Huang Hua (activist)

Huang Hua (Chinese: 黃華; born 16 August 1939)[1] is a Taiwanese activist. He was repeatedly jailed for advocating Taiwanese independence and democratization. Huang spent over twenty years in prison and was named a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International.

Huang Hua
黃華
Born (1939-08-16) 16 August 1939 (age 82)
NationalityEmpire of Japan (until 1945)
Republic of China (since 1945)
Political partyDemocratic Progressive Party (until 2005)
Taiwan Solidarity Union (after 2005)
Taiwanese National Party (since 2011)
Spouse(s)Wu Pao-yu

ActivismEdit

A native of Keelung born in 1939,[2][3] Huang worked with Lei Chen in 1960 to form a political party, the China Democratic Party, with several others.[4][5] As Taiwan was under martial law at the time, the pair's actions were illegal.[6][7] Huang contested the Keelung City Council election of 1963, but was arrested before completing registration, and jailed for two and a half years.[3][4] In 1967, Huang cofounded the Society to Promote the Unity of Taiwanese Youth, and was charged with sedition. Sentenced to ten years imprisonment, he was granted amnesty in 1975.[4] Huang then worked for Kuo Yu-hsin [zh] and the tangwai publication Taiwan Political Review, run by Kang Ning-hsiang.[4] Though Kang asked him to carefully consider his involvement, Huang joined the Review in December 1975, as a deputy editor.[8] Soon after the Review was suspended, Huang opened a noodle shop with Chang Chun-hung.[9] In July 1976, Huang was arrested for his writings in the Review.[10] During his third prison term, Huang was designated a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International.[11][12] His mother died in February 1984,[4] and Huang was prohibited from leaving Green Island to attend her funeral, held the next month.[13] Huang began a hunger strike in April 1985, to show solidarity with fellow political prisoner Shih Ming-teh.[12][14][15] Though it was reported that Huang began eating in August, he chose to continue his protest in September.[16] Huang was moved to Jen-ai Prison in 1986.[2]

After Huang was paroled in 1987,[17] he joined the Association of Political Prisoners.[18] Later, Huang organized a nationwide march for independence in November 1988.[19] The following year, Huang formally founded the New Nation Alliance, linked to a movement of the same name.[20][21] He was barred from contesting the 1989 legislative elections because limitations on his civil rights were still in effect.[22] For his association with the New Nation movement, Huang was convicted of sedition by the Taiwan High Court shortly after the elections were held.[23] Subsequently, backed by the Democratic Progressive Party,[24][25] Huang Hua declared his candidacy for the presidency,[23] a symbolic move and violation of electoral law,[23][26] as the president of the Republic of China was selected by the National Assembly, not directly elected by popular vote. President Lee Teng-hui fully restored Huang's civil rights in May 1990.[27] Despite Lee's action, Huang was arrested after attending the funeral of Liu Wen-hsiung in November.[28][29] Huang was sentenced to another ten years in prison,[25] and did not appeal.[28] He was not considered for amnesty in January 1991.[26][28] His continued imprisonment was described by United States Senators Ted Kennedy, Claiborne Pell, Joe Lieberman, John Kerry, and Paul Wellstone as a "serious setback" to Taiwan's democratization in a letter to Lee Teng-hui.[30] Lin Tsung-kuang nominated Huang for the Nobel Peace Prize later that month, and a march protesting Huang's imprisonment was held in February.[30] By May, Huang had become Taiwan's final political prisoner.[26] After Huang's imprisonment came to international attention, the Legislative Yuan began discussing revisions to Article 100 [zh] of the Criminal Code [zh].[31] He remained in prison through the National Assembly elections held in December 1991.[32] After Article 100 of the Criminal Code was amended in May 1992, Huang was released.[33][34]

 
Huang at Taipei Main Station on 15 June 2019, during his hunger strike.

Huang began fasting on 19 May 2019 in support of a petition advocating Taiwan independence. He called for small political parties and other political organizations to form a coalition and replace the Kuomintang as Taiwan's second major party.[35][36] During his hunger strike, Huang's conversion to Christianity was overseen by a Presbyterian Church in Taiwan official.[37] Supporters of Huang's hunger strike included several former members of the Democratic Progressive Party, who called for a new political party advocating Taiwan independence to be established.[38] Huang ended his hunger strike after 52 days, and agreed to go to the hospital on 9 July 2019.[39]

Later political careerEdit

Huang served in the presidential administration of Chen Shui-bian as a national policy adviser.[40] He also assumed the chairmanship of the Taiwan-Mongolia Exchange Association.[41][42] In 2005, he left the Democratic Progressive Party for the Taiwan Solidarity Union.[43] Upon the founding of the Taiwan National Party [zh] in July 2011, Huang served as its first chairman.[44][45] Under his leadership, the TNP nominated its founder Chang Mung-hsieh as presidential candidate for the 2012 elections,[46] and joined with other civic organizations to sue the Supreme Prosecutors’ Office Special Investigation Panel.[47] Huang was succeeded by acting chairman Kao Chin-lang before Tsai Chin-lung took office in 2013.[48]

Personal lifeEdit

Huang's wife Wu Pao-yu served on the Taoyuan County Council.[25][49]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://tw.academiaformosa.com/content/黃華-主席
  2. ^ a b "Prison Report: Fourteen political prisoners transferred from Green Island" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 27: 13. October 1986. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Taiwan: Huang Hua". Index on Censorship. 13 (4): 38. 1 August 1984. doi:10.1080/03064228408533762. S2CID 220929939.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Huang Hua: profile of an imprisoned writer" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 15: 18–21. April 1984. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  5. ^ Han Cheung (24 June 2018). "Taiwan in Time: A phoenix among dragons". Taipei Times. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  6. ^ Seymour, James D. (January 1988). "Taiwan in 1987: A Year of Political Bombshells". Asian Survey. 28 (1): 71–77. doi:10.2307/2644874. JSTOR 2644874.
  7. ^ "Taiwan ends Martial Law after 38 Years but ... no dancing in the streets" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 31: 1–6. September 1987. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Huang Hua: a peaceful reformer" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 21: 2–3. August 1985. ISSN 1027-3999.
  9. ^ "Chang Chün-hung: Profile of an imprisoned editor" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 24. March 1986. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Huang Hua" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 20: 2. June 1985. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  11. ^ "Amnesty International's statement: Special Concerns of Amnesty International" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 12: 22. June 1983. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  12. ^ a b "Imprisoned Taiwanese opposition leaders on hunger strike" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 20: 2. June 1985. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Prison preport" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 18: 14. February 1985. ISSN 1027-3999.
  14. ^ "Hunger strike in prison continues" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 21: 2–3. August 1985. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  15. ^ "2 Taiwanese journalist said to conduct hunger strike". New York Times. 9 June 1985. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Prison Report: Hunger strike ends after five months" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 27. October 1985. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Yang Chin-hai and Chen Ming-chung released" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 30: 21. May 1987. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  18. ^ "No appeal by political prisoners allowed" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 31: 12. September 1987. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  19. ^ "The Independence Debate Goes On" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 37: 4–5. December 1988. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Report from Washington" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 41: 15. September 1989. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  21. ^ ""New Nation Alliance" Calls for Taiwan Independence" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 42: 5–6. November 1989. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Were the elections fair?" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 45: 7. January 1990. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  23. ^ a b c "Prison Report: Huang Hua Charged with "Sedition" for Advocating Independence" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 44: 18. April 1990. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  24. ^ Han Cheung (11 March 2018). "Taiwan in Time: Life after the Wild Lily". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  25. ^ a b c "Huang Hua Sentenced to Long Prison Term" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 48: 1–2. January 1991. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  26. ^ a b c Wachman, Alan (1994). Taiwan: National Identity and Democratization. M.E. Sharpe. p. 172. ISBN 9781563243981. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  27. ^ "Prison Report: Prominent Political Prisoners Released" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 45: 16. August 1990. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  28. ^ a b c "Campaign for prisoners of the month: Taiwan" (PDF). Amnesty International. March 1991. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Two well-known opposition figures arrested" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 47: 18–19. December 1990. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  30. ^ a b "International condemnation of Huang Hua's sentencing" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 49: 17–21. April 1991. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  31. ^ "Amnesty International Report". Amnesty International. 1991. p. 29. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  32. ^ Seymour, James D. (January 1992). "No "level playing field"" (PDF). Taiwan Communique. 53: 7. ISSN 1027-3999. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  33. ^ "Political Prisoners Released" (PDF). Taiwan Communiqué. 55: 16. June 1992.
  34. ^ "The Amnesty International Report". Amnesty International. 1992. p. 27. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  35. ^ Pan, Jason (28 June 2019). "DPP chair to make US visit, meets Huang Hua". Taipei Times. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  36. ^ Huang, Tzu-ti (30 June 2019). "Taiwan ex-political prisoner goes on hunger strike, calls for founding of 'independent state'". Taiwan News. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  37. ^ Ko Lai (9 July 2019). "Hunger striker into 52nd day for Taiwan Independence". Taiwan News. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  38. ^ DeAeth, Duncan (5 July 2019). "Disaffected DPP members call for new 'Taiwan-first' party to 'split the vote' in 2020". Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  39. ^ "Taiwan Independence activist halts hunger strike after 52 days". Taiwan News. 9 July 2019. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  40. ^ Chuang, Chi-ting (19 March 2001). "Independence activists urge support for Chen". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  41. ^ Ho, Jessie (14 August 2003). "Mongolia attracting capital, business". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  42. ^ "Mongolian cultural official dies from heart attack during visit to Taipei". Taipei Times. 6 November 2003. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  43. ^ Huang, Jewel (20 June 2005). "TSU, DPP alliance to be tested". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  44. ^ Wang, Chris (9 July 2011). "Pro-independence supporters announce establishment of new political party". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  45. ^ Wang, Chris (11 July 2011). "Nationalists form party for Taiwan". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  46. ^ Lee, Hsin-fang (13 September 2011). "Independent Huang drops out of presidential contest". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  47. ^ "TNP, groups file suit against SIP". Taipei Times. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  48. ^ Pan, Jason (3 September 2013). "TNP calls for more civil disobedience". Taipei Times. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
  49. ^ Chang, Rich; Mo, Yan-chih; Lu, Meggie; Cole, J. Michael (4 November 2008). "Protesters say measures recall the martial law era". Taipei Times. Retrieved 16 April 2018.