrated the house; they attempt to gain access to Destiny's Diaries on the order of Mr. Sinister (who has been gathering information about the future from anybody and anything that could foretell the future). Bobby and Cannonball escape from the Marauders in the X-Jet, with help from Emma Frost. They are pursued by Sunfire; they manage to get the better of him and take him prisoner, but not before he manages to cripple the jet. While Sunfire is unconscious, Iceman and Sam discuss the Mauraders' plan to eliminate all precognitive mutants and anyone with knowledge of the future as well as retrieving Destiny's Diaries before the Marauders can. During this time, Bobby displayed sub-atomic control of energy transfers when he prevented Sunfire from using his fire-based powers.
Cannonball and Bobby, telepathically prompted by Emma Frost, attempt to recover the diaries which are hidden in a dilapidated brewery. Mr. Sinister uses the reverse-engineered version of Xavier's Cerebro to track the pair of X-Men to the brewery. The Marauders attack Cannonball and Iceman and overtake them. Bobby, while in his ice form, suffers a gunshot wound from Mystique, which severs one of his arms above the elbow. Mister Sinister, who takes Cannonball prisoner, attempts to telepathically erase his mind so that the X-Men will find him as an empty shell. Iceman attacks Sinister, distracting him, which allows both of the X-Men to escape.
The New X-Men team decided to raid the headquarters of the Purifiers in Washington, D.C., but were forced to retreat. Pixie teleported them back to the mansion in a rush, but the entire team was scattered between D.C. and Westchester. Iceman, after recovering from his injuries, volunteered to go look for them and was given telepathic directions by Emma Frost.
Iceman was successful in finding the New X-Men, most of them injured. On the way back, they found that the O*N*E* Sentinels guarding the Xavier Institute had become infected by nano-Sentinels and attacked the school. Iceman and New X-Man X-23 helped out in the battle with the O*N*E* Sentinels. With the help of Dust and X-23, the X-Men were able to survive this battle but the nano-Sentinel infected human escaped.
Soon, Iceman participated in the final battle against the Marauders, the Acolytes, and Predator X. He was one of the X-Men who came running in to fight Predator X after it swallowed Wolverine whole. However, he also witnesses his mentor, Professor Xavier, "killed" by Bishop's bullet, which was not meant for him.
Divided We StandEdit
Iceman arrives in San Francisco, where he was set to meet Hepzibah, Warpath, and Angel. All four are caught in the effects of a citywide illusion created by Martinique Jason, who used her powers to transform the city into a hippie paradise. Now calling himself "Frosty", he and the others are sent by Martinique to confront Scott Summers and Emma Frost. Emma Frost is able to break up the illusion and free everyone. They eventually set up their base of operations in San Francisco as X-Men.
Secret Invasion and UtopiaEdit
Iceman rescues Colossus from Venom and is later made a part of a team to battle Emma Frost's Dark X-Men. During the final battle on Utopia, Iceman teams up with the X-Students to take on Mimic. Iceman had the labor of providing water to the population. He attempted to use humor to keep everyone's spirits up even though he believed that the situation was helpless and that the X-Men were living in the last days of mutantkind. Bobby then helped defeat Predator X and also helped stop Selene's resurrected army's invasion of Utopia.[volume & issue needed]
During the battle with Bastion's Nimrod Sentinels, Iceman is severely injured following an attack from one of them that reversed his ice form and left him with burns on his body. He is only there for a short time because his mutant powers help him minimize the injuries he suffered and he is seen back in battle alongside Psylocke and the other X-Men.
Early solicitations show that after Wolverine and Cyclops have a major falling out, Wolverine decides to branch off and open The Jean Grey School for Higher Learning back in New York.[volume & issue needed] Iceman is the first person Wolverine approaches and recruits to his new X-Men squad as both a professor and teammate.[volume & issue needed] Iceman is chosen because Wolverine feels he has the kind of spirit the new school needs. He also has an off-and-on romantic relationship with Kitty Pryde.
When the Terrigen became toxic for mutants, Iceman was one of the recruits in Storm's new team dedicated to protecting mutants from the Terrigen by leading them to X-haven. Iceman mostly works alongside Nightcrawler, helping him search for Colossus after he is transformed into one of Apocalypse's new horsemen. Iceman and Nightcrawler manage to track Colossus to Egypt, where he ambushes them and almost kills them until another squad of X-Men comes in to help. After that Iceman joins the X-Men when they declare war against the Inhumans after discovering that in a matter of weeks the Terrigen will render earth as completely uninhabitable for mutants.
Fantastic Four ReturnsEdit
Iceman is one of the few heroes summoned by Mr. Fantastic to help the Future Foundation against the villainous being known as the Griever. However, Iceman is not one of the few heroes who were part of Fantastic Four's expanded members, when one of the original four, Human Torch noticed his presence during the battle. Iceman claims that he was with the Fantastic Four in an "untold story" during the Atlantean's past invasion led by Namor, but Human Torch replies that story Iceman made-up was "not-canon".
Following the war with the Phoenix Five, as Cyclops begins to lash out against government oppression of mutants, a chance comment by Bobby about how the old Cyclops wouldn't tolerate what he is currently doing inspires Beast to travel back in time and recruit the original five X-Men to stop Cyclops. The team decides to stay in the present instead of returning into the past.[volume & issue needed] They are now called the All-New X-Men and led by Kitty Pryde.[volume & issue needed] The past and present Bobby are particularly shocked when they see each other. The younger Bobby is especially shocked by the older Bobby's Omega level powers, like creating ice golems, and especially his future "Ice Wizard" self in the Battle of the Atom. Eventually he and the All-New X-Men and the Guardians of the Galaxy travel to the Shiar Empire to rescue Jean Grey from a trial for the genocide that her future Dark Phoenix self committed.[volume & issue needed] The team is then teleported into the Ultimate Marvel universe, where he stumbles into Mole Man's lair.[volume & issue needed] He proudly creates his first ice golem in order to escape.[volume & issue needed]
Returning to their universe, the team are reunited with Cyclops when they are called upon to aid the Guardians of the Galaxy again in retrieving the fabled Black Vortex.[volume & issue needed] Cyclops, Iceman and Groot become superpowered by the Vortex before returning it to Captain Marvel.[volume & issue needed]
Later, the younger, time-displaced Bobby is forced to confront being gay by his teammate, Jean, who privately asks him why he calls women "hot", when she knows via her psychic abilities that he is gay. This causes the younger Bobby to speculate as to the complicated identity issues faced by his older self and the decisions his older self may have made in the time between them. Together with the young Jean, the young Bobby confronts his older self, who admits to being gay, having 'concealed' that part of himself so that he could have avoid being prejudiced against for another part of himself.
Bobby joins the time-displaced Cylcops, Angel and Beast, as well as Kid Apocalypse, All-New Wolverine and Oya as they road-trip around America trying to make their own mark on the world. Bobby is initially reluctant to talk about his sexuality with his teammates until Oya and Kid Apocalypse take him to a gay club in an attempt to make him more comfortable. He embarrasses himself and runs into Romeo, an Inhuman with the ability to manipulate and feel others' emotions. Romeo makes Bobby more comfortable and the two begin a relationship. The two are later caught in the middle when the X-Men declare war on the Inhumans.[volume & issue needed] Bobby joins the X-Men when they attack New Attilan but quickly breaks off from the battle to find Romeo, with the two escaping together.[volume & issue needed]
After the X-Men's war against the Inhumans for the Terrigen ends, Iceman joins the rest of the young X-Men on an attempted return to their original timeline but they quickly realize that theirs isn't part of the Earth 616 timeline, leaving them stuck in that present time with no knowledge where they were originally from. Upon learning this, Iceman joins the rest of the young X-Men and leaves the rest of the X-Men to find their place in the world. Iceman then joins Magneto in Madripoor along with the rest of the time-displaced X-Men; however, due to a lack of trust in their new leader, the X-Men make plans and train in case Magneto returns to his former villainous ways to kill them. Instead of training with his teammates, Iceman spends most of his time trying to reach out to his new Inhuman boyfriend Romeo unsuccessfully, placing him into a stupor.
Powers and abilitiesEdit
Iceman possesses the power to instantly decrease the temperature of ambient water vapor in his immediate environment to below zero degrees Celsius, thereby freezing it into ice. He is able to make ice that will not break unless he wills it to. In this manner he is able to quickly form a great variety of ice structures, including projectiles, shields, ladders, baseball bats, etc. Iceman often makes ice slides which form rapidly beneath and behind his feet, moving him along the slick surface at high speeds. He is also able to form exceedingly complicated structures within relative short time, such as miniature cities. Originally, Iceman's own body temperature would lower dramatically when his powers were active, reaching −105 °F (−76 °C) within a few tenths of a second (now his body usually converts to organic ice; see below). Iceman is immune to sub-zero temperatures; he is also able to perceive the thermal energy level of objects around him. Because cold is the absence of heat, Iceman does not actually 'emanate' cold; rather, he decreases thermal energy. As mentioned by writer Mike Carey, Iceman is "an Omega-level mutant...[and] has powers that can influence the ecosystem of the entire world." Iceman has yet to tap into his full mutant potential, but over the years he has taken more interest in developing his abilities.[volume & issue needed]
In his early appearances, Iceman generally covered his body in a thick layer of what appeared to be snow; hence he looked more like a traditional snowman than an ice-man. Upon further training in the use of his powers, he was able to fashion an armor of solid ice around his body when using his powers, which afforded him some degree of protection against concussive force and projectiles. Later on, he manifested the ability to convert the tissue of his body into organic ice. He sometimes augments his organic ice form with razor sharp adornments to his shoulders, elbows, knees, and fists. Iceman has also been able to move rapidly to another distant location while in his organic ice form, being able to deposit his bodily mass into a river and reconstitute his entire mass a great distance away in a matter of minutes (by temporarily merging his molecules with those of the river). On one occasion, Iceman suffered a severe chest injury while in his ice form and was able to heal himself by converting back into his normal human form.[volume & issue needed]
Iceman is also able to reconstitute his organic ice form if any part of it is damaged, or even if it is completely shattered, without permanently harming himself. He can temporarily add the mass of a body of water to his own, increasing his mass, size, and strength. He can survive not only as ice, but as liquid water and water vapor. He can also transform his body from a gaseous state back to a solid, although it is physically and mentally taxing. Iceman can also freeze sea water, as seen during the "Operation: Zero Tolerance" story arc. While he usually does not use his powers in lethal ways, his powers are so vast that they extend to the molecular level, to the point that he can freeze all of the molecules of an object/being with a thought; he once froze every single molecule of water within the body of David Haller. Iceman is also able to dissolve his own icy constructs.
Iceman's powers were pushed to their limit while possessed by Emma Frost, who used Iceman to discover the fate of her Hellions. During this time Iceman was able to control all forms of moisture, freeze fluids inside people's bodies, travel as a liquid, solid or gas. Not even the combined might of the X-Men Gold team was able to stop Emma Frost in Iceman's body. Following this, Bobby confronted Emma about how she was able to use his powers so effectively. While together they made some initial progress, she refused to train him further. Instead he turned to Storm because they share similar elemental powers and she agreed to tutor him.
When Iceman was injected with Mister Sinister's neuro-inhibiter by Mystique, he was able to save himself by drawing in all of the ambient moisture around him, rapidly replacing his poisoned cells with healthy material before the injection could kill him.
During the 2013–2014 "Battle of the Atom" storyline, Iceman's future self revealed that he has the ability to create semi-independent ice structures that can act on their own, although one of these structures—demonstrating a Hulk-like physique and intellect—has gone on to join the future version of the Brotherhood.
Aside from his superhuman powers, Iceman is also a fair hand-to-hand combatant, and received combat training at Xavier's School as well as coaching from the Black Widow and Hercules while serving with the Champions of Los Angeles. Iceman has taken as much combat training as Cyclops or Beast.
According to writer Mike Carey "one of Iceman's best personality traits is that emotionally Bobby Drake is like the ice he manipulates -- not cold but transparent. 'He's devastatingly honest. He is very up-front with his emotions and his thoughts all the time.'" "Also, he's obviously incredibly brave both in terms of facing external, physical danger as well as facing up to unpleasant situations and admitting his own mistakes."
Friendships and relationshipsEdit
Iceman had a brief relationship with a Japanese-American New Yorker named Opal Tanaka. He subsequently exhibited strong feelings for his fellow X-Man Polaris, but she did not return those feelings, due to her feelings towards Havok. Northstar developed an unrequited crush for Iceman during their time on the same team, though Iceman never did find out about this. Iceman later had a brief relationship with the Xavier School's nurse, Annie, but she eventually left him for Havok, who had just left Polaris at the altar. When Iceman attempted to rekindle his relationship with Polaris, that too ended abruptly, and Polaris returned to Havok. Iceman then had a relationship with the X-Men's enemy Mystique, who later betrayed him, despite her continued fixation on him, in as much as she stated that she would either kill him or cure him of his personal uncertainty.
In All-New X-Men #40, the time-displaced Iceman is revealed to be gay, which eventually forces the youth to confront the adult version of himself about the matter. As both speak, the adult Iceman confirms the fact and that he had put all his energy into just being an X-Man as he couldn't cope with being a mutant and gay simultaneously. With the help of his younger self and Jean Grey, however, he finally comes to terms with his own sexuality, and comes out to fellow gay X-Man Anole in Extraordinary X-Men #6. The end of the Extermination X-Men event saw the redirecting of the time displaced version of Bobby back into the "closet" when he returned to his original timeline alongside the other X-Men, due to a mind lock by Jean Grey, even though the current version retains his memories and remains an out gay man.
Iceman is Roberto Trefusis in the miniseries Marvel 1602, a member of the group of "witchbreeds" founded by Carlos Javier and led by Scotius Summerisle. He is the nephew of naval commander Sir Francis Drake. As in the Marvel Universe, he generates ice and can assume a physical ice form.
"Age of Apocalypse"Edit
In the "Age of Apocalypse" storyline, Bobby, along with the rest of the X-Men, is trained by Magneto. Because Magneto is harder on his students than Professor X, Bobby lacks his 616-counterpart's sense of humor. Instead, Bobby becomes very cold and inhuman, making his teammates feel uncomfortable. In addition to his normal abilities, Bobby is capable of breaking down his body and merging it with another body of water to travel great distances in a matter of seconds. He can bring others along through a process that he calls "moisture molecular inversion", though it is a painful process for the passengers. Bobby is also able to reconstitute his body from broken pieces. Just before Apocalypse's defeat, Colossus stormed right through Iceman, causing him to fall into pieces in an attempt to reach his sister.[volume & issue needed] A couple of months later, Iceman, Exodus, Wild Child, and Morph were sent on a secret mission by Magneto; for a time, only Wild Child's fate was revealed.[volume & issue needed]
Iceman returned in the Uncanny X-Force arc "The Dark Angel Saga", when the title team was forced to travel to the AoA reality. He abandoned the X-Men during a battle with the minions of Weapon X, who had by this time been transformed into that world's new Apocalypse, a defection later revealed to be the result of Iceman's having lost faith in his X-Men's ability to save their world. He was soon brought to Earth-616 by the Dark Beast, where he joined forces with Archangel on his quest to eradicate all life on Earth so he could create a new evolution process.[volume & issue needed] Tired of seeing the people he cared about being killed fighting what he thought to be an unwinnable war, Drake agreed to help Archangel - despite the latter's now being the mainstream Marvel Universe's version of Drake's X-Men's arch-enemy, Apocalypse - in exchange for transport to the relative paradise that was Earth-616.[volume & issue needed]
After X-Force defeated Archangel, Bobby managed to escape with McCoy and most of Archangel's other minions, but eventually broke away from them and went into hiding, living a life of hedonistic bliss in Madripoor. The "Age of Apocalypse" version of Nightcrawler - who, after being brought to Earth-616 along with the rest of his world's X-Men to help take down Archangel, decided to stay behind there in order to track down and kill the various villains who also came to the mainstream Marvel Universe - eventually tracked Bobby down to execute him for his treason. Nightcrawler is quickly overwhelmed by Drake's avatars, but eventually forces Iceman into a factory boiler room, where there's not enough moisture in the air for him to effectively use his powers. Nightcrawler quickly disables his former friend, and shoves him into an incinerator, killing the once noble hero.[volume & issue needed]
During the miniseries Earth X, Bobby had become trapped in his ice form, making him vulnerable to melting. He moves to the Arctic regions of Earth, and made an ice city for himself and the Inuit. Due to a series of events where Earth's orbital path moves, Bobby is able to return to the United States to aid in the battle against the demon Mephisto.
"House of M"Edit
In the alternate timeline of the "House of M" storyline, Iceman was seen in Magneto's army during his rise to power. Bobby later appears as one of the Horsemen of Apocalypse because Apocalypse rescued Bobby from a mutant internment camp that his parents had sent him to. Magneto sends Apocalypse to dispose of his rival Black Panther; when Apocalypse is attacked en route by Black Panther's allies, Iceman aids him by freezing Namor solid and attempting to attack Storm, but he is severely injured by Sunfire.
A zombified Iceman appears in Marvel Zombies: Dead Days alongside zombies Wolverine and Cyclops.[volume & issue needed] Ultimately, he is seen attacking Magneto. But Iceman perished at the hands of the Master Of Magnetism himself when Iceman is cut apart.[volume & issue needed]
In the Mutant X universe, the Asgardian god Loki amplified Bobby's powers to a dangerous level, leaving him unable to touch any living thing without killing it. Despite this, he retains a jovial and optimistic personality. When Havok has a disagreement with Magneto and decides to leave the X-Men, Ice-Man is one of those who follow him, becoming a founding member of the Six, who eventually come to be considered the world's premiere mutant team.
After the New Exiles land on the world of warring empires, they encounter Dame Emma Frost, head of Britain's Department X and founder of Force-X. This team includes Roberta "Bobby" Drake, a female version of Bobby who is code named Aurion and displays ice-based abilities.
"Battle of the Atom"Edit
In the alternate future witnessed in the "Battle of the Atom" storyline, Iceman's had truly evolved to become Sir Robert, the wizard-like Icemaster. As one of the most respected X-Men, he had incredible control over his powers and could even grow a beard! Though never outright mentioned, he may had a relationship with Kitty Pryde and even fathered a son with her, denoting the existence of Carmen Drake, a boy with the powers of both Iceman and Shadowcat. He has also developed the ability to create semi-independent ice structures that can act on their own, although one of these structures - demonstrating a Hulk-like physique and intellect - has gone on to join the future version of the Brotherhood, resulting in the Brotherhood using the duplicate to reinforce the illusion of themselves as the future X-Men. The duplicate Iceman was defeated by the O5 Iceman, the present Iceman, and the future Iceman during the battle in the past (Prompting the youngest Iceman to note that they only needed one more Iceman for a five-a-side basketball team).
Icemaster later returned to the mainstream marvel universe and confronts Iceman about trusts and decisions. He does it in order to prevent him from doing the same mistakes Icemaster did in the future. Knowing he had little time left, Icemaster eventually revealed to Iceman that after beginning a relationship with Daken, they both led the X-Men to space in order to prevent the Shi'ar from overwhelm the Earth and lay waste to it. However Icemaster would discover that Daken's plan was actually to obtain the M'Kraan Crystal in the first place, killing in the process the other X-Men and later Deathbird herself. Icemaster attempts to stop Daken, but he is seconds too late as having the Nexus of all Realities made Daken a Thanos-level player in the cosmos, and he acted as such. Icemaster eventually became convinced, after seeing Bobby's character growth, that his present self had matured beyond what he remembered, leaving the future open for new decisions to be made. With his mission apparently completed, Icemaster turns into thin air soon afterwards.
New Excalibur battles an evil counterpart of Iceman, who is a member of the Shadow-X, the X-Men of an alternate reality in which Professor X was possessed by the Shadow King. They are brought to Earth-616 as a result of M-Day. He appeared to be mute and died during the final battle against Albion.
In Edge of Spider-verse: Web of Fear, a Spider-Man who is a member of the Captain Britain Corps witnesses Morlun about to kill Spider-Man. Later, a larger picture is shown of Firestar and Iceman lying dead, with Ms. Lion being left out, mourning her comrades.
Iceman appears in X-Men Noir as one of the X Men, a crew of talented criminals. He is depicted as being very short-tempered and paranoid. He is dubbed "Iceman", and angrily insists others refer to him that way, due to his custom of using an icepick as a weapon.
In the Ultimate Marvel continuity, Bobby Drake is the youngest founding member of the X-Men. He ran away from his family at the peak of government-supported Sentinel attacks, fearing his family would be killed in such an attack.[volume & issue needed]
Ultimate Iceman never had the snowman look of his counterpart, instead generating a flexible ice armor from the beginning. Bobby establishes himself as a valuable asset, single-handedly taking out the Ultimates once with a gigantic ice wall (see Ultimate War),[volume & issue needed] as well as single-handedly halting an invasion by Colonel Wraith and Weapon X.[volume & issue needed] He was only able to be stopped by Rogue, who was in temporary possession of Marvel Girl's telepathy.[volume & issue needed] Professor X has stated that Bobby is one of the three most powerful X-Men.[volume & issue needed] During the World Tour arc, after enlarging his armor to form a gigantic ice troll, Bobby is greatly injured by Proteus,[volume & issue needed] which resulted in a lawsuit issued by his parents against Xavier.[volume & issue needed] Bobby eventually rebels against his parents, and later returns to the X-Men.[volume & issue needed]
While Bobby was away from the X-Men on a vacation, he had a girlfriend, but Professor Xavier erased all memories of her from Bobby's mind when he told her too much about the X-Men (he presumably also erased the girl's memories).[volume & issue needed] Upon her acceptance into the X-Men, Bobby begins to date Rogue.[volume & issue needed] The pair date for a considerable amount of time, but eventually break up due to Bobby's growing feelings for Shadowcat and Rogue's feelings for Gambit.[volume & issue needed] Eventually Rogue leaves, and Bobby starts to date Kitty.[volume & issue needed] After this, the two rekindle their relationship,[volume & issue needed] but problems erupted.[volume & issue needed]
In Ultimate X-Men #80, Bishop and Hammer, time-travelers from the future, comment on how powerful Bobby will one day become. Cyclops disbanded the X-Men in Ultimate X-Men #81 and Bishop and Storm created a new team. Iceman stayed at the Institute as a student only until Xavier returned and reformed his X-Men.
Professor X is later revealed to be alive and the X-Men return to the Xavier Institute, which is also when Iceman rejoins the X-Men line up.[volume & issue needed] Jean Grey soon discovers that fellow X-Man, Colossus, is using a drug called Banshee to enhance his mutant abilities.[volume & issue needed] The X-Men are highly against this, but Colossus manages to convince Rogue, Dazzler, Angel, Nightcrawler, and Cyclops to join him on his own X-Men team.[volume & issue needed] Iceman remains on Professor X's drug-free X-Men and fights the Banshee enhanced X-Men.[volume & issue needed] Xavier's X-Men win and the two teams combine again with nobody using drugs.
The Ultimatum Wave hits the X-Men next killing several of the X-Men (Beast, Dazzler, and Nightcrawler).[volume & issue needed] Magneto and the Brotherhood attack the world and Iceman helps the world's heroes fight them off.[volume & issue needed] Most of the X-Men die, but Iceman (alongside Rogue, Storm, Colossus, and Jean Grey) is able to survive Magneto's attack.[volume & issue needed] He is last seen demolishing the X-Mansion alongside Rogue and Jean Grey and burying the deceased X-Men in its place.[volume & issue needed] He finds it hard to destroy their home, but he feels it to be the right thing to do now that Professor Xavier is dead.
Later, Bobby Drake is kicked out of his home for being a mutant. With nowhere else to go, Kitty suggests to Peter Parkers' Aunt May that he move in with her, Peter, Gwen Stacy, and Johnny Storm (who also recently moved in their household). Aunt May agrees and enrolls Bobby at Midtown High under the guise of Bobby Parker, one of Peters' cousins and shaves his hair off to help keep his, Peter's and Johnny's secret identities safe.[volume & issue needed]
Without knowing where to go after Peter's death, Bobby Drake asked Kitty Pride if Johnny could come with them searching for a place where to live and hide from authorities.[volume & issue needed] They found the Morlock Tunnels where they live now and help mutants in danger. Firstly they rescued Rogue, who joined them, and later Jimmy Hudson (the son of Wolverine), came to them for help after escaping Stryker's imprisonment along with other mutants he freed.[volume & issue needed]
X-Men Fairy TalesEdit
X-Men: The EndEdit
In other mediaEdit
- Iceman's first television appearance was in the 1966 The Sub-Mariner portion of The Marvel Super Heroes episode "Dr. Dooms Day".
- Iceman was one of the three main characters in the animated series Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, voiced by Frank Welker. In a few episodes, he appears with his and Firestar's former teammates, the X-Men. In the episode "Vengeance of Loki", he's revealed to be a government agent; his codename is "Windchill Factor Zero". In the episode "Mission: Save the Guardstar", Aurora Dante (Lightwave) (his half-sister) was introduced. One entire episode was devoted to Iceman's origin story. Throughout the series, Iceman has a romantic infatuation with Firestar.
- He appeared in the 1992 X-Men animated series, voiced by Denis Akiyama. He appears in the episode "Cold Comfort" as a former member of the team, who quit due to disagreements with Xavier. Iceman also appears in many flashbacks which include "Sanctuary Part 1" and "Xavier Remembers".
- He appeared in the X-Men: Evolution animated series, voiced by Andrew Francis. Iceman was meant to be the 8th X-Man of the show, but rejected in favor of Spyke. Not surprisingly, Iceman appeared more often when Spyke left. In the series, Iceman was a New Mutant and often acted as the unofficial leader of the New Mutants, as he was the most adept of the group.
- Iceman appears in Wolverine and the X-Men,[vague] voiced by Yuri Lowenthal. He appears as a member of the X-Men who left after Professor X went M.I.A. after the Institute was destroyed. Wolverine and Beast went to re-recruit him back on to the X-Men but his parents refused to allow him to return to the team after what happened. Being 18, Bobby had the choice to either stay at home or return to the X-Men and he made the choice to rejoin the team. Since he is still in his teens, he's shown at times acting like a typical teenage boy (such as his facial expression after Emma Frost walks by him in episode 3). He is also not fond of reading and is a bit lazy as he was napping on a pile of books instead of giving them to Kitty to put away. He apparently has a crush on Shadowcat, as he is caught staring at her dreamily before asking her out for a bite to eat (although they were already eating). It is also hinted she may share those feelings, as in episode 3 when Kitty elbows him for looking at Emma. In episode 20, someone similar to Iceman is shown as a member of the original five X-Men.
- Iceman appears in the episode of The Super Hero Squad Show titled "Mysterious Mayhem at Mutant Academy", with Shawn Ashmore reprising his role as the character from the live action X-Men films. He is shown as a student at Xavier Academy and classified as the class clown. He has a starring role in the later episode "The Ice Melt Cometh" where he is needed to re-freeze the melted polar ice caps.
In the films, X-Men, X2, X-Men: The Last Stand, and X-Men: Days of Future Past, he is played by Shawn Ashmore. Bobby is one of the first students to reach out to Rogue and begins a romantic relationship with her. In X2, he has an uneasy friendship/rivalry with Pyro. His relationship with his family is also strained, and his brother actually turns Bobby in to the police out of jealousy. In X-Men: The Last Stand, his relationship with Rogue appears to be deteriorating, strained by their inability to have physical contact and by his close friendship with Kitty Pryde. During a battle with Pyro, now working for Magneto's Brotherhood, he achieves the ability to transform into his ice form from the comics. In the original dystopian timeline of X-Men: Days of Future Past, Iceman is more powerful, transforming into ice and travelling on ice slides, but is nevertheless killed while fighting the Sentinels. After Kitty and Wolverine change the timeline, Iceman is seen once again in a relationship with Rogue at the Xavier Mansion. Bobby's scenes vary in the Days of Future Past known as The Rogue Cut, where he is killed by Sentinels while helping Rogue and Magneto to escape.
In the novelization for X-Men: The Last Stand, Iceman saves Pyro from the destruction of Dark Phoenix.
- Iceman makes an appearance as a bonus level boss in the 1997 Fantastic Four game.
- Iceman has appeared in various video game adaptations, such as X-Men: Children of the Atom and the subsequent Marvel vs. Capcom 2. Notably, he is the only character in the game immune to chip damage from beam and fireball projectiles, however War Machine's missiles are able to chip him.
- He also has appeared as a playable character in X-Men Legends, voiced by Darren Scott. His skills could be improved in either ranged combat (ice beam, ice shards) or melee combat (improved ice armor, ice fists). He can "fly" for short distances as his double-jump move allows him to use his ice slides.
- Iceman appears as a playable character in X-Men Legends II: Rise of Apocalypse, voiced by James Arnold Taylor. He has special dialogue with Grizzly. His powers include damaging frost attacks, ice fists, and strong melee combat.
- Iceman is one of the three playable characters in X-Men: The Official Game (which fills in the gap between X2: X-Men United and X-Men: The Last Stand), voiced by Shawn Ashmore (the same actor who played him in the films).
- Iceman appears in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance as a playable character, retaining many of his moves from the Legends games, and voiced again by James Arnold Taylor. His Age of Apocalypse appearance (referred to as Spikey), classic costume (his standard look), original costume (his first comic appearances, with his face completely frosted over), and Bobby Drake (the look he adopts in the New X-Men series and his subsequent solo series: he appears in his human form, wearing a leather trenchcoat, with only his hands appearing frozen) are alternate costumes for Iceman. In this game, he retains his X-Men Legends abilities, like that of creating ice slides instead of double-jumping. He has special dialogue with Black Widow, Namor (when he's sick), Namorita, Professor X, Gladiator, Henry Pym, and Ymir. Also, at the beginning of Mephisto's Realm, he complains to Xavier about being in Mephisto's Realm (due to all the fire and lava). A simulation disk has Iceman fighting Mysterio in Mephisto's Realm and another one has Storm defending him and Wolverine from Hussar in Murderworld.
- Iceman appears as a playable character in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2, voiced by Adam Bobrow.
- Amongst many other mutants, Drake is seen going to the new mutant home - Taa II - led by Magneto, in Magneto's ending in Marvel vs. Capcom 3.
- Iceman appears in X-Men: Destiny, voiced by Jason Marsden.
- Iceman is a playable character in Marvel Super Hero Squad Online. He is voiced by Shawn Ashmore, who reprised his role of Iceman.
- Iceman appears as a playable character in the 2012 fighting game Marvel Avengers: Battle for Earth.
- Iceman appears as a playable character in Lego Marvel Super Heroes.
- Iceman is a playable character in the Facebook game Marvel: Avengers Alliance.
- Iceman is a playable character in Marvel Contest of Champions, appearing in a fully ice form.
- Iceman is a playable character in Marvel Heroes, voiced by James Arnold Taylor.
- Iceman is a playbale character in the match-three mobile and PC game Marvel Puzzle Quest. He was added to the game in September 2015.
- Iceman appears as a playable character in Marvel Powers United VR, voiced by James Arnold Taylor.
- O'Neill, Patrick Daniel; Lee, Stan (August 1993). "X Marks the Spot". Wizard: X-Men Turn Thirty. pp. 8–9.
Then I wanted a character sort of like the Torch. What's opposite of fire? Ice. Water might have been the opposite, but I couldn't think of anything to do visually with water. I felt a little guilty because Iceman was such a copy of the Human Torch in an opposite way.
- Salicrup, Jim; Higgins, Mike (October 1986). "J. Marc DeMatteis (part 2)". Comics Interview (39). Fictioneer Books. pp. 7–19.
- Walker, Karen (July 2013). "'We'll Keep on Fighting 'Til the End': The Story of the Champions". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (65): 17–23.
- Hanks, Henry. (April 22, 2015). "'X-Men' character Iceman outed as gay". CNN. Retrieved June 12, 2015.
- Wong, Curtis M. (November 4, 2015). "Original 'X-Men' Character Iceman Confirms He's Gay". The Huffington Post.
- "ICEMAN Creative Team Talks the X-MEN Hero's First Ongoing Series and Coming Out". Nerdist.
- Arrant, Chris (20 December 2017). "HAWKEYE & ICEMAN Join Wave of MARVEL Titles Canceled". Newsarama. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Marvel Revives 'Wasp,' 'Iceman' Comic Book Series". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Iceman #1 (December 1984). Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #44-46
- X-Men #1. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #4
- X-Men #7. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #8 (November 1964)
- Strange Tales #120
- X-Men #10. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #13. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #14-17
- X-Men #18. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #34. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #47
- X-Men #94. Marvel Comics.
- Champions #1, October 1975. Marvel Comics.
- The Spectacular Spider-Man #17. Marvel Comics.
- The Incredible Hulk vol. 2 #7. Marvel Comics.
- Marvel Two-in-One #76. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #145, page 10, panel 1. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #145-146. Marvel Comics.
- Defenders #122-123, 125. Marvel Comics.
- Defenders #127-129. Marvel Comics.
- Iceman #1-4. Marvel Comics.
- X-Factor #1 (February 1986). Marvel Comics.
- X-Factor #6. Marvel Comics.
- Thor #377-378. Marvel Comics.
- X-Factor #19. Marvel Comics.
- X-Factor #29-31. Marvel Comics.
- X-Factor #63-64. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #281; X-Men vol. 2 #1
- X-Factor #70
- Uncanny X-Men #281. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #289. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #292. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #300. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #305. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #311. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #314. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #319. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (2nd series) #45. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (Vol 2) #50. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #331. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #340. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (Vol 2) #69. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (2nd series) #96. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (Vol 2) #97. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #379. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men (Vol 2) #99. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #380. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men Forever #1-5. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #395. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #413. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #415. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #420. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #426. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #429. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #188 (July 2006). Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #s 194-197. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #190. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #199. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #200. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #201. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #202. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #203. Marvel Comics.
- New X-Men #45. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #493. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men #207. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #495. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #498. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #499. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men: Secret Invasion #1. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #513. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #514
- Dark Avengers/Uncanny X-Men: Exodus #1. Marvel Comics.
- X-Force #27. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #525. Marvel Comics.
-  Comic Vine.[dead link]
- "Comic Previews - 2018 Comics and Graphic Novels". Newsarama.
- . Newsarama. Archived 11 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Wolverine and the X-Men #2. Marvel Comics.
- Extraordinary X-Men #1
- Extraordinary X-Men #11
- Extraordinary X-Men #14
- Inhumans vs X-Men #1
- Fantastic Four (2018) #2 - #4
- All-New X-Men #1. Marvel Comics.
- All-New X-Men #2. Marvel Comics.
- All-New X-Men #40. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #600. Marvel Comics.
- All New X-Men Vol. 2 #13
- All-New X-Men (Vol. 3) #19
- X-Men: Prime #1
- X-Men: Blue (Vol. 1) #2
- Richards, Dave (August 28, 2008). "Carey on 'Manifest Destiny' and 'X-Men Origins: Beast'". Comic Book Resources.
- X-Men vol. 2 #193. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #41. Marvel Comics.
- Uncanny X-Men #313-314. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men vol. 2 #48. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men: Manifest Destiny #3. Marvel Comics.
- Wolverine and the X-Men #37. Marvel Comics.
- Wolverine and the X-Men #38. Marvel Comics.
- "Extermination: Every Major Change Made to the X-Men". CBR. 28 December 2018.
- X-Men Chronicles #1 (1995). Marvel Comics.
- Civil War: House of M #1. Marvel Comics.
- Black Panther Vol 4 #7. Marvel Comics.
- Mutant X #1 (October 1998). Marvel Comics.
- New Exiles #9. Marvel Comics.
- Wolverine and the X-Men #29
- Uncanny X-Men: Winter's End #1
- Amazing Spider-Man Vol. 3 #8. Marvel Comics.
- X-Men Noir #1-4
- Ultimate X-Men #80. Marvel Comics.
- Ultimate X-Men #81. Marvel Comics.
- Ultimate X-Men #100 (February 2009). Marvel Comics.
- Ultimate X-Men: Requiem. Marvel Comics.
- Wolverine and the X-Men - Episode 1: "Foresight"
- "Comics Continuum: Marvel Super Hero Squad". www.comicscontinuum.com.
- McNally, Victoria (12 July 2015). "Every Secret We Learned Watching The 'X-Men: Rogue Cut'". MTV.com. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- "Voice Of Iceman - X-Men franchise | Behind The Voice Actors". behindthevoiceactors.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018. Check marks indicates role has been confirmed using screenshots of closing credits and other reliable sources
- Denick, Thom (2006). Marvel Ultimate Alliance: Signature Series Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Brady Games. pp. 14, 15. ISBN 0-7440-0844-1.
- Behind the Voice Actors: Adam Bobrow, www.behindthevoiceactors.com
- "LEGO Marvel Super Heroes - Big Figure Trailer". 20 July 2013 – via YouTube.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Gross, Michael (2 June 1987). "SPIDER-MAN TO WED MODEL". The New York Times.