Ice hockey at the 1936 Winter Olympics

The men's ice hockey tournament at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, was the fifth Olympic Championship, also serving as the tenth World Championships and the 21st European Championships.[1]

Ice hockey at the 1936 Winter Olympics
Tournament details
Host country Germany
Dates6–16 February 1936
Teams15
Venue(s)2 (in 1 host city)
Final positions
Champions Gold medal blank.svg Great Britain (1st title)
Runner-up Silver medal blank.svg Canada
Third place Bronze medal blank.svg United States
Fourth place Czechoslovakia
Tournament statistics
Games played37
Goals scored165 (4.46 per game)
Scoring leader(s)Canada Hugh Farquharson 10 goals.

The British national ice hockey team pulled off a major upset when they won the gold medal, marking a number of firsts in international ice hockey competition. Great Britain made history as the first team ever to win an Olympic, World, and European (its second) Championships and the first to win all three in the same year.[2] They were the first team to stop Canada from winning the Olympic ice hockey gold, following Canada's four consecutive gold medals.

Tournament summaryEdit

In previous Olympics, the Great Britain team had finished third (1924), and fourth (1928) but with teams that were, "largely composed of Canadian Army officers and university graduates living in the U.K."[2] It was decided that their team must be British-born this time, and while only one player on the team was born in Canada, nine of the thirteen players on the roster grew up in Canada, and eleven had played previously in Canada.[2]

 
Canadian men's ice hockey team (the Port Arthur Bearcats) at the 1936 Olympic Games

The Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace (LIHG) which oversaw ice hockey at the Olympics, met before the games started and ruled that Jimmy Foster and Alex Archer were ineligible to compete for Great Britain since the players were under suspension by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) for not seeking permission to transfer internationally. Great Britain's manager Bunny Ahearne contested that international rules stated a player could leave a country without seeking permission, and the CAHA suspensions should not apply.[3] CAHA president E. A. Gilroy had lodged a complaint with the LIHG in September 1935, but the LIHG had not held a meeting until the eve of the Olympics. Gilroy denied making a last-minute protest for fear of Canada (represented by 1935 Allan Cup runners-up Port Arthur Bearcats) losing to Great Britain.[3] He chose not to object to the two players participating as a gesture of sportsmanship towards Great Britain.[4] The Canadian Press reported that Canadian officials agreed to lift the suspensions on Foster and Archer after "considerable pressure had been brought to bear on Canadian officials by British Olympic higher-ups".[5]

Still unhappy with the state of affairs were the Americans, who did not believe the rules were being followed,[6] and the French, who were very angry that Canada did not repeal their protest with them.[7] Before the second round of games began, other participating hockey nations threatened to protest the victories by Great Britain due to the use of CAHA players, and called for an emergency meeting.[8]

The tournament itself featured very close play for the medals. It was played in three rounds beginning with four groups, where the two best teams of each group moved on to two groups of four, where again the two best moved on to a final round robin group of four, to determine the medals.[2]

The major upset occurred in the semi-finals, when Britain's Edgar Brenchley scored late in the third to defeat Canada two to one, setting up the eventual gold medal outcome. The format at these Olympics was to have head-to-head results from the semi-finals carried forward, so that the finals could be a four team round robin with only two additional games per team. The British team's shock victory over the Canadians, plus the win by the USA over Czechoslovakia, both counted in the tables for the final round.[2]

Before the final round began, Canada threatened to withdraw from Olympic hockey when it learned that the playoffs format would carry over the loss to Great Britain past the second round-robin series, since the tournament format stated that teams did not have to play one another more than once.[9] Gilroy was unaware of the playoff format in advance of the Olympics, and took objection to the sportsmanship of Canadian officials being questioned, after a special meeting decided not to alter the format.[10]

In the final round, the British team beat Czechoslovakia. then played six scoreless periods against the USA before the game was called a tie, ensuring a silver or gold for the British. In the tournament's final game, Canada could win silver, and Britain gold, if Canada defeated the US, while the Americans could still achieve gold in a variety of tie-breaking scenarios. The Americans were very tired from the marathon scoreless tie, and lost one to nothing.[citation needed] The 1936 tournament was the first time in which Canada did not win the gold medal in ice hockey at the Olympic Games, which led to the CAHA and Gilroy being heavily scrutinized by media in Canada.[11]

Another story of this Olympic hockey tournament was the participation of Rudi Ball. The German leadership allowed this top player to lead their hockey team at these German hosted Olympics, making him the only Jew to represent Germany at these Olympic Games.[6]

MedalistsEdit

Gold Silver Bronze
  Great Britain (GBR)
Carl Erhardt (Captain)
James Foster
Gordon Dailley
Archibald Stinchcombe
Edgar Brenchley
John Coward
James Chappell
Alexander Archer
Gerry Davey
James Borland
Robert Wyman
Jack Kilpatrick
Art Child
  Canada (CAN)
Francis Moore
Arthur Nash
Herman Murray
Walter Kitchen
Raymond Milton
David Neville
Kenneth Farmer
Hugh Farquharson
Maxwell Deacon
Alexander Sinclair
Bill Thomson
James Haggarty
Ralph St. Germain
  United States (USA)
Thomas Moone
Francis Shaughnessy
Philip LaBatte
Frank Stubbs
John Garrison
Paul Rowe
John Lax
Gordon Smith
Elbridge Ross
Francis Spain
August Kammer

Participating nationsEdit

First roundEdit

Top two teams in each group advanced to Second Round.

Group AEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   Canada 3 3 0 0 24 3 +21 6 Advance to Second Round
2   Austria 3 2 0 1 11 7 +4 4
3   Poland 3 1 0 2 11 12 −1 2
4   Latvia 3 0 0 3 3 27 −24 0
6 February   Canada 8–1
(5–0,2–1,1–0)
  Poland Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Canada 11–0
(2–0,3–0,6–0)
  Latvia Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Austria 2–1
(0–0,0–0,2–1)
  Poland Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   Canada 5–2
(4–0,1–2,0–0)
  Austria Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   Poland 9–2
(1–0,4–0,4–2)
  Latvia Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
9 February   Austria 7–1
(4–0,0–0,3–1)
  Latvia Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Group BEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   Germany 3 2 0 1 5 1 +4 4 Advance to Second Round
2   United States 3 2 0 1 5 2 +3 4
3   Italy 3 1 0 2 2 5 −3 2
4   Switzerland 3 1 0 2 1 5 −4 2
6 February   Germany 0–1
(0–1,0–0,0–0)
  United States Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   United States 3–0
(0–0,3–0,0–0)
  Switzerland Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Germany 3–0
(1–0,1–0,1–0)
  Italy Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   Germany 2–0
(0–0,1–0,1–0)
  Switzerland Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   United States 1–2 OT
(0–0,0–0,1–1,0–0,0–1)
  Italy Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
9 February   Switzerland 1–0
(0–0,1–0,0–0)
  Italy Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Group CEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   Czechoslovakia 3 3 0 0 10 0 +10 6 Advance to Second Round
2   Hungary 3 2 0 1 14 5 +9 4
3   France 3 1 0 2 4 7 −3 2
4   Belgium 3 0 0 3 4 20 −16 0
6 February   Hungary 11–2
(1–1,2–0,8–1)
  Belgium Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Czechoslovakia 5–0
(0–0,4–0,1–0)
  Belgium Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Hungary 3–0
(0–0,1–0,2–0)
  France Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   Czechoslovakia 3–0
(1–0,1–0,1–0)
  Hungary Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   France 4–2 OT
(1–0,0–1,0–0,1–1,2–0)
  Belgium Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
9 February   Czechoslovakia 2–0
(0–0,1–0,1–0)
  France Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Group DEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   Great Britain 2 2 0 0 4 0 +4 4 Advance to Second Round
2   Sweden 2 1 0 1 2 1 +1 2
3   Japan 2 0 0 2 0 5 −5 0
6 February   Great Britain 1–0
(1–0,0–0,0–0)
  Sweden Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
7 February   Great Britain 3–0
(2–0,0–0,1–0)
  Japan Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
8 February   Sweden 2–0
(1–0,1–0,0–0)
  Japan Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Second roundEdit

The top two teams in each group advanced to Final Round.

Group AEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   Great Britain 3 2 1 0 8 3 +5 5 Advance to Final Round
2   Canada 3 2 0 1 22 4 +18 4
3   Germany 3 1 1 1 5 8 −3 3
4   Hungary 3 0 0 3 2 22 −20 0
11 February   Germany 2–1
(0–0,1–0,1–1)
  Hungary Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
11 February   Great Britain 2–1
(1–1,0–0,1–0)
  Canada Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
12 February   Germany 1–1 OT
(0–0,0–1,1–0,0–0,0–0,0–0)
  Great Britain Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
12 February   Canada 15–0
(3–0,9–0,3–0)
  Hungary Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
13 February   Great Britain 5–1
(1–0,3–1,1–0)
  Hungary Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
13 February   Germany 2–6
(0–1,0–3,2–2)
  Canada Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Group BEdit

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification or relegation
1   United States 3 3 0 0 5 1 +4 6 Advance to Final Round
2   Czechoslovakia 3 2 0 1 6 4 +2 4
3   Sweden 3 1 0 2 3 6 −3 2
4   Austria 3 0 0 3 1 4 −3 0
11 February   United States 2–0
(0–0,2–0,0–0)
  Czechoslovakia Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
11 February   Sweden 1–0
(1–0,0–0,0–0)
  Austria Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
12 February   United States 1–0
(0–0,1–0,0–0)
  Austria Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
12 February   Czechoslovakia 4–1
(0–1,2–0,2–0)
  Sweden Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
13 February   United States 2–1
(0–0,1–1,1–0)
  Sweden Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
13 February   Czechoslovakia 2–1
(0–0,2–1,0–0)
  Austria Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Final roundEdit

Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
  Great Britain 3 2 1 0 7 1 +6 5
  Canada 3 2 0 1 9 2 +7 4
  United States 3 1 1 1 2 1 +1 3
  Czechoslovakia 3 0 0 3 0 14 −14 0
11 February   Great Britain 2–1
(1–1, 0–0, 1–0)
  Canada Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
11 February   United States 2–0
(0–0, 2–0, 0–0)
  Czechoslovakia Riessersee, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
14 February   Great Britain 5–0
(2–0,3–0,0–0)
  Czechoslovakia Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
15 February   Canada 7–0
(3–0,3–0,1–0)
  Czechoslovakia Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
15 February   Great Britain 0–0 OT
(0–0,0–0,0–0,0–0,0–0,0–0)
  United States Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen
16 February   Canada 1–0
(1–0,0–0,0–0)
  United States Olympia-Kunsteisstadion, Garmisch-Partenkirchen

N.B. – Tournament rules stated that relevant results from the semi-final round would be carried over to the final round. After the semi-final round, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and the German organizers appealed against this rule and asked that in the final stage all four teams should play each other with the semi-final results ignored. This appeal was overwhelmingly rejected by the Olympic authorities. Thus, the 11 February games of Canada vs. Great Britain and the United States vs. Czechoslovakia were counted as games in the final round, hence their replication in both tables.

Final rankingEdit

    Great Britain
    Canada
    United States
4   Czechoslovakia
5   Germany
5   Sweden
7   Austria
7   Hungary
9   Italy
9   France
9   Japan
9   Poland
13   Belgium
13   Latvia
13   Switzerland

European Championship medal tableEdit

    Great Britain
    Czechoslovakia
    Germany
    Sweden
5   Austria
5   Hungary
7   France
7   Italy
7   Poland
10   Belgium
10   Latvia
10   Switzerland

StatisticsEdit

Average ageEdit

Team Belgium was the oldest team in the tournament, averaging 29 years and 2 months. Team Germany was the youngest team in the tournament, averaging 23 years and 1 months. Gold medalists Great Britain averaged 25 years and 4 months. Tournament average was 25 years and 2 months.[12]

Top scorerEdit

Team GP G A Pts
  Hugh Farquharson 8 10 10

There is some disagreement as to the totals of Farquharson, both the IOC and IIHF maintain that he scored ten goals. Assist totals were not officially tabulated at the time, and sources indicate anywhere from five to ten.[13][14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ice Hockey at the 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Winter Games". Sports Reference. Archived from the original on 27 April 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e Duplacey p. 459
  3. ^ a b "Feeling High Among British Hockey Officials Over Dominion's Action". Winnipeg Tribune. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 6, 1936. p. 12. 
  4. ^ "Gilroy Denies Bans Against Archer and Foster Are Lifted". Winnipeg Tribune. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 8, 1936. p. 30. 
  5. ^ "Suspension Lifted on Two Winnipeg Players Averting Olympic Row". Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 8, 1936. p. 28. 
  6. ^ a b Wallechinsky p. 609
  7. ^ Tournament summary
  8. ^ "Gilroy Charges Hockey "A Racket" in Britain as Other Nations Prepare to Protest English Wins". Winnipeg Tribune. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 10, 1936. p. 10. 
  9. ^ "Canada Threatens To Quit Olympic Hockey Contests". Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 13, 1936. p. 1. 
  10. ^ "Gilroy Says Canadians Will Not Question Any Decisions by Committee". Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg, Manitoba. February 14, 1936. p. 12. 
  11. ^ Podnieks, Andrew (1997). Canada's Olympic Hockey Teams: The Complete History, 1920–1998. Toronto: Doubleday Canada. pp. 41–52. ISBN 0-385-25688-4.
  12. ^ "Team Canada - Olympics - Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1936 - Player Stats". QuantHockey. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  13. ^ Podnieks pg. 403
  14. ^ "Official games report from la84.org, pgs 107–21" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-09-12. Retrieved 2014-01-18.

External linksEdit