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A cold-stimulus headache is a form of brief pain or headache commonly associated with consumption (particularly quick consumption) of cold beverages or foods such as ice cream and ice pops. It is caused by having something cold touch the roof of the mouth, and is believed to result from a nerve response causing rapid constriction and swelling of blood vessels[3] or a "referring" of pain from the roof of the mouth to the head.[4][5] The rate of intake for cold foods has been studied as a contributing factor.[6][7] A cold-stimulus headache is distinct from dentin hypersensitivity, a type of dental pain that can occur under similar circumstances.

Cold-stimulus headache
Other namesBrain freeze, ice-cream headache[1][2]
Gray778 Trigeminal.png
The trigeminal nerve, shown in yellow, conducts signals from dilating blood vessels in the palate to the brain, which interprets the pain as coming from the forehead.
SpecialtyNeurology

Cats and other animals have been observed experiencing a similar reaction when presented with a similar stimulus.[8]

Contents

TerminologyEdit

The term ice-cream headache has been in use since at least January 31, 1937, contained in a journal entry by Rebecca Timbres published in the 1939 book We Didn't Ask Utopia: A Quaker Family in Soviet Russia.[9][non-primary source needed] The first published use of the term brain freeze, in the sense of a cold-stimulus headache, was in 1991.[10]

Cause and frequencyEdit

A cold-stimulus headache is the direct result of the rapid cooling and rewarming of the capillaries in the sinuses leading to periods of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. A similar but painless blood vessel response causes the face to appear "flushed" after being outside on a cold day. In both instances, the low temperature causes the capillaries in the sinuses to constrict and then experience extreme rebound dilation as they warm up again.[11]

In the palate, this dilation is sensed by nearby pain receptors, which then send signals back to the brain via the trigeminal nerve, one of the major nerves of the facial area. This nerve also senses facial pain, so as the neural signals are conducted the brain interprets the pain as coming from the forehead—the same "referred pain" phenomenon seen in heart attacks. Brain-freeze pain may last from a few seconds to a few minutes. Research suggests that the same vascular mechanism and nerve implicated in "brain freeze" cause the aura (sensory disturbance) and pulsatile (throbbing pain) phases of migraines.[12]

It is possible to suffer from a cold-stimulus headache in both hot and cold weather, because the effect relies upon the temperature of the food being consumed rather than that of the environment. Other causes that may mimic the sensation of cold-stimulus headache include that produced when high speed drilling is performed through the inner table of the skull in people undergoing such a procedure in an awake or sedated state.

Anterior cerebral artery theoryEdit

Another theory into the cause of cold-stimulus headaches is explained by increased blood flow to the brain through the anterior cerebral artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to most medial portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes. This increase in blood volume and resulting increase in size in this artery is thought to bring on the pain associated with a cold-stimulus headache.

When the anterior cerebral artery constricts, reining in the response to this increased blood volume, the pain disappears. The dilation, then quick constriction, of this blood vessel may be a type of self-defense for the brain.

This inflow of blood cannot be cleared as quickly as it is coming in during the cold-stimulus headache, so the blood flow could raise the pressure inside the skull and induce pain that way. As the intracranial pressure and temperature in the brain rise the blood vessel contracts, and the pressure in the brain is reduced before reaching dangerous levels.[13]

ResearchEdit

The phenomenon is common enough to have been the subject of research published in the British Medical Journal and Scientific American.[11][12] A study conducted by Maya Kaczorowski demonstrated a higher incidence of headache in subjects consuming an ice cream sample quickly, in less than 5 seconds, vs. those who consumed slowly, taking longer than 30 seconds (27% and 12%, respectively).[14]

According to research by Nigel Bird, Anne MacGregor, and Marcia I. Wilkinson published in the journal Headache, in their study "17% of the migraine patients and 46% of the students developed headache following palatal application or a swallow of ice cream."[15]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Kaczorowski, Maya; Kaczorowski, Janusz (December 21, 2002). "Ice Cream Evoked Headaches (Ice-H) Study: Randomised Trial Of Accelerated Versus Cautious Ice Cream Eating Regiem". British Medical Journal. 325 (7378): 1445–1446. doi:10.1136/bmj.325.7378.1445. PMC 139031. PMID 12493658.
  2. ^ Jankelowitz, SK.; Zagami, AS. (Dec 2001). "Cold-stimulus headache". Cephalalgia. 21 (10): 1002. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.2001.00301.x. PMID 11843876.
  3. ^ "What causes an ice cream headache?". 1 April 2000.
  4. ^ "Ice cream headaches Causes - Mayo Clinic".
  5. ^ "Definition of Ice cream headache".
  6. ^ "Ice cream evoked headaches ICE-H study".
  7. ^ "The Dairy Education eBook Series - Food Science". University of Guelph.
  8. ^ "Do Cats Actually Get 'Brain Freeze' When They Eat Cold Treats? - petMD". www.petmd.com.
  9. ^ Timbres, Harry; Timbres, Rebecca (1939). "We didn't ask Utopia: a Quaker family in Soviet Russia". Prentice Hall. Retrieved 2013-02-19. But your nose and fingertips get quite numb, though, and if you don't keep rubbing your forehead, you get what we used to call 'an ice cream headache.'
  10. ^ "Confessions of a City Literate". New Hampshire Union Leader. 27 May 1991. Note: the earliest recorded use of the term "brain freeze" (with a different meaning) was in 1968 in a Canadian academic journal.
  11. ^ a b Scientific American Mind, 1555–2284, 2008, Vol. 19, Issue 1. "Brain Freeze." Andrews, Mark A., Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine.
  12. ^ a b Hulihan, Joseph (1997). "Ice cream headache". BMJ. 314 (7091): 1364. doi:10.1136/bmj.314.7091.1364. PMID 9161304.
  13. ^ Welsh, Jennifer (22 April 2012). "Cause of Brain Freeze Revealed". TechMediaNetwork.com. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference ICE-H was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ Bird, Nigel; MacGregor, Anne; Wilkinson, Marcia I. (1992). "Ice cream headache–site, duration, and relationship to migraine". Headache. Wiley-Blackwell. 32 (1): 35–8. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.1992.hed3201035.x. PMID 1555929.

External linksEdit

Classification
  • ICD-10: G44.8021 (ICD-10NA)