Hydrolyzed protein is a solution derived from the hydrolysis of a protein into its component amino acids and peptides. While many means of achieving this exist, most common is prolonged heating with hydrochloric acid,[1] sometimes with an enzyme such as pancreatic protease to simulate the naturally occurring hydrolytic process.

Uses edit

Protein hydrolysis is a useful route to the isolation of individual amino acids.[1][2] Examples include cystine from hydrolysis of hair,[3] tryptophane from casein,[4] histidine from red blood cells,[5] and arginine from gelatin.[6]

Common hydrolyzed products used in food are hydrolyzed vegetable protein and yeast extract, which are used as flavor enhancers because the hydrolysis of the protein produces free glutamic acid. Some hydrolyzed beef protein powders are used for specialized diets.[7]

Protein hydrolysis can be used to modify the allergenic properties of infant formula. Reducing the size of cow milk proteins in the formula makes it more suitable for consumption by babies suffering from milk protein intolerance. The US FDA has approved a label for this usage of partially-hydrolyzed proteins in 2017,[8] but a meta-analysis published the same year shows insufficient evidence for this use.[9]

Hydrolyzed protein is also used in certain specially formulated hypoallergenic pet foods, notably dog foods for dogs and puppies that suffer from allergies caused by certain protein types in standard commercial dog food brands. The protein contents of the foods are split into peptides which reduces the likelihood for an animal's immune system recognizing an allergic threat. Hydrolyzed protein diets for cats are often recommended for felines with food allergies and certain types of digestive issues.[10]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b Drauz, Karlheinz; Grayson, Ian; Kleemann, Axel; Krimmer, Hans-Peter; Leuchtenberger, Wolfgang; Weckbecker, Christoph (2006). "Amino Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_057.pub2. ISBN 978-3527306732.
  2. ^ Silverman, S.N.; Phillips, A.A.; Weiss, G.M.; Wilkes, E.B.; Eiler, J.M.; Sessions, A.L. (2022). "Practical considerations for amino acid isotope analysis". Organic Geochemistry. 164: 104345. Bibcode:2022OrGeo.16404345S. doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2021.104345. S2CID 245556854.
  3. ^ Gortner, R. A.; Hoffman, W. F. (1925). "l-Cystine". Organic Syntheses. 5: 39. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.005.0039.
  4. ^ Cox, G.J.; King, H. (1930). "L-Tryptophane". Org. Synth. 10: 100. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.010.0100.
  5. ^ Foster, G. L.; Shemin, D. (1938). "L-Histidine Monohydrochloride". Organic Syntheses. 18: 43. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.018.0043.
  6. ^ Brand, E.; Sandberg, M. (1932). "d-Arginine Hydrochloride". Org. Synth. 12: 4. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.012.0004.
  7. ^ Sharp, Matthew; Shields, Kevin; Lowery, Ryan; Lane, Jason; Partl, Jeremy; Holmer, Chase; Minevich, Julie; Souza, Eduardo De; Wilson, Jacob (September 21, 2015). "The effects of beef protein isolate and whey protein isolate supplementation on lean mass and strength in resistance trained individuals - a double blind, placebo controlled study". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 12 (Suppl 1): P11. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P11. PMC 4595383.
  8. ^ Labeling of Infant Formula: Guidance for Industry U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2016) Accessed 11 December 2017.
  9. ^ Boyle RJ, Ierodiakonou D, Khan T, Chivinge J, Robinson Z, Geoghegan N, Jarrold K, Afxentiou T, Reeves T, Cunha S, Trivella M, Garcia-Larsen V, Leonardi-Bee J (March 2016). "Hydrolysed formula and risk of allergic or autoimmune disease: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 352: i974. doi:10.1136/bmj.i974. PMC 4783517. PMID 26956579.
  10. ^ Cave, Nicholas J. (November 2006). "Hydrolyzed Protein Diets for Dogs and Cats". Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 36 (6): 1251–1268. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2006.08.008. PMID 17085233.