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Howell Edmunds Jackson (April 8, 1832 – August 8, 1895) was an American attorney, politician, and jurist. He served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, as a United States Senator from Tennessee and as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and the United States Circuit Courts for the Sixth Circuit. Jackson was the first to bring a law school graduate with him to serve as his secretary-clerk on the Supreme Court; that secretary-clerk was James Clark McReynolds, who would later also became a Supreme Court Justice.

Howell Edmunds Jackson
Justice Howell Jackson2.jpg
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
In office
February 18, 1893 – August 8, 1895
Appointed byBenjamin Harrison
Preceded byLucius Q. C. Lamar
Succeeded byRufus Wheeler Peckham
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
In office
June 16, 1891 – March 4, 1893
Appointed byoperation of law
Preceded bySeat established by 26 Stat. 826
Succeeded byHorace Harmon Lurton
Judge of the United States Circuit Courts for the Sixth Circuit
In office
April 12, 1886 – March 4, 1893
Appointed byGrover Cleveland
Preceded byJohn Baxter
Succeeded byHorace Harmon Lurton
United States Senator
from Tennessee
In office
March 4, 1881 – April 14, 1886
Preceded byJames E. Bailey
Succeeded byWashington C. Whitthorne
Member of the Tennessee House of Representatives
In office
1880-1881
Personal details
Born
Howell Edmunds Jackson

(1832-04-08)April 8, 1832
Paris, Tennessee
DiedAugust 8, 1895(1895-08-08) (aged 63)
Nashville, Tennessee
Resting placeMount Olivet Cemetery
Nashville, Tennessee
Political partyDemocratic
ResidenceNashville, Tennessee
EducationUniversity of Virginia
Union University (A.B.)
Cumberland School of Law (LL.B.)

Contents

Education and careerEdit

Born on April 8, 1832, in Paris, Henry County, Tennessee,[1] Jackson moved with his parents to Jackson, Tennessee in 1840.[2] He attended the University of Virginia, received an Artium Baccalaureus degree in classical studies in 1849 from West Tennessee College (now Union University in Jackson) and received a Bachelor of Laws in 1856 from Cumberland School of Law (then part of Cumberland University, now part of Samford University).[1] He was admitted to the bar and entered private practice in Jackson from 1856 to 1858.[1] He continued private practice in Memphis, Tennessee from 1855 to 1861.[1] He was a Receiver of Alien Property in West Tennessee for the Confederate States of America from 1861 to 1864.[1] He resumed private practice in Memphis from 1865 to 1874 and in Jackson from 1874 to 1880.[1] He was a Special Judge for the Court of Arbitration for Western Tennessee from 1875 to 1877.[1] He was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1880 to 1881.[1]

Congressional serviceEdit

Jackson was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1881, until April 14, 1886, when he resigned to accept a federal judicial post.[2]

Court of Appeals and Circuit Courts serviceEdit

Jackson was nominated by President Grover Cleveland on April 12, 1886, to a seat on the United States Circuit Courts for the Sixth Circuit vacated by Judge John Baxter.[1] He was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 12, 1886, and received his commission the same day.[1] Jackson was assigned by operation of law to additional and concurrent service on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit on June 16, 1891, to a new seat authorized by 26 Stat. 826 (Evarts Act).[1] His service terminated on March 4, 1893, due to his elevation to the Supreme Court.[1]

Supreme Court serviceEdit

Jackson was nominated by President Benjamin Harrison on February 2, 1893, to an Associate Justice seat on the Supreme Court of the United States vacated by Associate Justice Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II.[1] Having lost the 1892 presidential election to Grover Cleveland, Harrison chose to nominate Jackson, a Southern Democrat, in the hope of filling Lamar's vacancy before leaving office. Harrison chose Jackson partly due to the advice of Associate Justice Henry Billings Brown, who had befriended Jackson while serving as a district judge in Jackson's circuit.[3]

Jackson was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 18, 1893, and received his commission the same day.[1] He served as Circuit Justice for the Fifth Circuit from March 13, 1893, until April 1, 1894, and as Circuit Justice for the Sixth Circuit from April 2, 1894, until August 8, 1895.[1] His service terminated on August 8, 1895, due to his death at his mansion West Meade, located in Nashville, Tennessee.[1] He was interred in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Nashville.[2]

Notable clerkEdit

While in the United States Senate and later at the United States Supreme Court, Jackson employed James Clark McReynolds as his secretary. McReynolds continued in law and later gained appointment as a United States Supreme Court justice.[4]

HonorEdit

During World War II the Liberty ship SS Howell E. Jackson was built in Brunswick, Georgia, and named in his honor.[5]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Jackson, Howell Edmunds - Federal Judicial Center". www.fjc.gov.
  2. ^ a b c United States Congress. "Howell Edmunds Jackson (id: J000014)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  3. ^ Luxenberg, Steve (2019). Separate: The Story of Plessy v. Ferguson, and America's Journey from Slavery to Segregation. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 443–445. ISBN 9780393239379.
  4. ^ "James C. McReynolds". Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved March 21, 2012.
  5. ^ Williams, Greg H. (July 25, 2014). The Liberty Ships of World War II: A Record of the 2,710 Vessels and Their Builders, Operators and Namesakes, with a History of the Jeremiah O'Brien. McFarland. ISBN 1476617546. Retrieved December 9, 2017.

External linksEdit

U.S. Senate
Preceded by
James E. Bailey
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Tennessee
1881–1886
Served alongside: Isham G. Harris
Succeeded by
Washington C. Whitthorne
Legal offices
Preceded by
John Baxter
Judge of the United States Circuit Courts for the Sixth Circuit
1886–1893
Succeeded by
Horace Harmon Lurton
Preceded by
Seat established by 26 Stat. 826
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
1891–1893
Succeeded by
Horace Harmon Lurton
Preceded by
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
1893–1895
Succeeded by
Rufus W. Peckham