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A Greek hoplite, armed with spear and shield

Hoplology is a science that studies human combative behavior and performance.

Etymology and history of the termEdit

The word hoplology is derived from the Greek terms hoplos (a mythical plate-armored animal) and ὅπλον hóplon, a wooden shield carried by some warriors in ancient Greece. The word hoplite, derived from hoplon, is the term for the classical Greek warrior who carried such a shield. The field originates in the 19th century with Sir Richard Burton; although the origin of the word is often attributed to Burton, there are earlier references to it.[1] Despite the work of Burton and a few others, it was not until the 1960s that hoplology took shape as an academic field of study under the leadership of Donn F. Draeger.[1]

Hoplology was at some time defined as the science of "arms and weapons of offense and defence, human and bestial" (Burton, 1884),[2] and subsequently as "the study of the basis, patterns, relationships, and significances of combative behavior at all levels of social complexity" (Draeger, 1982).[3]

Sid Campbell, a black belt level, tenth dan-ranked in karate, defines hoplology as "the study of the evolution and development of human combatitive behaviour and performance ... the study of how people fight, why they fight, and how different cultures manifest those behaviours."[4]

The International Hoplology SocietyEdit

Founded by Major Donn F. Draeger (USMC Ret.) (1922-1982), the International Hoplology Society ("IHS") exists to study the evolution and development of human combative behavior. Draeger had prior research and personal experience of classical fighting systems.

Draeger's student and colleague, Hunter B. Armstrong, carries on the hoplological tradition as director of IHS. He is a leading authority on combative behavior and performance. He has trained in numerous Asian and Western martial arts from a young age. He has spent a lifetime studying hoplology and related areas, including functional conditioning for combat. He currently trains military and law enforcement around the world in these areas. He works closely with military and law enforcement, and has been central to the most recent recreation of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP).

In recent years, with the advent of the Modern Army Combatives (MAC) Program in the US Army and the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), there has been a rapid growth in both scientific and academic research. With Matt Larsen, the father of the MAC program, as a catalyst, research departments are growing at universities across the United States. One of the first such programs was at Kansas State University; the program is currently defunct.[5]


Hoplology encompasses the segment of human culture concerned with weapons, armor, combative accoutrements and fighting systems, in regard to their technical characteristics and the ways in which they interact with the economic, political, social and religious institutions of human societies, and has three main research areas: technological, functional, and behavioral.

  • Technological hoplology studies the development of weapons, armor, and other combative tools in relation to the contexts in which they are created.
  • Functional hoplology delves into the structure, development, and organization of combative systems and their relationship to the application of fighting and weapons.
  • Behavioral hoplology encompasses the psychological and physiological factors that affect human’s combative behavior and development of combative capabilities such as weapons or fighting systems. The broad subject range of behavioral hoplology means it also includes the effects that culture has had on man’s evolution as a group-social animal.

There are three widely accepted axioms in hoplological studies.[3]

  • human combative behavior is rooted in man’s evolution.
  • humans exhibit two types of aggression: affective aggression and predatory aggression. Both forms evolved from different survival needs as both a group-social animal and as a hunting animal.
  • the evolution of human combative behavior is directly linked to the use of weapons. That is to say that the use of weapons is linked with and reflects combative performance and behavior.

A variation on the pragmatics of hoplological understanding is found in theatrical representations of combat.[6] While hoplology is still in its infancy, it has become an accepted area of study by scholars in several related disciplines such as combative psychology, killology, anthropology, and military history.

The hoplological view on violenceEdit

The entrenched nature of violence in human behavior is generally well understood. The skill and potential of deadly aggression is something within human genetics which predisposes humans to violent behavior. However, the genetics that predispose humans to violence is highly influenced by environmental factors. Humans will only tap into their violent potential once the need has arisen. Human genetics have developed an on-off switch in the brain. On the on side "…the fighting activity itself is stimulated by individual and communal thrill, enjoyment in the competitive exercise of spiritual and physical faculties, and even cruelty, blood lust, and killing ecstasy." (Gat 2006) On the off-side violence is deterred away by emotions through fear, revulsion at violence and bloodshed, physical fatigue, compassion, and spirituality. So if the environmental factors that cause a man to be violent are present, then he will be violent. If the environmental factors that cause a man to be violent are not present, he will abstain and deter violence.[7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Wiley, Mark V. "Hoplology and Combative Culture: Part 1". The International Hoplology Society. Retrieved 2009-03-07.
  2. ^ Richard Francis Burton - The Book of the Sword: A History of Daggers, Sabers, and Scimitars from Ancient Times to the Modern Day - 7th page of Chapter 1 - Preamble: on the Origin of Weapons published by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. 20 November 2013, 336 pages, ISBN 1628738472 [Retrieved 2015-07-27]
  3. ^ a b International Hoplology Society - home-page published by the International Hoplology Society, Inc. 1998-2007
  4. ^ Sid Campbell - Warrior Arts and Weapons of Ancient Hawai'i Blue Snake Books 2006, 266 pages, ISBN 1583941606 [Retrieved 2015-07-30]
  5. ^ The Collegian - Modern combatives program cancelled due to budget concerns published by The Collegian Feb 23, 2010
  6. ^ Langsner, Meron (2006). "Chapter 10. Theatre Hoplology: simulations and representations of violence on the stage". In Constantinidi, Stratos E. (ed.). Text & Presentation. McFarland. p. 112. ISBN 0786455411.
  7. ^ Gat, Azar. War in Human Civilization. New York: Oxford UP, USA, 2006. Print

Further readingEdit

  • Draeger, Donn F. (1979). An Introduction to Hoplology: Part I of II, Hoplos 1:1
  • Draeger, Donn F. (1979). An Introduction to Hoplology: Part II of II, Hoplos 1:2
  • Draeger, Donn F. (1982). The Hoplological Glossary, Hoplos 4:1

External linksEdit