Hrіm-2, Grim, Grom or OTRK Sapsan (Ukrainian: ОТРК "Сапсан", lit.'peregrine falcon'),[1] also known as Operational-Tactical Missile System Hrim (Ukrainian: Оперативно-тактичний ракетний комплекс «Грім», romanizedOperatyvno-taktychnyi raketnyi kompleks "Hrim", lit.'thunder'), is a Ukrainian short-range ballistic missile system being developed by Pivdenne Design Office and A.M. Makarov Southern Machine-Building Plant, designed to combine the features of a tactical missile system and a multiple rocket launcher. The original Sapsan version of the missile, for Ukraine's own use, was to have a range of 500 kilometers.[2] The later Hrim-2 version, developed for export, has a range limited to 280 kilometers, in order to fall within the 300-kilometre limit set by the Missile Technology Control Regime, which seeks to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.[3]

Grim tactical missile 2.jpg
Scale model of Grom (Hrim) missile on display in 2016
TypeTactical ballistic missile
Place of originUkraine
Service history
In serviceNot announced
Used byUkrainian Ground Forces
Production history
ManufacturerPivdenne Design Office, YuMZ Pivdenmash, PMZ pavlovo, hartron Lorta
Warhead500 kg (1,100 lb)

EngineSingle-stage solid propellant
50 km (31 mi) – 400–500 km (250–310 mi)
Hrim-2 transporter erector launcher in rehearsal for parade in 2018


In 2006 the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine recognised the need for a missile system that would be better than Ukraine's aging Soviet Tochka-U, which had a maximum range of 120 km and could only be overhauled and upgraded by Russian companies. KB Pivdenne was given the task of developing a new missile designated the "Sapsan". The Ministry of Defence and Pivdenne agreed on operational requirements in September 2007. Funding for the project was halted in 2009–2010, following the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, then resumed in November 2011, albeit at a low amount, before being terminated in 2013.[4]

In 2011 arms dealers starting offering foreign customers a new missile system called "Hrim", and after two years, Pivdenne was contracted by an undisclosed country to develop the Hrim-2. In 2014, after the Russo-Ukrainian War had begun, Pivdenne proposed restarting the Sapsan project, utilising its experience developing the Hrim-2, with a view to having Sapsan ready for evaluation by 2018. The government agreed.[4]

Work on Hrim-2 was announced at the Arms and Security [uk] exhibition in Kyiv in 2014. In 2016 it was reported that Saudi Arabia had provided US$40 million for the research and development.[5][6] A photograph of the chassis of a Hrim-2 transporter erector launcher appeared in May 2017; each vehicle can carry and launch two missiles.[7] In April 2019 it was announced that two Hrim-2 prototypes had been produced, one for testing by Saudi Arabia and the other by the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Saudi Arabia expected to test their one later in 2019, with the system entering service in 2022.[8] Due to lack of funding from the Ukrainian government, the project was frozen in 2019 at the testing phase.[citation needed] In October 2020 it was announced that US$300 million was needed to complete the testing of Ukraine's prototype.[9] In February 2021 the Government decided to sign a contract to fund the production of a test battery consisting of two transporter erector launchers, two loading machines, and two control units (one for the battery commander and the other for the division commander).[10] In April the contract had still not been signed, but the Ministry of Defense hoped to do so in 2–3 months.[11]

Explosions at Saky airbase, NovofedorivkaEdit

Several large explosions occurred at Saky airbase at Novofedorivka in Russian-occupied Crimea, 220 km from the frontline, on 9 August 2022. The cause was unclear, but several media outlets discussed the possibility it was Hrim-2.[12]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Trevithick, Joseph; Rogoway, Tyler (9 August 2022). "Does Ukraine have a stash of domestically developed ballistic missiles?". The Warzone. The Drive.
  2. ^ Mikhnenko, Anton (26 April 2019). "Ukraine expands its missile capabilities". The Ukrainian Weekly. Eurasia Daily Monitor. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  3. ^ "Grom short-range ballistic missile (SRBM)".
  4. ^ a b Zghurets, Serhiy (14 February 2019). "A burst of "Thunder"". Defense Express. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  5. ^ "Ukraine unveils new Grom-2 short-range ballistic missile". Army Recognition. 3 January 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  6. ^ "Ukraine unveils new Hrim-2 short-range ballistic missile (photos, video)". UNIAN. 3 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Вражаючі фото вітчизняного ракетного комплексу "Грім-2"" [Impressive photos of the domestic missile complex "Hrim-2"]. (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Military Center. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  8. ^ "Виготовлено дослідний зразок ОТРК для випробувань ЗСУ" [A pilot sample of OTRK was produced for testing by the Armed Forces]. Ukrainian Military Pages (in Ukrainian). 22 April 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  9. ^ "На завершення випробувань ОТРК потрібно 300 млн доларів" [300 million dollars are needed to complete the OTRK tests]. (in Ukrainian). Ukrainian Military Center. 12 October 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  10. ^ "Міноборони цього року придбає дивізіон ОТРК «Сапсан»" [The Ministry of Defense will acquire the OTRK "Sapsan" battery this year]. Ukrainian Military Pages (in Ukrainian). 19 February 2021. Retrieved 28 November 2022.
  11. ^ "Олександр Миронюк: в 2021 році у війська буде поставлено понад 30 тисяч найменувань ОВТ" [Oleksandr Myronyuk: in 2021, more than 30,000 types of anti-terrorist weapons will be supplied to the military]. Defense Express. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  12. ^ "Explosion in Crimea: What weapons Ukraine might have used in the attack in Novofedorivka". 2022-08-10. Retrieved 2022-08-11.