Hranice (Přerov District)
Hranice (Czech pronunciation: [ˈɦraɲɪtsɛ]; German: Weißkirchen or Mährisch Weißkirchen) is a town in the Přerov District in the Olomouc Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 18,000 inhabitants. The historic town centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument zone. The town is known for the Hranice Abyss.
|• Mayor||Jiří Kudláček|
|• Total||49.78 km2 (19.22 sq mi)|
|Elevation||250 m (820 ft)|
|• Density||360/km2 (930/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
753 01, 753 54, 753 61
Villages of Drahotuše, Lhotka, Rybáře, Slavíč, Středolesí, Uhřínov, Valšovice and Velká are administrative parts of Hranice.
Hranice is sometimes informally called Hranice na Moravě ("Hranice in Moravia") to distinguish from other places with the same name. Hranice na Moravě name is also used in names of two railway stations.
The Bečva River flows through the municipal area.
The first written mention of Hranice is in a falsificated document from 1169, according to the trusted sources Hranice already existed in the end of the 12th century. In 1276, Hranice became a town. From 1420s, the town became a property of Cimburk family, and from 1499 a property of Pernštejn family. In 16th and 17th centuries, the manor often changed owners.
Until 1918, Hranice was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the district with the same name, one of the 34 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Moravia. The German name only was used before 1867 (including Weiskirchen).
In 1883, Antonín Kunz founded a company in Hranice for the repair and production of small farm machinery and then specialized in the production of windpumps and other pumps. The company became the largest factory for water pumps in Austria-Hungary. At the end of the 19th century, it also produced complete communal water systems (by 1912 it had done so for 1,056 towns and municipalities, as well as factories and large landowners). The Sigma Pumps company developed out of Kunz's company.
In the days of Austria-Hungary, in the interbellum Czechoslovakia, and during the communist era the city hosted a large military academy. Notable graduates include Archduke Wilhelm of Austria and Herman Potočnik.
The first Jews came in 1611, receiving in 1637 the right for a self-governed Jewish quarter, around the present Janáčkova street (renamed from Židovská street). Besides those 17 houses, they were not allowed to purchase houses elsewhere. The community reached a high 802 people in 1857 (13% of the entire town). They had a significant role in the development of Hranice's industry: a textile plant established in 1844 (the largest factory until the mid-20th century), and distilleries (1827, 1836).
|Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic|
The most valuable technical monument are the Hranice Viaducts.
- Daniel Strejc-Vetterus (1592–1669), priest of the Unity of the Brethren
- Aaron Chorin (1766–1844), Hungarian rabbi
- Baruch Placzek (1834–1922), rabbi and author
- Isidore Singer (1859–1939), author and editor
- Albert Kutal (1904–1976), historian
- Helmut Otto Hofer (1912–1989), Austrian anatomist and zoologist
- Jiří Brdečka (1917–1982), writer
- Dalibor Janda (born 1962), singer
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
- The Confusions of Young Törless, a novel based on experience in the Hranice military academy
- "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 2021-04-30.
- "Hranice na Moravě město - Příjezdy a odjezdy vlaků 2016 - ŽelPage [www.zelpage.cz]".
- "Hranická propast" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
- "Historie města" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
- Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
- Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850–1864, by Edwin Mueller, 1961.
- Bartoš, Josef. 1978. Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960: Okresy Přerov, Hranice, Kroměříž, vol. 6. Ostrava: Profil, p. 130.
- The Kunz Mansion Archived 2013-02-10 at archive.today (in Czech)
- Sigma Pumps website
- Snyder, Timothy (28 September 2010). The Red Prince: The Secret Lives of a Habsburg Archduke. Basic Books, 2010. ISBN 978-0465018970. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- White, Lewis M. (1991). On all fronts: Czechs and Slovaks in World War II. East European Monographs, 2000. ISBN 9780880334563. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
- Gadourek, Ivan. "The Political Control of Czechoslovakia: Study in Social Control of a Soviet Satellite State", Kroese, 1953, p.72
- Summary of Za krásami městské památkové zóny Hranice, texts published below the synagogue
- "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Přerov" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 2015-12-21. pp. 3–4.
- "Zámek" (in Czech). Muzeum Hranice. Retrieved 2021-05-31.
- "Partnerská města" (in Czech). Město Hranice. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hranice (Přerov District).|
- Official website (in Czech)