Holy Qurbana

The Holy Qurbana (ܩܘܼܪܒܵܢܵܐ ܩܲܕܝܫܵܐ‎, Qurbānā Qaddišā in Eastern Syriac or Qurbānā Qandišā in the Indian variant of Eastern Syriac, the "Holy Offering" or "Holy Sacrifice" in English), refers to the Eucharist as celebrated in East Syriac Christianity. This includes various descendants of the Church of the East. East Syriac Christianity consists of an Edessan liturgical rite, the East Syriac Rite (also known as the Edessan Rite, Assyrian Rite, Babylonian Rite, Chaldean Rite or Persian Rite). The major anaphora of the East Syriac tradition is the Holy Qurbana of Saints Addai and Mari; Addai being a disciple of Thomas the Apostle and Mari being Addai's disciple. The churches are primarily based in the Middle East and India, along with the diaspora communities settled in the western world.

The East Syriac Rite is employed in the Assyrian Church of the East based in Iraq (including its archdiocese the Chaldean Syrian Church of India) and the Ancient Church of the East based in Iraq. It is also used within the Catholic Church by two sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches: the Syro-Malabar Church based in India, and the Chaldean Catholic Church based in Iraq. The Assyrian Church of the East and the Ancient Church of the East are not a part of the Oriental Orthodox communion and they are not a part of the Eastern Catholic churches.

EtymologyEdit

The East Syriac word Qurbana is derived from the Aramaic term Qurbana (ܩܘܪܒܢܐ‎). When the Temple stood in Jerusalem, and sacrifices were offered, "Qorban" was a technical Hebrew term for some of the offerings that were brought there. It comes from a Hebrew root, "Qarab", meaning "to draw close or 'near'". A required Korban was offered morning and evening daily and on holidays (at certain times, additional 'korbanot' were offered), in addition to which individuals could bring an optional personal Korban.

The Holy Qurbana is referred to as "complete" worship, since it is performed for the benefit of all members of the Church. The other sacraments are celebrated for individual members. Thus the Holy Qurbana is believed to be the sacrament that completes all the others. Hence it is called the "sacrament of perfection" or the "queen of sacraments".

UsageEdit

 
A Bishop of the Syro-Malabar Church celebrates Holy Qurbana in East Syriac

The East Syriac or Chaldean rite was associated with the historical Church of the East, centered in the Persian capital of Seleucia-Ctesiphon. Today the Liturgy of Mar Addai and Mari is used in the Ancient Church of the East, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, as well as the Syro-Malabar Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church based in Kerala, India.

Edessan Liturgical RiteEdit

The Liturgy of Saints Addai and Mari belongs to the Edessan Rite (East Syriac), the anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer that is part of this liturgy, possibly dating back to 3rd-century Edessa,[1] and is the oldest in Christianity. This liturgy is traditionally attributed to Saint Addai (disciple of Saint Thomas the Apostle) and Saint Mari (a disciple of Saint Addai). In the form given in the oldest manuscripts, all of the High Middle Ages, this anaphora does not include the Words of Institution, a matter that raised ecumenical concerns.

Qudasha of Saints Addai and MariEdit

The Qudasha or Eucharistic Prayer that is part of the East Syriac Rite is of particular interest, being one of the oldest in Christianity, possibly dating back to 3rd-century Edessa,[1] even if the outline of the current form can only be traced as far back as the time of the Patriarch Ishoyahb III in the 7th century. In the form given in the oldest manuscripts, this anaphora does not include the Words of Institution. The Eastern Catholic churches employing this liturgy have the words of institution added in.

The Liturgy of Addai and Mari has been in continuous use in the Church of the East since at least the 7th century.[1] Hymns by Saint Ephrem and others are often sung during the communion. A piece of dough from the eucharistic bread is saved from week to week, not as reserve sacrament but as leaven for the next week's bread. Authors from Theodore of Mopsuestia (c. 400) to Shimun XXI Eshai in the mid-20th century and Mar Aprem Mooken of India in the early 21st century have identified the Epiclesis, beginning with the words Neethi Mar Rukhada Kudisha... (May the Holy Spirit come...) as the high point of the Holy Qurbana.

In the Syro-Malabar Church this liturgy has three forms: a simplified form, a standard form for Sundays use, and a highly solemn form, known as the Raza, used only on solemnities.[2] A reform of the Raza in order to return to the unadulterated and original form was issued in 1985,[3] followed in 1989 by a reform of the other two forms carried out with the same principles.[4]

A slight reform of the liturgy of Addai and Mari celebrated by the Chaldean Catholic Church came into effect on 6 January 2007, making uniform the many different uses of each parish and removing additions introduced over the centuries in imitation of the Roman rite. The main changes were: a return to the ancient arrangement of the interior of churches, restoration of the preparation of the bread and wine before the beginning of the service and removal of Filioque from the Creed.[5]

The prayers of the liturgy of Addai and Mari are of three types, according as they are recited by the celebrating priest or bishop:[6]

  • cushapa: personal prayers of the celebrant
  • gehanta or "inclinations": prayers said in low voice by the celebrant
  • qanona: conclusions of the gehanta conducted aloud


Other QudasheEdit

Qudasha of Mar TheodoreEdit

The Qudasha of Theodore of Mopsuestia is one of three Eucharistic liturgies used in the East Syriac Rite. It is currently employed by Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, the Syro-Malabar Church and to a lesser extend in the Chaldean Catholic Church, which are descendants of the erstwhile Church of the East. It is attributed to Theodore of Mopsuestia and is considered to be his genuine work. It is used from Advent until the Sunday of the Hossanas.[7]

Qudasha of Mar NestoriusEdit

The Qudasha of Nestorius is one of the Eucharistic liturgies used by the erstwhile Church of the East. It is currently employed in the Holy Qurbana of the Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, and the Syro-Malabar Church, which are descendants of the Church of the East. It is a part of the East Syriac Rite, formally attributed to Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople and is traditionally celebrated for the Feast of the Epiphany, Commemoration of St. John the Baptist, Commemoration of the Greek Teachers: Mar Diodore, Mar Theodore the interpreter and Mar Nestorius, and also for the Wednesday liturgy of the Rogation of the Ninevites, and the Feast of the Passover (Holy Thursday).[8]

Holy MalkaEdit

 
Sacramental bread in East Syriac tradition prepared with Holy Malka

Traditionally the East Syriac Churches use leavened bread for the Eucharist, like most churches of Eastern Christianity, but they are the only Churches to include the additional ingredient of Holy Malka (or Holy Leaven). Holy Leaven is a powder added to sacramental bread before it is baked.[9] Despite the name, Holy Leaven does not actually contain a leavening agent.[9] Instead, hmira, fermented dough from previously used sacramental bread, is added and acts as leaven.[10] What the Holy Leaven does contain is remainder from the original Holy Leaven, renewed annually by mixing it with common ingredients.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Addai and Mari, Liturgy of. Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. 2005
  2. ^ Pallath, Paul (2000). La liturgia eucaristica della chiesa siro-malabarese. Padova: Messaggero Abbazia di Santa Giustina. p. 22. ISBN 8825008422.
  3. ^ Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Decree dated 19 December 1985
  4. ^ Congregation for the Oriental Churches, Decree dated 3 April 1989
  5. ^ "TQ & A on the Reformed Chaldean Mass". Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  6. ^ Wilson, Stephen (1997). "The Anaphora of the Apostols Addai and Mari". In Bradshaw, Paul F. (ed.). Essays on Early Eastern Eucharistic Prayers. Collegeville, Minn: Liturgical Press. p. 20. ISBN 081466153X.
  7. ^ Dr. Mar Aprem Metropolitan. "Assyrian Church of the East in India". Trichur, Kerala, India: nestorian.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  8. ^ Dr. Mar Aprem Metropolitan. "Assyrian Church of the East in India". Trichur, Kerala, India: nestorian.org. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  9. ^ a b c Spinks 2011, p. 63.
  10. ^ Jenner, Henry (1912). "East Syrian Rite". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). The Catholic Encyclopedia. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company. OCLC 36291432. Retrieved 21 July 2016 – via New Advent.

External linksEdit