Hupa (native name: Na꞉tinixwe Mixine꞉wheʼ, lit. "language of the Hoopa Valley people") is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken along the lower course of the Trinity River in Northwestern California by the Hupa (Na꞉tinixwe) and, before European contact, by the Chilula and Whilkut peoples, to the west.
|Native to||United States|
|Region||California (Hoopa Valley)|
|Ethnicity||2,000 Hupa (2007)|
|Revival||L2 users: 30 (2007)|
The 2000 US Census estimated the language to be spoken by 64 persons between the ages of 5 and 17, including 4 monolingual speakers. As of 2012, there are fewer than 10 individuals whose Hupa could be called fluent, at least one of whom (Verdena Parker) is a fully fluent bilingual. Perhaps another 50 individuals of all ages have restricted control of traditional Hupa phonology, grammar and lexicon. Beyond this, many tribal members share a small vocabulary of words and phrases of Hupa origin.
The consonants of Hupa in the standard orthography are listed below (with IPA notation in slashes):
|Nasal||m /m/||n /n/||ng /ŋ/|
|Stop||plain||b /p/||d /t/||g, gy1 /kʲ/||(G /k/)2||q /q/||ʼ /ʔ/|
|aspirated||t /tʰ/||k, ky1 /kʲʰ/||(K /kʰ/)2|
|ejective||tʼ /tʼ/||kʼ, kyʼ1 /kʲʼ/||(Kʼ /kʼ/)2||qʼ /qʼ/|
|Affricate||plain||dz /ts/||j /tʃ/|
|aspirated||ts /tsʰ/||chw /tʃʷʰ/|
|ejective||tsʼ /tsʼ/||tłʼ /tɬʼ/||chʼ /tʃʼ/||(chwʼ /tʃʷʼ/)3|
|Fricative||s /s/||ł /ɬ/||(sh /ʃ/)4||x /x/||xw /xʷ/||h /h/||wh /hʷ/|
|Approximant||w /w/||l /l/||y /j/|
Notes about the consonant system and how it is written:
- The palatal stops g, k, and kʼ are written gy, ky, and kyʼ before the letters a, o, and u.
- The velar stops G, K, and Kʼ have a limited distribution; G and K are only found in diminutive words.
- The sound chwʼ occurs mainly as a variant pronunciation of chw in some words.
- The sound sh is rare and occurs mainly in exclamations or loanwords.
|Close-mid||ɪ ~ e||o|
Vowels may be lengthened.
The Hupa alphabet is as follows:
Verb themes and classesEdit
As with other Dene languages, the Hupa verb is based around a theme. Melissa Axelrod has defined a theme as "the underlying skeleton of the verb to which prefixes or strings of prefixes or suffixal elements are added in producing an utterance. The theme itself has a meaning and is the basic unit of the Athabaskan verbal lexicon."  In addition to a verb stem, a typical theme consists of a classifier, one or more conjunct prefixes, and one or more disjunct prefixes.
According to Victor Golla (1970, 2001 and others), each Hupa theme falls into one of eight structural classes according to its potential for inflection, along the following three parameters: active vs. neuter, transitive vs. intransitive, and personal vs. impersonal. Golla (2001: 817)
1. Active themes are inflected for aspect-mode categories, while neuter themes are not. 2. Transitive themes are inflected for direct object, while intransitive themes are not. 3. Personal themes are inflected for subject, while impersonal themes are not.
Golla (2001: 818) presents examples of themes from each of the eight structural classes. Orthography has been changed to conform to the current accepted tribal orthography:
- Personal O-ƚ-me꞉n 'fill O'
- Impersonal no꞉=O-d-(n)-ƚ-tan' 'O gets used to something'
- Personal tsʼi-(w)-la꞉n/lan' 'play (at a rough sport)'
- Impersonal (s)-daw 'melt away disappear'
- Personal O-si-ƚ-ʼa꞉n 'have (a round object) lying'
- Impersonal O-wi-l-chwe꞉n 'O has been made, created'
- Personal di-n-chʼa꞉t 'ache, be sick'
- Impersonal kʼi-qots' 'there is a crackling sound'
As with other Dene languages, the Hupa verb is composed of a verb stem and a set of prefixes. The prefixes can be divided into a conjunct prefix set and disjunct prefix set. The disjunct prefixes occur on the outer left edge of the verb. The conjunct prefixes occur after the disjunct prefixes, closer to the verb stem. The two types of prefixes can be distinguished by their different phonological behavior. The prefix complex may be subdivided into 10 positions, modeled in the Athabaskanist literature as a template, as follows:
|3 subj||obj||thematic material||adv||distributive-
|1/2 subj||classifier (voice/valency marker)||verb stem|
Pronouns, pronominal inflectionEdit
Hupa verbs have pronominal (i.e., pronoun) prefixes that mark both subjects and objects. The prefixes can vary in certain modes, particularly the perfective mode (See e.g., Mode and Aspect for a discussion of modes in Navajo, a related Dene language). The prefixes vary according to person and number. The basic subject prefixes are listed in the table below:
Person/Number Subject Prefixes Object Prefixes Singular Plural Singular Plural First (1) -wh- -di- -wh- -noh- Second (2) ni- -oh- ni- Third animate (3) -chʼi- xo- Third obviative (3) yi- -Ø- Third indefinite (3) kʼi- -Ø- Third impersonal (areal-situational) -xo- -Ø- Reflexive – ʼa꞉di- Reciprocal – n- łi
The subject prefixes occur in two different positions. The first and second subject prefixes (-wh- (or allomorph -e꞉ ), -di-, -ni-, -oh-) occur in position 2, directly before the classifier (voice/valency) prefixes. The animate, obviative, indefinite and "areal-situational" subject prefixes (chʼi-, yi-, kʼi- and xo-) are known as "deictic subject pronouns" and occur in position 8.
The direct object prefixes occur in position 7.
The Hupa free personal subject pronouns are as follows:
|3sg||xong, min (low animacy)|
Golla (2001:865-6) notes that the 3rd person free pronouns are very rarely used, with demonstrative pronouns being used in their place.
-hay(i) < hay-i 'the one (who)' -hay-de꞉ < hay-de꞉-i 'the one here' (de꞉ 'here') -hay-de꞉d < hay-de꞉-d-i 'this one here' (de꞉-di 'this here') -hay-yo꞉w < hay-yo꞉w-i 'the one there (close)' (yo꞉wi 'there') -hay-ye꞉w < hay-ye꞉w-i 'the one in the distance' (ye꞉wi 'yonder')
- Hupa at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hupa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Golla (1960:25–34)
- Golla, 1996 http://humboldt-dspace.calstate.edu/bitstream/handle/2148/48/HupaLanguageDictionary.pdf?sequence=1
- Golla (1960:25)
- Golla (1996)
- Axelrod, M. 1993. _The Semantics of Time: Aspectual Categorizations in Koyukon Athabaskan_, p. 17. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
- Sapir, Edward & Victor Golla (2001). Hupa Texts, with Notes and Lexicon. In _The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, Victor Golla & Sean O'Neill (eds.), volume XIV_, 19-1011. Mouton de Gruyter.
- adapted from Campbell, Amy. (2007). Hupa Ditransitives and the Syntactic Status of R. Conference on Ditransitive Constructions. MPI-EVA, Leipzig.
- Campbell, Amy (2007). "Hupa ditransitives and the syntactic status of R" (PDF).
- Dixon, Roland Burrage; Samuel Alfred Barrett; Washington Matthews; Bill Ray (1910). The phonology of the Hupa language. The University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- Goddard, Pliny Earle (1904). "Hupa Texts".
- Goddard, Pliny Earle (1905). "The Morphology of the Hupa Language".
- Goddard, Pliny Earle (1907). "The Phonology of the Hupa Language".
- Golla, Victor (1970). "Hupa Grammar" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley.
- Golla, Victor (1996). "Hupa Language Dictionary Second Edition". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- Golla, Victor (2011). "California Indian Languages". University of California Press.
- Gordon, Matthew (2001). "Laryngeal Timing and Correspondence in Hupa" (PDF). UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics. 1.
- Gordon, Matthew. "The Phonetics and Phonology of Non-Modal Vowels: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective" (PDF).
- Gordon, Matthew; Luna, Edmundo. "An Intergenerational Study of Hupa Stress" (PDF).
- Pycha, Anne. "Morpheme Strength Relationships in Hupa, and Beyond" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-08.
- Sapir, Edward; Golla, Victor (2001). "Hupa Texts, with Notes and Lexicon. In _The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, Victor Golla & Sean O'Neill (eds.), volume XIV_, 19-1011. Mouton de Gruyter".