Ibn al-Durayhim

ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad Ibn al-Durayhim (Arabic: علي بن محمد ابن الدريهم‎; 1312–1359/62 CE) was an Arab[1] cryptologist who gave detailed descriptions of eight cipher systems that discussed substitution ciphers, leading to the earliest suggestion of a "tableau" of the kind that two centuries later became known as the "Vigenère table".[2]

His book entitled Clear Chapters Goals and Solving Ciphers (مقاصد الفصول المترجمة عن حل الترجمة) was recently discovered, but has yet to be published. It includes the use of the statistical techniques pioneered by Al-Kindi and Ibn 'Adlan.[3]


  1. ^ Deavours, Cipher A. (1997). Selections from Cryptologia: History, People, and Technology. Artech House. ISBN 9780890068625.
  2. ^ Leeuw, ed. by Karl de; Bergstra, Jan (2007). The History of Information Security: A Comprehensive Handbook (1. ed.). Elsevier. p. 279. ISBN 0444516085.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Broemeling, Lyle D. (1 November 2011). "An Account of Early Statistical Inference in Arab Cryptology". The American Statistician. 65 (4): 255–257. doi:10.1198/tas.2011.10191.