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The House of Representatives (Nepali: प्रतिनिधि सभा; Pratinidhi Sabha) is the lower house of the bicameral Federal parliament of Nepal, with the Upper house being the National Assembly.[2] Members of the House of Representatives are elected through a parallel voting system. They hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the International Convention Centre in Kathmandu.

House of Representatives

प्रतिनिधि सभा
Coat of arms or logo
Emblem of Nepal
Type
Type
Term limits
5 years
Leadership
Speaker
Krishna Bahadur Mahara, NCP
since 10 March 2018
Deputy Speaker
Shiva Maya Tumbahamphe, NCP
since 18 March, 2018
Leader of the House
Khadga Prasad Oli, NCP
since 4 March, 2018
Leader of the Opposition
Sher Bahadur Deuba, Nepali Congress
since 4 March, 2018
Structure
Seats275
Nepal House of Representatives May 2019.svg
Political groups
Government (191)

Opposition (84)

Elections
Mixed member majoritarian (165 members elected through First-past-the-post voting and 110 elected through proportional representation voting method
Last election
26 November and 7 December 2017
Next election
2022
Meeting place
Nepalese Constituent Assembly Building.jpg
International Convention Centre, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal
Website
hr.parliament.gov.np/np

The House has 275 members; 165 elected from single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting and 110 elected through proportional electoral system where voters vote for political parties, considering the whole country as a single election constituency.[3] The House of Representatives, unless dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, in a state of emergency, the term of the House of Representatives may be extended, not exceeding one year in accordance with federal law.

The current House of Representatives was elected in 2017 and its first meeting was held on 4 March 2018.[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

The House of Representatives was first provisioned by the "Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990", which replaced old panchayat system of parliament with bicameral parliament.[5] It consisted of 205 members directly elected from single member constituencies. It had five-year terms, but it could be dissolved by the King on the advice of the Prime Minister before the ending of its term.[6]

 
Front face of Pratinidhi Sabha Building
 
Pratinidhi Sabha building of Nepal (moderation of ancient Gallery Hall)

In 2002, the House of Representatives was dissolved by King Gyanendra on advice from The Prime Minister, Sher Bahadur Deuba, in May 2002 in order to hold new elections.[7] Elections could not take place due to the ongoing civil war, which eventually led King Gyanendra to stage a royal coup. Following the democracy movement of 2006, the King reinstated the earlier legislature.[8] On 15 January 2007, the House of Representatives was transformed into an Interim legislature. The Interim legislature consisted of members appointed by an agreement between the Seven Party Alliance and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).[9]

Parliament of Kingdom of Nepal (1959 - 1962)Edit

The constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 proclaimed on 12 February 1959 mentions Pratinidhi Sabha first as below:

There shall be a Parliament which shall consist of His Majesty and two Houses, to be known respectively as the Senate (Maha Sabha) and the Pratinidhi Sabha (House of Representatives). (Article No. 18, Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1959)[10]

The constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1959 lasted till 16 December 1962. On 16 December 1962 a new Constitution Constitution of Kingdom of Nepal, 1962 proclaimed and the parliament of the Kingdom of Nepal became unicameral.[11]

MembershipEdit

The composition and powers of the house are established by Parts 8 and 9 of the Constitution of Nepal.The qualifications for becoming a member of the House are laid out in Article 87 of the Constitution and House of Representatives Election Act, 2017. Members must be :

  • a citizen of Nepal
  • twenty five years or older on date of nomination
  • without a criminal offense conviction involving moral turpitude
  • not disqualified by any federal law
  • not hold any office of profit (paid by the government).[12]

In addition to this no member can be a member of both the House of Representatives and the National Assembly.

Vacation of seatEdit

The seat of a member of House of Representatives may be considered vacant in the following circumstances:[13]

  • if he or she resigns in writing to the Speaker or Chairperson,
  • if he or she does not meet the requirements under Article 91,
  • if his or her term of office expires or if the term of the House of Representatives expires,
  • if he or she remains absent from ten consecutive meetings without notification to the House,
  • if the party of which he or she was a member when elected provides notification in the manner set forth by law that he or she has abandoned the party.
  • if he or she dies.

Composition by provinceEdit

Elections for the House of RepresentativesEdit

Legislative Election Term
Start End
Nepalese legislative election, 1991 May 1991 August 1994[14]
Nepalese legislative election, 1994 October 1994 May 1999[15]
Nepalese legislative election, 1999 May 1999 May 2002[16]
Nepalese legislative election, 2017 March 2018

SpeakersEdit

Name Took office Left office Notes
Daman Nath Dhungana 1991 1994 [17][18]
Ram Chandra Poudel 1994 1999 [18]
Taranath Ranabhat August 1999 May 2002 [19][18]
Subash Chandra Nemwang 2013 2015 [18]
Onsari Gharti Magar 2015 2017
Krishna Bahadur Mahara 10 March 2018 Present

Number of members by partyEdit

List of current membersEdit

Constituency (PR if blank) Member Party
Aasha Kumari BK Nepal Communist Party
Kapilvastu 3 Abhisek Pratap Shah Nepali Congress
Sindhupalchok 1 Agni Prasad Sapkota Nepal Communist Party
Morang 4 Aman Lal Modi Nepal Communist Party
Sarlahi 4 Amresh Kumar Singh Nepali Congress
Amrita Agrahari Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Amrita Thapa Nepal Communist Party
Rautahat 1 Anil Kumar Jha Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Anjana Bisankhe Nepal Communist Party
Atahar Kamal Musalman Nepali Congress
Gorkha 2 Dr. Baburam Bhattarai Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Bahadur Singh Lama Nepali Congress
Bal Krishna Khand Nepali Congress
Rolpa 1 Barsha Man Pun Nepal Communist Party
Panchthar 1 Basanta Kumar Nembang Nepal Communist Party
Bajhang 1 Bhairab Bahadur Singh Nepal Communist Party
Morang 3 Bhanu Bhakta Dhakal Nepal Communist Party
Rupandehi 5 Bharat Kumar Shah Nepali Congress
Terathum 1 Bhawani Prasad Khapung Nepal Communist Party
Achham 1 Bhim Bahadur Rawal Nepal Communist Party
Kathmandu 6 Bhimshen Das Pradhan Nepali Congress
Dhading 1 Bhumi Tripathi Nepal Communist Party
Myagdi 1 Bhupendra Bahadur Thapa Nepal Communist Party
Sunsari 3 Bijay Kumar Gachhadhar Nepali Congress
Bijay Subba Nepal Communist Party
Parsa 2 Bimal Prasad Shrivastav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Bimala Biswokarma Nepal Communist Party
Bimala BK Nepal Communist Party
Bimala Nepali Nepali Congress
Bina Devi Budhathoki Magar Nepal Communist Party
Kanchanpur 1 Bina Magar Nepal Communist Party
Bina Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Binda Pandey Nepal Communist Party
Binod Kumar Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Makwanpur 2 Birodh Khatiwada Nepal Communist Party
Khotang 1 Bishal Bhattarai Nepal Communist Party
Rupandehi 2 Bishnu Prasad Poudel Nepal Communist Party
Bishnu Sharma Nepal Communist Party
Bodh Maya Yadav Nepal Communist Party
Kapilvastu 2 Brijesh Kumar Gupta Nepal Communist Party
Rupandehi 1 Chabilal Bishwokarma Nepal Communist Party
Humla 1 Chakka Bahadur Lama Independent
Kapilvastu 1 Chakrapani Khanal Nepal Communist Party
Chand Tara Kumari Nepal Communist Party
Chanda Chaudhary Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Saptari 3 Chandra Kanta Chaudhary Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Chitra Lekha Yadav Nepali Congress
Chuda Mani Khadka Nepal Communist Party
Palpa 1 Dal Bahadur Rana Nepal Communist Party
Baitadi 1 Damodar Bhandari Nepal Communist Party
Lamjung 1 Dev Prasad Gurung Nepal Communist Party
Rautahat 4 Dev Prasad Timilsena Nepali Congress
Baglung 2 Devendra Paudel Nepal Communist Party
Nawalparasi West 2 Devendra Raj Kandel Nepali Congress
Dolpa 1 Dhan Bahadur Buda Nepal Communist Party
Dharmashila Chapagain Nepal Communist Party
Surkhet 1 Dhurba Kumar Shahi Nepal Communist Party
Dil Kumari Nepal Communist Party
Dila Sangraula Nepali Congress
Dilendra Prasad Wadu Nepali Congress
Kanchanpur 3 Dipak Prakash Bhatta Nepal Communist Party
Divya Mani Rajbhandari Nepali Congress
Dulari Devi Khanga Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Kalikot 1 Durga Bahadur Rawat Nepal Communist Party
Durga BK Nepal Communist Party
Pyuthan 1 Durga Poudel Rastriya Janamorcha
Kathmandu 4 Gagan Kumar Thapa Nepali Congress
Jumla 1 Gajendra Bahadur Mahat Nepal Communist Party
Sindhuli 1 Ganesh Kumar Pahadi Nepal Communist Party
Darchula 1 Ganesh Singh Thagunna Nepal Communist Party
Kavrepalanchok 1 Ganga Bahadur Tamang Nepal Communist Party
Ganga Chaudhary (Satgauwa) Nepal Communist Party
Kailali 3 Gauri Shankar Chaudhary Nepal Communist Party
Morang 1 Ghanashyam Khatiwada Nepal Communist Party
Rupandehi 3 Ghanashyam Bhusal Nepal Communist Party
Mahottari 1 Giriraj Mani Pokharel Nepal Communist Party
Gulmi 2 Gokarna Raj Bista Nepal Communist Party
Kavrepalanchok 2 Gokul Prasad Baskota Nepal Communist Party
Goma Devkota Nepal Communist Party
Mugu 1 Gopal Bahadur Bam Nepal Communist Party
Gyan Kumari Chantyal Nepali Congress
Sunsari 4 Gyanendra Bahadur Karki Nepali Congress
Parsa 3 Hari Naryan Rauniyar Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Gorkha 1 Hari Raj Adhikari Nepal Communist Party
Sindhuli 2 Haribol Prasad Gajurel Nepal Communist Party
Solukhumbu 1 Hem Kumar Rai Nepal Communist Party
Dang 3 Hira Chandra KC Nepal Communist Party
Hira Gurung Nepali Congress
Nuwakot 1 Hit Bahadur Tamang Nepal Communist Party
Nawalparasi West 1 Hridayesh Tripathi Nepal Communist Party
Indu Sharma Nepal Communist Party
Bara 4 Iqbal Miya Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Kathmandu 5 Ishwor Pokharel Nepal Communist Party
Kaski 3 Jagat Bahadur Sunwar (Biswokarma) Nepal Communist Party
Rukum West 1 Janardhan Sharma Nepal Communist Party
Sunsari 1 Jay Kumar Rai Nepal Communist Party
Jayapuri Gharti Magar Nepal Communist Party
Jeep Tshering Lama Nepali Congress
Ilam 1 Jhala Nath Khanal Nepal Communist Party
Kailali 2 Jhapat Bahadur Rawal Nepal Communist Party
Kathmandu 8 Jeevan Ram Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Julie Kumari Mahato Nepal Communist Party
Kalila Khan Nepal Communist Party
Kalu Devi Biswokarma Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Kalyani Kumari Khadka Nepal Communist Party
Rukum East 1 Kamala Roka Nepal Communist Party
Karma Ghale Nepali Congress
Tanahu 2 Kedar Sigdel Nepal Communist Party
Kaski 1 Khagraj Adhikari Nepal Communist Party
Dhading 2 Khem Prasad Lohani Nepal Communist Party
Kishor Singh Rathore Nepali Congress
Jhapa 5 Khadga Prasad Oli Nepal Communist Party
Dang 2 Krishna Bahadur Mahara Nepal Communist Party
Kathmandu 3 Krishna Bahadur Rai Nepal Communist Party
Chitwan 2 Krishna Bhakta Pokharel Nepal Communist Party
Kathmandu 9 Krishna Gopal Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Tanahu 1 Krishna Kumar Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Lalitpur 2 Krishna Lal Maharjan Nepal Communist Party
Makwanpur 1 Krishna Prasad Dahal Nepal Communist Party
Kumari Meche Nepal Communist Party
Morang 6 Lal Babu Pandit Nepal Communist Party
Bajura 1 Lal Bahadur Thapa Nepal Communist Party
Lal Kaji Gurung Nepali Congress
Jhapa 4 Lal Prasad Sawa Limbu Nepal Communist Party
Parsa 4 Laxman Lal Karna Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Laxmi Kumari Chaudhary Nepal Communist Party
Laxmi Pariyar Sewa Nepali Congress
Kailali 4 Lekh Raj Bhatta Nepal Communist Party
Siraha 3 Lila Nath Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Kathmandu 2 Madhav Kumar Nepal Nepal Communist Party
Mahottari 3 Mahanta Thakur Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Mahendra Kumari Limbu Nepali Congress
Sarlahi 2 Mahendra Raya Yadav Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Bhaktapur 2 Mahesh Basnet Nepal Communist Party
Banke 1 Maheshwor Jung Ghatraj Nepal Communist Party
Maina Kumari Bhandari Nepal Communist Party
Man Bahadur Biswokarma Nepali Congress
Man Kumari GC Nepal Communist Party
Dang 1 Matmani Chaudhary Nepal Communist Party
Dhanusha 1 Matrika Prasad Yadav Nepal Communist Party
Maya Devi Neupane Nepal Communist Party
Meena Pandey Nepali Congress
Min Bahadur Biswokarma Nepali Congress
Mina Subba Nepali Congress
Minakshi Jha Nepali Congress
Morang 2 Minendra Prasad Rijal Nepali Congress
Rautahat 2 Mohammad Aftab Alam Nepali Congress
Banke 2 Mohammad Isthihyak Rae Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Rasuwa 1 Mohan Acharya Nepali Congress
Mohan Baniya Nepal Communist Party
Moti Lal Dugad Nepal Communist Party
Mukunda Neupane Nepal Communist Party
Nabina Lama Nepal Communist Party
Nagendra Kumar Rae Nepali Congress
Namita Kumari Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Banke 3 Nanda Lal Roka Chhetri Nepal Communist Party
Kanchanpur 2 Nar Bahadur Dhami Nepal Communist Party
Nar Maya Dhakal Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Kailali 5 Narad Muni Rana Nepal Communist Party
Udayapur 1 Dr. Narayan Khadka Nepali Congress
Nuwakot 2 Narayan Prasad Khatiwada Nepal Communist Party
Syangja 1 Narayan Prasad Marasini Nepal Communist Party
Surkhet 2 Navaraj Rawat Nepal Communist Party
Lalitpur 1 Nawaraj Silwal Nepal Communist Party
Nira Devi Jairu Nepal Communist Party
Nirjala Raut Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Niru Devi Pal Nepal Communist Party
Onasri Gharti Magar Nepal Communist Party
Jhapa 2 Pabitra Niraula (Kharel) Nepal Communist Party
Parbat 1 Padam Giri Nepal Communist Party
Syangja 2 Padma Kumari Aryal Nepal Communist Party
Padma Narayan Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Lalitpur 3 Pampha Bhushal Nepal Communist Party
Dolakha 1 Parbat Gurung Nepal Communist Party
Parvati Kumari Bisungkhe Nepal Communist Party
Parvati D.C. Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Manang 1 Polden Chopang Gurung Nepal Communist Party
Rautahat 3 Prabhu Shah Nepal Communist Party
Siraha 1 Pradip Giri Nepali Congress
Gulmi 1 Pradip Kumar Gyawali Nepal Communist Party
Parsa 1 Pradip Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Kathmandu 1 Prakash Man Singh Nepali Congress
Prakash Rasaili Snehi Nepali Congress
Pramila Rai Nepali Congress
Rupandehi 4 Pramod Kumar Yadav Nepali Congress
Sarlahi 1 Pramod Sah Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Doti 1 Prem Bahadur Ale Nepal Communist Party
Mustang 1 Prem Prasad Tulachan Nepal Communist Party
Bhaktapur 1 Prem Suwal Nepal Mazdoor Kisan Party
Chitwan 3 Puhspa Kamal Dahal Nepal Communist Party
Purna Kumari Subedi Nepal Communist Party
Pushpa Bhushal Gautam Nepali Congress
Dr. Puspha Kumari Karna Kayasta Nepal Communist Party
Dailekh 1 Rabindra Raj Sharma Nepal Communist Party
Radha Kumari Gyawali Nepal Communist Party
Dhanusha 4 Raghu Bir Mahaseth Nepal Communist Party
Dailekh 2 Raj Bahadur Buda Chhetri Nepal Communist Party
Siraha 4 Raj Kishor Yadav Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Kathmandu 10 Rajendra Kumar KC Nepali Congress
Dhankuta 1 Rajendra Kumar Rai Nepal Communist Party
Dhanusha 3 Rajendra Mahato Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Sankhuwasabha 1 Rajendra Prasad Gautam Nepal Communist Party
Jhapa 3 Rajendra Prasad Lingden Rastriya Prajatantra Party
Rajendra Prasad Shrestha Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Ram Bahadur Bista Nepali Congress
Kathmandu 7 Ram Bir Manandhar Nepal Communist Party
Jhapa 1 Ram Karki Nepal Communist Party
Ram Kumari Chaudhary Nepal Communist Party
Ram Kumari Jhankri Nepal Communist Party
Bara 2 Ram Sahaya Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Bara 3 Rambabu Kumar Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Sarlahi 3 Rameshwor Rai Yadav Nepal Communist Party
Rangmati Shah Nepali Congress
Rani Mandal Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Rekha Kumari Jha Nepal Communist Party
Rekha Sharma Nepal Communist Party
Renu Kumari Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Renuka Gurung Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Ruhi Naaj Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Samina Hussein Nepal Communist Party
Bardiya 1 Sanjaya Kumar Gautam Nepali Congress
Sanu Shiva Nepal Communist Party
Sarala Kumari Yadav Nepal Communist Party
Sarita Giri Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Sarita Kumari Giri Nepal Communist Party
Sarita Neupane Nepal Communist Party
Sarvat Aara Khanam Nepali Congress
Satya Narayan Khanal Nepali Congress
Satya Pahadi Nepal Communist Party
Seeta Devi Yadav Nepali Congress
Jajarkot 1 Shakti Bahadur Basnet Nepal Communist Party
Shanta Chaudhary Nepal Communist Party
Bardiya 2 Shanta Kumar Tharu Nepal Communist Party
Shanti Maya Tamang Parkhin Nepal Communist Party
Mahottari 2 Sharat Singh Bhandari Rastriya Janata Party Nepal
Nawalparasi East 1 Shashank Koirala Nepali Congress
Shashi Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Dadeldhura 1 Sher Bahadur Deuba Nepali Congress
Sindhupalchok 2 Sher Bahadur Tamang Nepal Communist Party
Morang 5 Shiva Kumar Mandal Nepal Communist Party
Dr. Shivamaya Tumbahamphe Nepal Communist Party
Ramechhap 1 Shyam Kumar Shrestha Nepal Communist Party
Sunsari 2 Sitaram Mahato Nepali Congress
Smriti Narayan Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Palpa 2 Som Prasad Pandey Nepal Communist Party
Ilam 2 Subash Chandra Nembang Nepal Communist Party
Bhojpur 1 Sudan Kirati Nepal Communist Party
Sujata Koirala Nepali Congress
Sujata Pariyar Nepali Congress
Sujita Shakya Nepal Communist Party
Mahottari 4 Surendra Kumar Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Chitwan 1 Surendra Prasad Pandey Nepal Communist Party
Siraha 2 Suresh Chandra Das Nepal Communist Party
Udayapur 2 Suresh Kumar Rai Nepal Communist Party
Surya Bahadur KC Nepali Congress
Saptari 1 Dr. Surya Narayan Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Baglung 1 Surya Prasad Pathak Nepal Communist Party
Saptari 4 Teju Lal Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Salyan 1 Tek Bahadur Basnet Nepal Communist Party
Tham Maya Thapa Magar Nepal Communist Party
Nawalparasi East 2 Til Bahadur Mahat Chhetri Nepal Communist Party
Tirtha Gautam Nepal Communist Party
Arghakhanchi 1 Top Bahadur Rayamajhi Nepal Communist Party
Tulsi Thapa Nepal Communist Party
Uma Regmi Nepali Congress
Dhanusha 2 Uma Shankar Aragriya Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Bara 1 Umakanta Chaudhary Nepali Congress
Umesh Shrestha Nepali Congress
Saptari 2 Upendra Yadav Samajbadi Party, Nepal
Achham 2 Yagya Bahadur Bogati Nepal Communist Party
Okhaldhunga 1 Yagya Raj Sunuwar Nepal Communist Party
Yashoda Gurung Subedi Nepal Communist Party
Taplejung 1 Yogesh Bhattarai Nepal Communist Party
Source: Election Commission of Nepal

Former MembersEdit

Constituency Date seat vacated Incumbent Party Cause
Kaski 2 27 February 2019 Rabindra Prasad Adhikari Nepal Communist Party Death[23]
Kailali 1 6 March 2019 Resham Lal Chaudhari Rastriya Janata Party Nepal Imprisoned for his part in the 2015 Tikapur incident[24]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ FSF-N to join NCP-led govt
  2. ^ "Nepal government in minority after Prachanda's party withdraws support". indiatvnews.com. 12 July 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2017. ... Dahal said the party decision has been conveyed to President Bidhya Devi Bhandari, Prime Minister Oli and Pratinidhi Sabha (Lower House of the Nepali Parliament) Speaker Onsari Gharti. But an official said the politically unstable nation's leader would not immediately resign.
  3. ^ Article 86 (2) Constitution of Nepal
  4. ^ "First meeting of House of Representatives concluded". The Himalayan Times. 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
  5. ^ http://archive.ipu.org/parline-e/reports/arc/2386_91.htm
  6. ^ "parliament". nepaldemocracy.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  7. ^ "Nepal king dissolves parliament". telegraph.co.uk. 21 May 2002. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  8. ^ "Nepal's king restores parliament". theguardian.com. 24 April 2006. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Legislative Branch Reform: Comprehensive Peace Agreement". peaceaccords.nd.edu. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  10. ^ "The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1959" (PDF). www.constitutionnet.org/vl/item/constitution-kingdom-nepal-1959. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Nepal-Salient Features of the New Constitution" (PDF). www.icwa.in. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  12. ^ "Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2015". constitutions.unwomen.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Constitution of Nepal". Constitute.
  14. ^ "Kingdom of Nepal: Parliamentary Elections, May 12, 1991". ifes.org. 31 May 1991. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  15. ^ "NEPAL Parliamentary Chamber: Pratinidhi Sabha ELECTIONS HELD IN 1994". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  16. ^ "NEPAL Parliamentary Chamber: Pratinidhi Sabha ELECTIONS HELD IN 1999". archive.ipu.org. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  17. ^ http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2017-11-03/dhungana-makes-a-comeback-to-politics-after-23-years.html
  18. ^ a b c d https://myrepublica.nagariknetwork.com/news/mps-back-ecs-proposal-of-providing-it-authority-to-announce-poll-dates/
  19. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1394997/Nepal-king-dissolves-parliament.html
  20. ^ "UML and Maoist Centre to form Nepal Communist Party tomorrow". 16 May 2018.
  21. ^ "Nepal: Left alliance unifies to form single party". www.aninews.in.
  22. ^ "Deuba elected NC PP leader". Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  23. ^ Bhandari, Rajneesh; Sharma, Bhadra (2019-02-27). "Nepal Helicopter Crash Kills 7, Including Tourism Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  24. ^ "Resham Chaudhary to lose lawmaker's position after Tikapur conviction – OnlineKhabar". Retrieved 2019-03-08.