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Peterson was born near Ailey, Georgia in 1898 and attended the Brewton Parker Institute in Mount Vernon, Georgia and the University of Georgia in Athens. He studied law, gained admission to the state bar in 1921 and began the practice of law in Mount Vernon. In 1922, Peterson served as the Mayor.
From 1923 through 1931, Peterson served in the Georgia House of Representatives. In 1931, he became a state Senator and served in that position until 1932. In 1934, Peterson was elected to the 74th United States Congress as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives representing Georgia's 1st congressional district. He served five additional terms in that seat until losing his re-election campaign in 1946.
After his congressional service, Peterson returned to Ailey to practice law. He died on October 3, 1961, in Sylva, North Carolina and was buried in the Peterson family plot in Ailey.
- United States Congress. "Hugh Peterson (id: P000260)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
|U.S. House of Representatives|
Homer Cling Parker
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 1st congressional district
January 3, 1935 – January 3, 1947
Prince Hulon Preston Jr.
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