Hkamti Long (also known as Khamti Long; Chinese: 坎底), also known as Khandigyi (Burmese: ခန္တီးကြီး) was a Shan state in what is today Burma. It was an outlying territory, located by the Mali River, north of Myitkyina District, away from the main Shan State area in present-day Kachin State. The main town was Putao.

Hkamti Long
State of the Shan States
13th century–19..

Hkamti Long in a map from In farthest Burma - the record of an arduous journey of exploration and research through the unknown frontier territory of Burma and Tibet (1921)
• (estimate)
2,330 km2 (900 sq mi)
• (estimate)
• Conquered by Sam Long Hpa, ruler of Mongkawng
13th century
• Abdication of the last Saopha
Succeeded by
British Burma

History edit

Hkamti Long began as an outlying territory of the Shan state of Mongkawng and was settled by the Hkamti, a sub-group of the Shan people. The name means "Great Place of Gold" in the Hkamti Khamti language.[1] It gathered seven small principalities: Lokhun, Mansi, Lon Kyein, Manse-Hkun, Mannu, Langdao, Mong Yak and Langnu which were under the Hkamti Long was beyond the borders of the British Mandalay Division and was never brought under direct British rule, after the Shan states submitted to British rule after the fall of the Konbaung dynasty.

Hkamti Long was visited by traveller Thomas Thornville Cooper, British Agent at Bhamo, where he was murdered in 1878;[2] later also by colonels Macgregor and Woodthorpe in 1884-1885, by Errol Gray in 1892-1893, and by Prince Henry of Orleans in 1893.[3]

Towards the end of the 19th century the inhabitants were still mostly Shan, but they ended up being absorbed or expelled by the Kachin people and other dominant ethnic groups of the region.[4]

Rulers edit

The rulers of Hkamti Long bore the title of Saopha.[5]

Saophas edit

  • c.1860 - c.1862 ...
  • c.1862 - 1910 San Nwe Cho (b. 1837 - d. 1910)
  • 1910 - 1915 San Nwe No (b. 1855 - d. 1915)
  • 13 Aug 1915 - 19.. Sao Hpa Hkan (b. c.1854 - d. 19..)

References edit

  1. ^ Burma Library - The Little Known Snow-Land of Myanmar
  2. ^ Cooper, Thomas Thornville
  3. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hkamti Lông" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 540–541.
  4. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 13, p. 158.
  5. ^ Ben Cahoon (2000). "World Shan and Karenni States of Burma". Retrieved 21 December 2010.

External links edit

27°19′N 97°25′E / 27.317°N 97.417°E / 27.317; 97.417