This article possibly contains original research. (March 2018)
Hunza (Burushaski: ہنزو, Wakhi: shina; Urdu: ہنزہ) is a mountainous valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. Hunza is situated in the northern part of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, bordering with Ishkoman to the northwest, Shigar to the southeast, Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor to north, and the Xinjiang region of China to the northeast.
|Area||11,660 km2 (4,500 sq mi)|
Buddhism, and to a lesser extent, Bön, were the main religions in the area. The region has a number of surviving Buddhist archaeological sites, such as the Sacred Rock of Hunza. Nearby are former sites of Buddhist shelters. Hunza valley was central as a trading route from Central Asia to the subcontinent. It also provided shelter to Buddhist missionaries and monks who were visiting the subcontinent, and the region played a major role in the transmission of Buddhism throughout Asia.
The region was Buddhist majority till the 15th century, before the arrival of Islam in this region. Since then, most of the population have converted to Islam. Thus, the presence of Buddhism in this region has now been limited to archeological sites, as the remaining Buddhists of this region moved east to Leh where Buddhism is the majority religion. The region has many works of graffiti in the ancient Brahmi script written on rocks, produced by Buddhist monks as a form of worship and culture. With the majority of locals converting to Islam, they had been left largely ignored, destroyed or forgotten, but are now being restored.
Hunza was formerly a princely state bordering Xinjiang (autonomous region of China) to the northeast and Pamir to the northwest, which survived until 1974, when it was finally dissolved by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The state bordered the Gilgit Agency to the south and the former princely state of Nagar to the east. The state capital was the town of Baltit (also known as Karimabad); another old settlement is Ganish Village which means "ancient gold" village. Hunza was an independent principality for more than 900 years until the British gained control of it and the neighboring valley of Nagar between 1889 and 1891 through military conquest. The then Tham (ruler), branch of Katur Dynasty, Safdar Khan of Hunza fled to Kashghar in China and sought what would now be called political asylum.
An account wrote by John Biddulph in his book Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh
The ruling family of Hunza is called Ayesha (heavenly). The two states of Hunza and Nagar were formerly one, ruled by a branch of the Shahreis, the ruling family of Gilgit, whose seat of government was Nagar. First [M]uslim came to Hunza-Nagar Valley some 1000 years (At the time of Imam Islām Shāh 30th Imam Ismaili Muslims). After the introduction of Islam to Gilgit, married a daughter of Trakhan of Gilgit, who bore him twin sons, named Moghlot and Girkis. From the former, the present ruling family of Nager is descended. The twins are said to have shown hostility to one another from birth. Thereupon their father, unable to settle the question of succession, divided his state between them, giving Girkis the north/west, and to Moghlot the south/east bank of the river.
On January 4, 2010, a landslide blocked the river and created Attabad Lake (also called Shishket Lake), resulting in 20 deaths and 8 injuries and effectively blocked about 26 kilometres (16 mi) of the Karakoram Highway. The new lake extends 30 kilometres (19 mi) and rose to a depth of 400 feet (120 m) when it was formed as the Hunza River backed up. The landslide completely covered sections of the Karakoram Highway.
This section is written like a manual or guidebook. (May 2021)
Hunza is one of the most exotic places in Pakistan. Several high peaks rise above 7,000 m in the surroundings of Hunza Valley. The valley provides views of several mountains, including:
Rakaposhi 7,788 m (25,551 ft), Ultar Sar 7,388 m (24,239 ft), Bojahagur Duanasir II 7,329 m (24,045 ft), Diran peak (7,266), Spantik (7027m), Ghenta Peak 7,090 m (15,631 ft), Hunza Peak 6,270 m (20,571 ft), Darmyani Peak 6,090 m (19,980 ft), and Bublimating (Ladyfinger Peak) 6,000 m (19,685 ft).
Many 7,000 m mountains are present in Hunza like Distaghil Sar, Batura, Batura II, Batura III, Muchu Chhish, Kunyang Chhish, shispare, Passu Sar, Kanjut Sar, Yukshin Gardan Sar, Pumari Chhish, Momhil Sar and many more.
The fairy-tale-like castle of Baltit, above Karimabad, is a Hunza landmark built about 800 years ago. Stilted on massive legs, its wooden bay windows look out over the valley. Originally, it was used the resistance of the Mirs (the title of the former rulers) of Hunza.
Hunza Valley is also host to the ancient watch towers in Ganish, Baltit Fort and Altit Fort. Watch towers are located in heart of Ganish Village. Baltit Fort stands on top of Karimabad whereas Altit Fort lies at the bottom of the valley. Dating back to the 8th century AD, a huge Buddha figure surrounded by small Buddhisatvas is carved on a rock. Pre-historic men and animal figures are carved on rocks along the valley. Some lakes like Attabad Lake, Borith Lake, Shimshal Lakes, Hassanabad Lake are located in Hunza.
Khunjerab Pass is a 4,693-meter-high mountain pass in the Karakoram Mountains. It is in a strategic position on the northern border of Pakistan and on the southwest border of China is also located in Hunza.
Eco-friendly hiking treks like Ondra Poygah Gulmit and Leopard Trek Shiskhat are also known for their views.
The valley is popularly believed to be the inspiration for the mythical valley of Shangri-La in James Hilton's 1933 novel, Lost Horizon
On the way, one can witness the 57 km long Batura Glacier, the fifth-longest glacier in the world outside the polar region, surrounded by Shispare, Batura and Kumpirdior peaks. Upon reaching Sost one can continue the journey up to Khunzhrav or turn west to the Chipursan (also Chapursan) Valley. In Yarzerech (also Yarzirich), one can have a look at Kundahill peak (6,000 m), or trek along the Rishepzhurav to the Kundahill. Beyond Yarzerech, one can travel further to Lupghar, Raminj, Reshit, Yishkuk up to Bobo Ghundi (Oston), the shrine of Baba-e-Ghund, a saint from Afghanistan near the border between Pakistan and the Wakhan region of Afghanistan
2018 rescue missionEdit
On 1 July 2018, Pakistan Army pilots, in a daring mission, rescued 3 foreign mountaineers stuck in snow avalanche at above the height of 19,000 feet (5,800 m) on Ultar Sar Peak near Hunza. The perilous weather conditions had made it difficult for the Army helicopter to go forth with a rescue operation on the 7,388 metres (24,239 ft) high Ultar Sar. Nonetheless, they completed it. Bruce Normand and Timothy Miller from the UK were successfully rescued alive while their companion Christian Huber from Austria had succumbed to avalanche. Britain's High Commissioner Thomas Drew in Pakistan termed the mission “remarkable and dangerous”.
The local languages spoken include Burushaski, Wakhi and Shina. The literacy rate of the Hunza valley is more than 95%. The historical area of Hunza and present northern Pakistan has had, over the centuries, mass migrations, conflicts and resettling of tribes and ethnicities, of which the Dardic Shina race is the most prominent in regional history. People of the region have recounted their historical traditions down the generations. The Hunza Valley is also home to some Wakhi, who migrated there from northeastern Afghanistan beginning in the nineteenth century onwards.
The longevity of Hunza people has been noted by some, but others refute this as a longevity myth caused by the lack of birth records. There is no evidence that Hunza life expectancy is significantly above the average of poor, isolated regions of Pakistan. Claims of health and long life were almost always based solely on the statements by the local mir (king). An author who had significant and sustained contact with Burusho people, John Clark, reported that they were overall unhealthy.
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