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Hostile architecture

A Camden bench in London, a noted specific example of hostile design

Hostile architecture is an urban design trend in which public spaces are constructed or altered to discourage people from using them in a way not intended by the owner.[1] Hostile architecture is a subset of attempts to "design out crime" and "anti-social behavior".[2] Also known as defensive architecture, hostile design, unpleasant design, exclusionary design, or defensive urban design it is most typically associated with "anti-homeless spikes" — studs embedded in flat surfaces to make sleeping rough, uncomfortable, and impractical.[3][4] Other measures include sloped window sills to stop people sitting, benches with armrests positioned to stop people lying on them, and water sprinklers that "intermittently come on but aren't really watering anything."[5][6] Hostile architecture also seeks to deter skateboarding, littering, loitering, and public urination. Critics argue that such measures reinforce social divisions and create problems for all members of the public, especially seniors, people with disabilities, and children.[7]

Hostile architecture is often used in conjunction with sit-lie ordinances which critics argue criminalize homelessness.



Although the term "hostile architecture" is recent, the use of civil engineering to achieve social engineering is not: antecedents include 19th century "urine deflectors".[8][9] Its modern form is derived from design philosophy, Crime Prevention through Environmental Design which aims to prevent crime or protect property through three strategies: natural surveillance, natural access control, and territorial enforcement.[10] The Seattle Department of Transportation installed bicycle racks to prevent the homeless from camping.[11] A gas station in New Kensington, Pennsylvania installed blue lighting in their bathrooms that make it hard for drug users to find their veins.[12][13]

Critics of hostile architecture argue that it makes contrarianism impossible, that it replaces public spaces with commercial or "pseudo-public" spaces and uses architecture "to enforce social divisions".[14][15]

Creative responsesEdit

In 2003 Stéphane Argillet and Gilles Paté filmed Rest of the Fakir showing themselves attempting rest at examples of hostile design throughout Paris.[16]

In 2005 American artist Sarah Ross documented examples of hostile design throughout Los Angeles in her series Tempting Resistance. Her 2006 followup Archisuits created clothing designed to fit in the negative space of hostile design to allow for sleeping.[17]

In 2018 British artist Stuart Semple created a social media public awareness campaign encouraging the public to place identifying stickers on instances of hostile design in their environment.[18][19][20]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "hostile architecture". Macmillan Dictionary. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  2. ^ Design Council. "Design out crime" (PDF).
  3. ^ Omidi, Maryam (12 June 2014). "Anti-homeless spikes are just the latest in 'defensive urban architecture'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  4. ^ Andreou, Alex (18 February 2015). "Anti-homeless spikes: 'Sleeping rough opened my eyes to the city's barbed cruelty'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  5. ^ Quinn, Ben (13 June 2014). "Anti-homeless spikes are part of a wider phenomenon of 'hostile architecture'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  6. ^ Mills, Chris (21 February 2015). "How 'Defensive Architecture' Is Ruining Our Cities". Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  7. ^ Chellew, Cara (January 21, 2018). "#defensiveTO". #defensiveTO.
  8. ^ Swain, Frank (2 December 2013). "Secret city design tricks manipulate your behaviour". BBC.
  9. ^ Lee, Jackson (23 July 2013). "Urine Deflectors in Fleet Street". The Cat's Meat Shop. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  10. ^ Chellew, Cara (2016). "Design Paranoia". Ontario Planning Journal. 31 – via ResearchGate.
  11. ^ Groover, Heidi (19 December 2017). "Seattle Uses Bike Racks to Discourage Homeless Camping". The Stranger. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  12. ^ Watts, Amanda (December 7, 2017). "Gas station installs blue lights to combat drug use". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  13. ^ Crabtree, A.; Mercer, G.; Horan, R.; Grant, S.; Tan, T.; Buxton, J. A. (2013), "A qualitative study of the perceived effects of blue lights in washrooms on people who use injection drugs", Harm Reduction Journal, 10 (22): 22, doi:10.1186/1477-7517-10-22, PMC 3853159, PMID 24099145
  14. ^ Swain, Frank (5 December 2013). "Designing the Perfect Anti-Object". Medium. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  15. ^ Shea, Michael (5 August 2014). "On the frontline: The architectural policing of social boundaries". Discover Society. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  16. ^ pategilles (2009-12-20), the fakir's rest, retrieved 2018-11-20
  17. ^ "/\SARAH ROSS/\". Retrieved 2018-11-20.
  18. ^ "Hostile Architecture: 'Design Crimes' Campaign Gets Bars Removed from Benches - 99% Invisible". 99% Invisible. Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  19. ^ "Stuart Semple launches campaign to eradicate 'hostile design' around the world". Retrieved 2018-02-15.
  20. ^ "Artist Launches Campaign to Call Out Hostile Urban Design". Hyperallergic. 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-02-15.

External linksEdit