Hranice (Přerov District)

Hranice (Czech pronunciation: [ˈɦraɲɪtsɛ]; German: Weißkirchen or Mährisch Weißkirchen) is a town in the Přerov District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 18,000 inhabitants. The historic town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone. The town is known for the Hranice Abyss.

Hranice
Perštejnské Square with the town hall
Perštejnské Square with the town hall
Flag of Hranice
Coat of arms of Hranice
Hranice is located in Czech Republic
Hranice
Hranice
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 49°33′9″N 17°46′6″E / 49.55250°N 17.76833°E / 49.55250; 17.76833Coordinates: 49°33′9″N 17°46′6″E / 49.55250°N 17.76833°E / 49.55250; 17.76833
Country Czech Republic
RegionOlomouc
DistrictPřerov
Founded12th century
Government
 • MayorJiří Kudláček
Area
 • Total49.78 km2 (19.22 sq mi)
Elevation
250 m (820 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total17,818
 • Density360/km2 (930/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal codes
753 01, 753 54, 753 61
Websitewww.mesto-hranice.cz

Administrative partsEdit

Villages of Drahotuše, Lhotka, Rybáře, Slavíč, Středolesí, Uhřínov, Valšovice and Velká are administrative parts of Hranice.

NameEdit

Hranice is sometimes informally called Hranice na Moravě ("Hranice in Moravia") to distinguish from other places with the same name. Hranice na Moravě name is also used in names of two railway stations.[2]

GeographyEdit

The deepest pit cave in the Czech Republic (473.5 m (1,553 ft)), Hranice Abyss, is located by the town. With a water depth of 404 m (1,325 ft), it is also the deepest flooded abyss in the world.[3]

The Bečva River flows through the municipal area.

HistoryEdit

 
Sink from the Kunz factory of Hranice in Zavratec, Slovenia

The first written mention of Hranice is in a falsificated document from 1169, according to the trusted sources Hranice already existed in the end of the 12th century. In 1276, Hranice became a town. From 1420s, the town became a property of Cimburk family, and from 1499 a property of Pernštejn family. In 16th and 17th centuries, the manor often changed owners.[4]

Until 1918, Hranice was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the district with the same name, one of the 34 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Moravia.[5] The German name only was used before 1867 (including Weiskirchen).[6]

In 1883,[7] Antonín Kunz[8] founded a company in Hranice for the repair and production of small farm machinery and then specialized in the production of windpumps and other pumps. The company became the largest factory for water pumps in Austria-Hungary. At the end of the 19th century, it also produced complete communal water systems (by 1912 it had done so for 1,056 towns and municipalities, as well as factories and large landowners). The Sigma Pumps company developed out of Kunz's company.[9]

In the days of Austria-Hungary,[10] in the interbellum Czechoslovakia,[11] and during the communist era[12] the city hosted a large military academy. Notable graduates include Archduke Wilhelm of Austria and Herman Potočnik.[10]

Jewish populationEdit

 
Jewish Cemetery
 
Last arcades house of the Jewish quarter

The first Jews came in 1611,[4] receiving in 1637 the right for a self-governed Jewish quarter, around the present Janáčkova street (renamed from Židovská street). Besides those 17 houses, they were not allowed to purchase houses elsewhere. The community reached a high 802 people in 1857 (13% of the entire town). They had a significant role in the development of Hranice's industry: a textile plant established in 1844 (the largest factory until the mid-20th century), and distilleries (1827, 1836).[13]

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18699,580—    
188010,395+8.5%
189011,183+7.6%
190011,299+1.0%
191012,306+8.9%
YearPop.±%
192112,511+1.7%
193014,368+14.8%
195014,997+4.4%
196114,033−6.4%
197015,338+9.3%
YearPop.±%
198017,634+15.0%
199119,507+10.6%
200119,670+0.8%
201118,397−6.5%
202117,818−3.1%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[14]

SightsEdit

 
Hranice Castle
 
Hranice Viaducts

Since 1992, the historic town centre is protected as an urban monument zone.[4]

The Hranice Castle was formerly a Gothic castle of Cimburk lords. In 16th–17th centuries it was rebuilt to the Renaissance style.[4] Today it serves as the town hall, museum and gallery.[15]

The most valuable technical monument are the Hranice Viaducts.

Notable peopleEdit

Twin towns – sister citiesEdit

Hranice is twinned with:[16]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
  2. ^ "Hranice na Moravě město - Příjezdy a odjezdy vlaků 2016 - ŽelPage [www.zelpage.cz]".
  3. ^ "Hranická propast" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  4. ^ a b c d "Historie města" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  5. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  6. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850–1864, by Edwin Mueller, 1961.
  7. ^ Bartoš, Josef. 1978. Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960: Okresy Přerov, Hranice, Kroměříž, vol. 6. Ostrava: Profil, p. 130.
  8. ^ The Kunz Mansion Archived 2013-02-10 at archive.today (in Czech)
  9. ^ Sigma Pumps website
  10. ^ a b Snyder, Timothy (28 September 2010). The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of a Habsburg Archduke. Basic Books, 2010. ISBN 978-0465018970. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  11. ^ White, Lewis M. (1991). On all fronts: Czechs and Slovaks in World War II. East European Monographs, 2000. ISBN 9780880334563. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
  12. ^ Gadourek, Ivan. "The Political Control of Czechoslovakia: Study in Social Control of a Soviet Satellite State", Kroese, 1953, p.72
  13. ^ Summary of Za krásami městské památkové zóny Hranice, texts published below the synagogue
  14. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Přerov" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 3–4.
  15. ^ "Zámek" (in Czech). Muzeum Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  16. ^ "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2020-08-29.

External linksEdit