Hongdu JL-8

The Hongdu JL-8 (Nanchang JL-8), also known as the Karakorum-8 or K-8 for short, is a two-seat intermediate jet trainer and a light attack aircraft designed in the People's Republic of China by China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation. Pakistan is also the co-Partner of this project. The primary contractor is the Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation. Its export variant, K-8 Karakorum is co-produced by the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex for the Pakistan Air Force[citation needed].

Pakistan airforce K8.jpg
A K-8 of the Pakistan Air Force aerobatics team, Sherdils, takes off during the Zhuhai Air Show 2010 in China.
Role Jet trainer
Light attack
Manufacturer Hongdu Aviation Industry Corporation
Pakistan Aeronautical Complex
First flight 21 November 1990
Introduction 21 September 1994
Status Operational
Primary users PLA Air Force
Bangladesh Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
Egyptian Air Force
Myanmar Air Force
Produced 1990-present
Number built 500+[1]
Unit cost
US$10 million[2]


The JL-8 trainer was proposed as a joint cooperation effort between the governments of Pakistan and the People's Republic of China in 1986. The name was changed on the suggestion of Pakistan's then President Zia ul Haq to Karakoram-8 to represent the friendship between the two countries. Work on the design started in 1987 at Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Company (NAMC) at Nanchang, Jiangshi Province in South Central China. The Chinese chief designer of the aircraft was Shi Ping (石屏), heading a team of over 100 Chinese Engineers, while Air Cdr Muhammad Younas Tbt (M), SI(M) was the chief designer from the Pakistani side leading a team of over 20 Pakistani engineers.

Initially, the aircraft was to feature many parts manufactured in the United States, including Garrett TFE-731 engine and several cockpit displays along with communication and avionics systems, but due to political developments and an embargo from the US at the end of the 1980s following the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, other suppliers had to be used. The first prototype was built in 1989, with the first flight taking place on 21 November 1990 by Chief Test Pilot Col Yang Yao (杨耀). Flight testing continued from 1991 to 1993 by a Flight Test Team consisting of four Chinese and two Pakistani pilots.

After four prototypes were built, production of a small batch of 24 aircraft was launched in 1992. The Chinese share out of these was 18, while the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) received six K-8s in 1994. In 1995, the PAF decided to order 75 more K-8s to gradually replace its fleet of Cessna T-37 Tweet basic trainers. In 2010, the number of K-8 aircraft in the PAF inventory was estimated to be around 40. The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) received its first six JL-8 trainers in 1995 following additional upgrades. The Chinese model uses a Chinese-manufactured version of the Ukrainian Ivchenko AI-25 (DV-2) engine, designated WS-11. The PLAAF is anticipated to continue adding the JL-8 trainer to its fleet to replace its obsolete trainers, such as the Chengdu JJ-5. In 2008, the number of JL-8s in PLAAF inventory was estimated to be over 120 aircraft.

Other countries have shown interest in the trainer and it now also serves in the air forces of Egypt, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. While the type primarily serves as a basic and advanced trainer, it can also be used in the close air support or even air combat role when appropriately armed.

The export-variant K-8 Karakorum Basic Common Advanced Jet Trainer is co-produced by China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation (CATIC) for export markets other than Pakistan, while later aircraft for Pakistan have been built by the Aircraft Manufacturing Factory (AMF), Pakistan Aeronautical Complex. The latest export variant is the K-8P version, which currently is operated by the PAF. The K-8P has an advanced avionics package of integrated head-up display (HUD), multi-function displays (MFDs) and comes equipped with MFD-integrated GPS and ILS/TACAN systems. It also features hardpoints for carrying a variety of training and operational bombs up to 250 kg, pod mounted 23 mm cannon as well as PL-5 / 7 /AIM-9 P launchers. In September 2011, NAMC rolled out another 12 K-8P for an undisclosed foreign client.[3]

In 2008 Venezuela announced the purchase of 18 K-8 aircraft. The K-8 has been marketed by China to the air forces of the Philippines[citation needed], and to Indonesia, as a replacement for Indonesia's BAE Hawk jet trainers.[4] In 2009, the Bolivian government approved a deal to purchase 6 K-8P aircraft for use in anti-drug operations.[5] In 2010 the total number of K-8 aircraft produced in all variants was estimated to be more than 500, with a continual production rate of approximately 24 aircraft per year.


A K-8 of the Bolivian Air Force.
A K-8 of the Bolivian Air Force.

The JL-8 / K-8 has a multi-role capability for training and, with little modification, can also be used for airfield defense. The aircraft is supposed to be as cost-effective as possible, with a short turn-around time and low maintenance requirements. The JL-8 for the domestic Chinese market and its export variants, K-8E and K-8P, have different powerplants and avionics.

Airframe and flight control systemEdit

A low-wing monoplane design primarily constructed of aluminum alloys, the JL-8 / K-8 airframe structure is designed for an 8,000 flight hour service life.

The landing gear is of tricycle configuration, with hydraulically operated wheel brakes and nose-wheel steering.

The flight control system operates a set of conventional flight control surfaces with a rigid push-rod transmission system, which itself is electrically or hydraulically operated. The aileron control system, of irreversible servo-control type, is composed of a hydraulic booster, an artificial-feel device, a feel trim actuator and a rigid push-rod transmission mechanism. The elevator and rudder control systems are of reversible push-rod type.

Cockpit and avionicsEdit

The JL-8 / K-8 cockpit arrangement is designed to be as close to that of a combat aircraft as possible. A transparent plastic canopy covering both cockpits, which are arranged in a tandem seating position, is supposed to give a good all-round field of view.

A Rockwell Collins Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) is fitted, with multi-function displays (MFDs) in the front and rear cockpits showing information to the pilots. The emergency cockpit escape system is made up of two Martin-Baker MK-10L rocket-assisted ejection seats which are zero-zero capable, meaning they can be used safely at zero altitude and zero speed. Although JL-8 is designed to have limited capability to deliver air-to-ground weapons, the first rocket attack practice was only completed in May 2011.[6]

Ultra high frequency (UHF) and very high frequency (VHF) radio communication systems are present, along with a Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) and automatic direction finder (ADF). An instrument landing system (ILS) is also available. These systems can be tailored to meet the requirements of the customer.

A strap-on Environmental control system (ECS) from AlliedSignal provides air conditioning to the cockpit. It is capable of operating when the aircraft is on the ground, under ambient temperatures of -40 to +52 °C, as well as in the air.

Propulsion and fuel systemEdit

The JL-8, for the Chinese domestic market, was originally powered by the Ukrainian Ivchenko-Progress AI-25TLK turbofan jet engine with 16.9 kN of thrust, but this has been replaced by the WS-11, the Chinese-manufactured version of the AI-25TLK. Export variants (K-8P, K-8E) use the lower-thrust (15.6 kN) Honeywell TFE731-2A-2A modular turbofan, which has digital electronic engine control (DEEC), provided the US government approves sale of the engine to the customer.

A hydro-mechanical fuel control system delivers fuel to the engine. The aircraft's fuel system consists of the fuel tanks and the fuel supply/transfer, vent/pressurization, fuel quantity measuring/indicating, fuel refueling and fuel drain subsystems. The total fuel is contained in two fuselage bladder-type rubber tanks and a wing integral tank of 1720 lb. The capacity of each drop tank is 250 litres.

Operational historyEdit

The K-8 took part in its first aerial display in 1993 at the Singapore Air Show and since then has participated at Air Shows at numerous places including Dubai, Paris, Farnborough, Bangkok, Zhuhai etc. It was shown to the Pakistani public for the first time on 23 March 1994 at the Pakistan Day Parade. It became part of the Sherdils (Lion Hearts) aerobatics team of the Pakistan Air Force in 2009 and carried out its first public display on 6 April 2010. K-8 replaced the team's previous T-37 Tweet aircraft.[7][8]


In late December 2012 and early January 2013, during the Kachin conflict, K-8s of the Myanmar Air Force were used to strike Kachin rebel positions in the north of the country.[9][10]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • November 2012: A Venezuelan Air Force K-8 crashed a result of a technical malfunction. Pilots were forced to eject seconds before the fighter hits the ground.[11]
  • 25 May 2015: K-8 trainer of Pakistan Airforce crashed in Swabi district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province during a training mission. Both pilots of the aircraft ejected safely.[12]
  • 1 July 2018: Bangladesh Air Force’s (BAF) K-8W crashed into the Bookbhora Oxbow lake in Jessore during night training mission. Squadron Leader Md Serajul Islam and Squadron Leader Enayet Kabir Polash were killed in the accident. [13]
  • 20 September 2018: A Sudanese K-8 crashed a result of a sudden technical failure near the city of Omdurman, killing the two pilots on board which was on a night training mission.[14]


Data from: SinoDefence.com

  • K-8
Original variant powered by the Garrett TFE731-2A turbofan engine.
Egyptian Air Force K-8E on display at the 2015 Malta International Airshow
  • K-8E
K-8 variant developed for export to Egypt in 1999, featuring 33 modifications to the airframe and avionics. Built in Egypt from Chinese-supplied kits, production of 80 Egyptian-built Chinese kits was completed in 2005, with license production of an additional 40 K-8Es undertaken thereafter.
  • K-8P
Pakistan-specific variant with new avionics, glass cockpit and Martin Baker Zero-Zero ejection seats.
  • K-8V
An 'integrated flight test simulation aircraft' (IFTSA), equipped with an advanced flight control computer and analogue fly-by-wire (FBW) system which can mimic the aerodynamic characteristics and flight profile of other aircraft. Used primarily to test aircraft designs before prototypes are built and tested.
  • JL-8
PLAAF-specific variant powered by the Ivchenko AI-25 TLK turbofan and featuring Chinese avionics suite. First flew in December 1994, 6 aircraft delivered to PLAAF in June 1998.
  • L-11
Variant of JL-8 powered by the WS-11 turbofan (Ivchenko AI-25 TLK produced under license in China). Approximately 100 aircraft delivered to PLAAF.
  • JL-8W (K-8W)
Variant of the JL-8 with improved cockpit and HUD. Delivered to Venezuela's Bolivarian Military Aviation 13 March 2010, with no U.S.-controlled parts. Total order 18 aircraft (+ 40 announced). 9 delivered to Bangladesh Air Force, more 23 on order.
  • JL-8VB (K-8VB)
Variant similar to JL-8W; for export to Bolivian Air Force, with no U.S.-controlled parts. Total order 6 aircraft (+ 12 announced).



Bangladesh Air Force K-8W flying in formation in the victory day parade of Bangladesh
  • Egyptian Air Force - 118 K-8E (80 assembled from Chinese-supplied kits + 40 manufactured in Egypt - 2 crashed)
A K-8 of the Pakistan Air Force aerobatics team, Sherdils, on the flightline of Zhuhai Air Show 2010. An Airbus A380 takes off in the background.
K-8s of the Sudanese Air Force taking off from Port Sudan Airport.
  People's Republic of China
  Sri Lanka
A K-8 Karakorum trainer of the Air Force of Zimbabwe at Ysterplaat Airshow, Cape Town.



Specifications (K-8)Edit

Data from Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra - Karakoram-8 (K-8) Aircraft,[22] Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide[23]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 11.6 m (38 ft 1 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.63 m (31 ft 7 in)
  • Height: 4.1 m (13 ft 5 in)
  • Empty weight: 2,687 kg (5,924 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,330 kg (9,546 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Honeywell TFE731-2A turbofan engine, 16.01 kN (3,600 lbf) thrust


  • Maximum speed: 800 km/h (500 mph, 430 kn)
  • Maximum speed: Mach 0.75
  • Range: 2,250 km (1,400 mi, 1,210 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 m (43,000 ft)
  • g limits: +7.33 -3.0
  • Wing loading: 254.40 kg/m2 (52.11 lb/sq ft)


  • Guns: 1× 23 mm cannon pod (mounted on centreline hardpoint)
  • Hardpoints: 5[citation needed] , total capacity 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) external fuel and ordnance:
    • 4× under-wing, capacity 250 kg each
    • 1× under-fuselage (23 mm cannon pod mount)
  • Rockets: 57 mm unguided rocket pods, capacity 24 rounds (2 x pods with 12 rounds each)
  • Air-to-air missiles: PL-5, PL-7
  • Bombs: 200 kg, 250 kg unguided bomb, BL755 cluster bomb
  • Others:
    • 2× 80 gal fuel drop-tanks mounted on outboard under-wing hardpoints


See alsoEdit

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era


  1. ^ K-8 (JL-8, L-11) Basic Jet Trainer - SinoDefence.com Archived 28 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Bolivia Set To Receive 6 Karakorum Combat Jets From China". Retrieved 4 February 2015.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "K-8P trainer jet exportation". AirForceWorld.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
  4. ^ ANGKASA No.07 Edisi April 2007 (page 14-15)
  5. ^ DAWN.com | Bolivia buys six Pakistan-made aircraft Archived 29 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "AirForceWorld.com JL8 Trainer Jet rocket practice". AirForceWorld.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  7. ^ "PAF's High Mark exercise enters second phase". Pakistan Times. PAF Bombing Range, Thal, Pakistan. 7 April 2010. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  8. ^ "PAF's firepower demo marks precise hit at enemy targets". Thal, Pakistan: OnePakistan.com. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.[dead link]
  9. ^ "Myanmar jets used against Kachin rebels (raw footage)". YouTube. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  10. ^ Bertil Lintner. "Myanmar airstrikes reopen ethnic wounds". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  11. ^ "2 Pilots Eject from K-8 During Air Show". Military.com. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  12. ^ "Army trainer aircraft crashes in Swabi, pilots eject safely". DAWN. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  13. ^ "Bangladesh's Chinese-made K8-W Trainer Aircraft Crashes, Pilots Killed". Defense World. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  14. ^ "Sudan military jet crash near Omdurman kills 2 pilots". The Defense Post. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  15. ^ "Chinese Military Aviation: Trainers". Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
  16. ^ "NEWLY PROCURED SEVEN AIRCRAFTS [sic] ARRIVE CHATTOGRAM FROM CHINA FOR BAF". ISPR. Bangladesh. 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  17. ^ "Bangladesh's Chinese-made K8-W Trainer Aircraft Crashes, Pilots Killed". Defense World. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  18. ^ "OrBat Ghana - MilAvia Press.com: Military Aviation Publications". Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  19. ^ a b c Adam Baddeley (February 2011). "The AMR Regional Air Force Directory 2011" (PDF). Asian Military Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011.
  20. ^ "K-8P aircraft replace FT-5 fighters at PAF Mianwali base". The News International, Pakistan. 6 January 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  21. ^ Hacket, pg 404.
  22. ^ "Pakistan Aeronautical Complex Kamra - Karakoram-8 (K-8) Aircraft". www.pac.org.pk. Archived from the original on 26 April 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  23. ^ Gething (Author), Gunter Endres, Michael J.; Endres, Gunter (4 September 2007). Jane's aircraft recognition guide (5th ed.). Collins. ISBN 978-0061346194.

External linksEdit