Hyundai Kappa engine

Hyundai's Kappa automobile engine series consists of three-cylinder[1] and four-cylinder models.[2]

κ engine
Hyundai Motor Company logo.svg  Kappa engine
Moteur Hyundai Kappa I4 1 25.jpg
2009 Hyundai i10 1.25-litre Kappa engine
Overview
ManufacturerHyundai Motor Company
Production
  • 2008–present (I4)
  • 2010–present (I3)
Layout
Configuration
Displacement1.0 L (998 cc)
1.2 L (1,197 cc)
1.25 L (1,248 cc)
1.4 L (1,353 cc)
1.4 L (1,368 cc)
1.4 L (1,397 cc)
1.6 L (1,579 cc)
Cylinder bore71 mm (2.8 in)
72 mm (2.83 in)
Piston stroke75.6 mm (2.98 in)
78.8 mm (3.10 in)
84 mm (3.31 in)
97 mm (3.82 in)
Block materialAluminium
Head materialAluminium
ValvetrainDOHC 4 valves x cyl. with VVT
Combustion
Turbocharger
  • On Kappa II 1.0 T-GDi
  • On Kappa II 1.4 T-GDi
Fuel systemMultipoint injection
Direct injection
Fuel typeGasoline
LPG
Cooling systemWater-cooled
Output
Power output69–140 PS (51–103 kW; 68–138 hp)
Torque output9.6–24.7 kg⋅m (94–242 N⋅m; 69–179 lbf⋅ft)
Dimensions
Dry weight71.4–84 kg (157–185 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorEpsilon
SuccessorSmartstream G1.0T/G1.2/G1.4T/G1.5/G1.6HEV

KappaEdit

The Kappa engine series are gasoline powered, all-aluminum block and utilizes a 16-valve design with DOHC as opposed to the 12-valve design SOHC of its Epsilon engine family predecessor.

1.2 L (G4LA)Edit

The 1,197 cc (1.2 L) is a destroked variant of the Kappa G4LA engine produced in India to circumvent the 1,200 cc tax bracket. It makes 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) at 5,200 rpm and 11.3 kg⋅m (82 lb⋅ft; 111 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

Applications

1.25 L (G4LA)Edit

The 1,248 cc (1.25 L) is the European version. It makes 77–78 PS (57–57 kW; 76–77 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 11.8–12.1 kg⋅m (85–88 lb⋅ft; 116–119 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm. Engine output figures varies depending on application and target market. Fuel economy is rated at 5 L/100 km (47 mpg‑US; 56 mpg‑imp) in the European combined test cycle.

Applications

1.4 LEdit

The 1,353 cc (1.4 L) version makes 95 PS (70 kW; 94 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 13.2 kg⋅m (95 lb⋅ft; 129 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

Kappa II MPiEdit

Main improvement is adding VTVT (variable valve timing) to the engine.

1.0 L MPI (G3LA)Edit

 
2021 Hyundai Grand i10 Nios 1.0 engine

The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder engine makes 69 PS (51 kW; 68 hp) at 6,200 rpm and 9.7 kg⋅m (70 lb⋅ft; 95 N⋅m) of torque at 3,500 rpm.

Applications

1.0 L FLEX (F3LA)Edit

Flex fuel compatible version of the 1.0 MPi engine. The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder engine makes 80 PS (59 kW; 79 hp) at 6,200 rpm and 10.2 kg⋅m (74 lb⋅ft; 100 N⋅m) of torque at 4,500 rpm.

Applications

1.0 L TCI/T-MPi (G3LB)Edit

The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder engine is turbocharged and makes 106 PS (78 kW; 105 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 14 kg⋅m (101 lb⋅ft; 137 N⋅m) of torque between 1,600 and 3,500 rpm.[5]

Applications

1.0 L Turbo FLEX (F3LB)Edit

Flex fuel compatible version of the 1.0 TCi engine. The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder engine is turbocharged and makes 106 PS (78 kW; 105 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 14 kg⋅m (101 lb⋅ft; 137 N⋅m) of torque between 1,600 and 3,500 rpm.

Applications

1.2 L (G4LA)Edit

 
2021 Hyundai Grand i10 sedan 1.2 engine

The 1,197 cc (1.2 L) is a destroked variant of the Kappa II G4LA engine produced in India to circumvent the 1,200 cc tax bracket. It is a four-cylinder engine making 83 PS (82 hp; 61 kW) at 6,300 rpm and 11.6–12 kg⋅m (84–87 lb⋅ft; 114–118 N⋅m) of torque at 4,200 rpm.

Applications

1.25 L (G4LA)Edit

 
2012 Kia Picanto 1.25-litre Kappa II engine

The 1,248 cc (1.25 L) is the European version. It is a four-cylinder engine making 86 PS (63 kW; 85 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 12.3 kg⋅m (89 lb⋅ft; 121 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

Applications

1.4 L (G4LC)Edit

 
2019 Kia Soluto 1.4-litre Kappa II engine

The 1,368 cc (1.4 L) version adds Dual-CVVT and VIS, the engine makes 95–100 PS (70–74 kW; 94–99 hp) at 6,000 rpm and 13.5–13.7 kg⋅m (98–99 lb⋅ft; 132–134 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

Applications

Kappa II GDiEdit

1.0 T-GDi (G3LC)Edit

The 998 cc (1.0 L) turbocharged three-cylinder engine makes 120 PS (118 hp; 88 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 17.5 kg⋅m (127 lb⋅ft; 172 N⋅m) of torque between 1,500 and 4,000 rpm.[8]

A detuned version that makes 100 PS (99 hp; 74 kW) between 4,500 and 6,000 rpm is also available for some applications.

Applications

1.0 T-GDi FLEX (F3LC)Edit

Flex fuel compatible version of the 1.0 T-GDi engine. The 998 cc (1.0 L) turbocharged three-cylinder engine makes 120 PS (118 hp; 88 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 17.5 kg⋅m (127 lb⋅ft; 172 N⋅m) of torque between 1,500 and 4,000 rpm.

Applications

1.4 T-GDi (G4LD)Edit

The 1,353 cc (1.4 L) turbocharged four-cylinder engine which was announced in 2015 makes 140 PS (138 hp; 103 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 24.7 kg⋅m (242 N⋅m; 179 lbf⋅ft) of torque between 1,500 and 3,200 rpm. Since 2019, it is also known as the Smartstream G1.4T engine.

A detuned version which produces 130 PS (128 hp; 96 kW) at 5,500 rpm and 21.6 kg⋅m (212 N⋅m; 156 lbf⋅ft) of torque between 1,400 rpm and 3,700 rpm is also available for some applications.

Applications

Kappa II GDi HEVEdit

Announced in 2016 and intended for use in Hybrid applications, main improvements are utilizing Atkinson cycle, higher compression ratio, cooler EGR system and higher pressure fuel system.

1.6 L (G4LE)Edit

The 1,579 cc (1.6 L) four-cylinder with a 72 mm (2.8 in) bore, 97 mm (3.8 in) stroke and a 13.0:1 compression ratio. The engine makes 105 PS (104 hp; 77 kW) at 5,700 rpm and 15 kg⋅m (147 N⋅m; 108 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

The Hybrid version combines a 1.56 KWh battery with an electric motor making 44 PS (43 hp; 32 kW) between 1,800 and 2,500 rpm with 17.3 kg⋅m (170 N⋅m; 125 lbf⋅ft) of torque between 0 and 1,800 rpm.

The Plug-in Hybrid version combines a 8.9 KWh battery with an electric motor making 60.5 PS (60 hp; 44 kW) between 1,800 and 2,500 rpm with 17.3 kg⋅m (170 N⋅m; 125 lbf⋅ft) of torque between 0 and 1,800 rpm.

Both the Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid versions total combined system power is 141 PS (139 hp; 104 kW) at 5,700 rpm with 27 kg⋅m (265 N⋅m; 195 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 4,000 rpm.

Applications

Kappa II LPiEdit

For use in LPG applications.

1.0 L Biofuel (B3LA)Edit

The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder. The engine makes 78–82 PS (77–81 hp; 57–60 kW) at 6,200 rpm and 9.6 kg⋅m (94 N⋅m; 69 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 3,500 rpm.

Applications

1.0 L LPG (L3LA)Edit

The 998 cc (1.0 L) three-cylinder. The engine makes 74 PS (73 hp; 54 kW) at 6,200 rpm and 9.6 kg⋅m (94 N⋅m; 69 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 3,500 rpm.

Applications

DevelopmentEdit

Developed at a cost of $421 million over a period of 48 months, the Kappa project was aimed at increasing fuel economy while ensuring compliance to stringent EURO-4 emission regulations. The newest versions of Kappa engine family comply with Euro-6DTemp regulations.

DesignEdit

The engine block is made from high pressure die-cast aluminum which results in considerable weight savings - the entire engine with a manual gearbox only weighs 82.4 kg (182 lb). The main block features a ladder frame construction for structural stiffness while its cylinders are fitted with cast-iron liners for improved abrasion durability. Additional weight was shaved off by integrating the engine support bracket with the timing chain cover. The shape of the piston skirt was optimized to reduce its size while the compression height of the piston was also reduced, resulting in weight savings. The optimized piston skirt is also treated with molybdenum disulfide. A highly sophisticated process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is used to apply an ultra-thin layer of Chromium nitride to the piston’s oil ring. Chromium Nitride-coated piston rings using PVD is an innovative technology borrowed from the Hyundai Tau engine introduced earlier. Friction between the oil ring and cylinder wall has been further minimized by reducing the oil ring tension. The Kappa engine is the first Hyundai engine to be fitted with an accessory drive belt which does not require a mechanical auto-tensioning adjustment device, reducing the hardware and further lowering weight and cost. Because it is designed to maintain an ideal tension setting, the belt runs quieter and with proper preventative maintenance and care, the belt will last 100,000 mi (160,000 km). For ignition, the Kappa engine uses a new, longer reach spark plug which enabled engineers to enlarge the size of the water jacket to promote more efficient engine cooling around the critically important spark plug and exhaust port area. The long reach spark plug (M12 thread) also enabled engineers to enlarge the valve diameter for increased airflow and combustion efficiency. A lightweight, heat-resistant engineering plastic was used for the intake manifold. The fuel delivery pipe assembly is a returnless type (to eliminate evaporative fuel emissions) and is made of SUS (steel use stainless) with a specially designed inner structure for the reduction of pulsation noise.

ValvetrainEdit

The valvetrain features a number of innovations: friction reducing roller swing arm, hydraulic lash adjusters which ensure proper clearances between the valve stem and roller swing arm, which significantly reduce valve tapping noise. The valve springs feature a beehive shape and smaller retainer. The reduced weight and spring load further help lower friction and improve fuel economy. The valvetrain is driven by a silent-type, maintenance free steel timing chain that replaces a roller-type timing chain: The optimized design greatly reduces impact forces and noise when the gear tooth and chain engage.

Offset crankEdit

Unlike a conventional engine where the centerline of the cylinder bore is in perfect vertical alignment with the rotating axis of the crankshaft, the Kappa’s centerline is offset by a small distance. This offset minimizes the lateral force created by the rotating piston & rod assembly (known, and audible, as "piston slap" at its extreme). The net effect is an improvement in fuel consumption and a reduction in noise, vibration and harshness - it should also help with engine longevity since reduced lateral force will equal reduced bore wear.

Engine managementEdit

Engine management is provided by two 16-bit 32 MHz microprocessors which control and monitor ignition timing, idle speed, knocking and emissions.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2012 Kia Picanto Brochure" (PDF). Kia Motors Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-19. Retrieved 2012-07-28.
  2. ^ Totally Technical: Hyundai's Kappa Engine Explained
  3. ^ a b "Hyundai Grand i10 Brochure" (PDF). Hyundai India.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b "Hyundai Grand i10 Nios Brochure" (PDF). Hyundai India.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ "현대/기아자동차 카파엔진 G3LB 1.0L T-MPI (Kappa Engine for Gasoline)". HS Motor Parts (in Korean). 2020-05-01. Retrieved 2021-09-01.
  6. ^ "Обновленный Hyundai Solaris 2020 модельного года (рестайлинг)". www.hyundai.ru. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  7. ^ "Новый KIA Rio 2020 - старт продаж в России". www.kia.ru. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  8. ^ "Hyundai KIA 1.0 MPi/T-GDi Engine (Kappa G3LA/G3LC) Review". Motor Reviewer.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "2020 Hyundai Verna review, test drive". Autocar India. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  10. ^ "우려가 현실로. 현대 경형 SUV 캐스퍼(AX1) 파워트레인 정보". 내 차 정보, 마이라이드 (in Korean). 2021-08-19. Retrieved 2021-09-01.
  11. ^ "Engine HYUNDAI i20 (GB, IB) 1.0 T-GDI G3LC; FP162115 | B-Parts". www.b-parts.com. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  12. ^ "Kia's new 1.0-liter turbocharged three-cylinder 'Kappa' engine – Car Engineer: Learn Automotive Engineering from Auto Engineers". Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  13. ^ Events, UKi Media & (2017-02-14). "Engines on test: Hyundai-Kia G3LC-6iL". Engine + Powertrain Technology International. Retrieved 2020-12-09.

See alsoEdit