History of fire brigades in the United Kingdom
Between the 17th century and the beginning of the 19th century, all fire engines and crews in the United Kingdom were either provided by voluntary bodies, parish authorities or insurance companies. James Braidwood founded the world's first municipal fire service in Edinburgh after the Great Fire of Edinburgh in 1824 destroyed much of the city's Old Town. Braidwood later went on to become superintendent of the London Fire Engine Establishment (LFEE), which brought together ten independent insurance company brigades in 1833. A 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) bronze statue of Braidwood, located in Parliament Square in Edinburgh, commemorates his achievements. The Royal Society for the Protection of Life from Fire was formed in 1836 mainly to provide mobile escape ladders; protection of life was not the main concern of the insurance company brigades. Today it exists to give "recognition to individuals who perform acts of bravery in rescuing others from fire".
James Braidwood was killed at the Tooley Street fire of 1861, where a wall collapsed on top of him. This fire was a major factor in the decision of the British government, after much lobbying by liability-laden insurance companies and LFEE, to create the Metropolitan Fire Brigade in 1866. The MFB would be publicly funded and controlled through the Metropolitan Board of Works. Its first superintendent was Captain Sir Eyre Massey Shaw. In 1904, the MFB changed its name to the London Fire Brigade.
Outside London, new local government bodies created by late 19th century legislation (such as the Local Government Act 1894) took over responsibility for fire-fighting.
Before 1938, there were some 1,600 local fire brigades in operation. The Fire Brigades Act 1938 constituted the councils of all county boroughs and county districts (municipal boroughs, urban and rural districts) as fire authorities. The councils were required to provide the services for their borough or district of such a fire brigade and of such fire engines, appliances and equipment as may be necessary to meet efficiently all normal requirements. At roughly the same time, the Auxiliary Fire Service, consisting largely of unpaid volunteers, was formed in parallel to the Air Raid Precautions organisation. Every borough and urban district had an AFS unit, and they operated their own fire stations in parallel to the local authority. Members of the AFS could be called up for full-time paid service if necessary, a similar arrangement applied to the wartime Special Constabulary.
The effects of the 1938 Act were short lived (though it was not repealed until 1947), as all local brigades and Auxiliary Fire Service units in Great Britain were merged into the National Fire Service in 1941, which was itself under the auspices of the Civil Defence Service. There was a separate National Fire Service (Northern Ireland). Before the war, there had been little or no standardisation of equipment, most importantly in the diameter of hydrant valves. This made regional integration difficult.
The 1938 Act was replaced by the Fire Services Act 1947, which disbanded the National Fire Service and made firefighting functions the responsibility of county and county borough councils, meaning there were still far fewer brigades than before the war. There were also slightly different arrangements in Scotland from England and Wales. The Auxiliary Fire Service was reformed in 1948 as a national fire reserve, and operated the famous Green Goddess "self-propelled pumps", tasked with relaying vast quantities of water into burning cities after a nuclear attack, and also with supporting local fire services.
Local government was completely reorganised in the mid 1970s (see Local Government Act 1972 and Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973), meaning many fire brigades were merged and renamed. There have been some other amalgamations since then, including the 2013 merger of all Scottish services into one, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service.
Before 1974, all but one of the fire brigades in England and Wales used the term "Fire Brigade", the exception was the City of Salford, which called itself "Fire Department". After 1974, all but two of the new authorities adopted the term "Fire Service", the two exceptions being Avon County and County Cleveland. Most of the older county brigades who came through the reorganisation with little change also changed their names to "Fire Service", the only brigades not to adopt the term were London, Cornwall, East Sussex, Somerset, West Sussex and Wiltshire, all of which still retained the name "Fire Brigade". More recently, almost all fire authorities have changed their name to "Fire and Rescue Service", the only exceptions to this are, Cleveland and London who still use "Fire Brigade" and West Midlands Fire Service.
Fire brigades in EnglandEdit
The following is a list of all the fire brigades created by the 1947 decentralisation, and also those created by mergers in the 1960s, up until local government reorganisation in 1974.
|Brigade||Notes||Fate in the 1974 reorganisation|
|Barnsley County Borough FB||Merged to form South Yorkshire FS|
|Barrow-in-Furness County Borough FB||Merged to form Cumbria FS|
|City of Bath FB||Merged to form Avon County FB|
|Bedfordshire FB||Luton County Borough formed own brigade in 1964||Reabsorbed Luton County Borough FB|
|Berkshire and Reading FB||Combined brigade for Administrative County of Berkshire, Reading County Borough, later||Lost Abingdon, Didcot and Wantage to Oxfordshire and gained Slough from Buckinghamshire|
|Birkenhead County Borough FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|City of Birmingham FB||Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Blackburn County Borough FB||Merged into Lancashire County FS|
|Blackpool County Borough FB||Merged into Lancashire County FS|
|Bolton County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Bootle County Borough FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|Bournemouth County Borough FB||Merged into Dorset FS|
|City of Bradford FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|Brighton County Borough FB||Merged into East Sussex FB|
|City of Bristol FB||Merged to form Avon County FB|
|Buckinghamshire FB||Lost Slough to Berkshire FB|
|Burnley County Borough FB||Merged into Lancashire County FS|
|Burton upon Trent County Borough FB||Merged into Staffordshire FS|
|Bury County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely FB||Combined brigade for administrative counties of Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely until 1965, when Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely county council formed||Merged to form Cambridgeshire FS|
|City of Canterbury FB||Formed part of combined brigade, known as Kent and Canterbury FB in Canterbury and Kent FB in remainder of County.|
|City of Carlisle FB||Merged to form Cumbria FS|
|Cheshire FB||Lost area to Greater Manchester, Merseyside FS|
|City of Chester FB||Merged into Cheshire FS|
|Cornwall FB||No change (later became Cornwall County FB)|
|City of Coventry||Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Croydon County Borough FB||Absorbed by London FB 1965|
|Cumberland FB||Merged to form Cumbria FS|
|Darlington County Borough FB||Merged into County Durham County FB|
|Derby County Borough FB||Merged into Derbyshire FS|
|Derbyshire FB||Absorbed Derby County Borough FB|
|Devon FB||Absorbed Exeter and Plymouth|
|Dewsbury County Borough FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|Doncaster County Borough FB||Merged to form South Yorkshire FS|
|Dorset FB||Absorbed Bournemouth County Borough FB|
|Dudley County Borough FB||Took in areas form Staffordshire FB 1967||Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Durham County FB||Lost areas to Hartlepool CB 1967, Teesside CB 1974||Later absorbed into Cleveland County Fire Brigade|
|East Ham County Borough FB||Absorbed by London FB 1965|
|East Riding of Yorkshire FB||Area split to form North Yorkshire FS and Humberside FS|
|East Sussex FB||Lost some area to West Sussex FS, gained Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings|
|Eastbourne County Borough FB||Merged into East Sussex FS|
|Essex FB||Lost 9 stations to London FB 1965.||Absorbed Southend County Borough FB|
|City of Exeter FB||Merged into Devon FS|
|City of Gloucester FB||Merged into Gloucestershire FS|
|Gloucestershire||Lost area to Avon County FS|
|Great Yarmouth County Borough FB||Merged into Norfolk FS|
|Grimsby County Borough FB||Merged to form Humberside FS|
|Halifax County Borough FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|Hampshire FB||Gained Portsmouth, Southampton, lost Christchurch area to Dorset FS|
|Hastings County Borough FB||Merged into East Sussex FS|
|Herefordshire FB||Merged to form Hereford and Worcester FS|
|Hertfordshire FB||Lost East Barnet to London FB but gained Potters Bar from Middlesex 1965||No Change|
|Holland FB County Lincolnshire||Merged to form Lincolnshire FS|
|Huddersfield County Borough FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|Hull County Borough FB||Merged to form Humberside FS|
|Huntingdonshire FB||Merged with Soke of Peterborough FB 1965 to form Huntingdon and Peterborough FB||Merged into Cambridgeshire FS|
|Huntingdon and Peterborough FB||Formed from Soke of Peterborough FB and Huntingdonshire FB in 1965, when Huntingdon and Peterborough county council formed||Merged into Cambridgeshire FS|
|Isle of Wight FB||No change|
|Kent FB||Combined brigade for Canterbury county borough and administrative county of Kent.
Lost part of area (present London Boroughs of Bexley and Bromley) to London FB 1965
|No further change in 1974|
|Kesteven County FB||Merged to form Lincolnshire FS|
|Lancashire County FB||Lost area to Cumbria FS, Greater Manchester FS and Merseyside FS.|
|City of Leeds FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|City of Leicester FB||Merged to form Leicestershire FS|
|Leicestershire and Rutland FB||Combined brigade for two administrative counties||Merged to form Leicestershire FS|
|City of Lincoln FB||Merged to form Lincolnshire FS|
|Lindsey County FB, Lincolnshire||Merged to form Lincolnshire FS|
|City of Liverpool FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|London FB||Covered County of London until 1965, Greater London thereafter||No further change|
|Luton County Borough FB||Separated from Bedfordshire FB 1964||Bedfordshire FS|
|City of Manchester FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Middlesbrough County Borough FB||Became part of Teesside County Borough FB in 1974||Merged to form Cleveland County Fire Brigade|
|Middlesex FB||Abolished 1965 to London FB except for Potters Bar to Hertfordshire FB,
Staines and Sunbury to Surrey FB
|Newcastle and Gateshead Joint FB||Combined brigade for two county boroughs||Merged to form Tyne and Wear FS|
|North Riding of Yorkshire FB||Lost area to Teesside County Borough FB in 1968||Merged to form Cleveland FS|
|Northampton County Borough FB||Merged into Northamptonshire FS|
|Northamptonshire FB||No change|
|Northumberland FB||Merged to form Tyne and Wear FS|
|City of Norwich FB||Merged into Norfolk FS|
|City of Nottingham FB||Merged into Nottinghamshire FS|
|Oldham County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|City of Oxford FB||Merged into Oxfordshire FS|
|Soke of Peterborough FB||Merged with Huntingdonshire FB 1965 to form Huntingdon and Peterborough FB.
(City of) Peterborough Volunteer FB also retained by county council
|City of Plymouth FB||Merged into Devon FS|
|City of Portsmouth FB||Merged into Hampshire FS|
|Preston County Borough FB||Merged into Lancashire County FS|
|Rochdale County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Rotherham County Borough FB||Merged to form South Yorkshire FS|
|City of Salford FD||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|St Helens County Borough FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|City of Sheffield FB||Merged to form South Yorkshire FS|
|Shropshire FB||No change|
|Smethwick and West Bromwich Joint FB||Combined brigade for two county boroughs.
Abolished 1967: Became Warley County Borough FB and West Bromwich County Borough FB
|Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Solihull County Borough FB||Separated from Warwickshire FB 1964||Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Somerset FB||Lost area to Avon FS|
|South Shields County Borough FB||Merged to form Tyne and Wear FS|
|Southampton County Borough FB||Renamed Southampton City FB 1964||To Hampshire FB|
|Southend County Borough FB||Merged into Essex FS|
|Southport County Borough FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|Staffordshire FB||Lost area to various County Boroughs in 1967.||Gained Stoke-on-Trent, lost area to West Midlands|
|Stockport County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Stoke-on-Trent County Borough FB||Merged into Staffordshire FS|
|Suffolk and Ipswich FB||Combined brigade for administrative counties of East and West Suffolk and Ipswich county borough.||Merged to form Suffolk FS|
|County Borough of Sunderland FB||Merged to form Tyne and Wear FS|
|Surrey FB||Lost 10 stations to London FB in 1965. But gained Staines & Sunbury from Middlesex||No further change|
|Teesside County Borough FB||Formed from Middlesbrough County Borough FB, County Borough of Hartlepool FB and parts of Durham FB, North Riding (Yorkshire) FB 1968||Cleveland County Fire Brigade|
|Tynemouth County Borough FB||Merged to form Tyne and Wear FS|
|Wakefield County Borough FB||Merged to form West Yorkshire FS|
|Wallasey County Borough FB||Merged to form Merseyside FS|
|Warley County Borough FB||Formed 1967 from the separation of Smethwick and West Bromwich Joint FB||West Midlands FS|
|Warrington County Borough FB||Merged to form Cheshire FS|
|Warwickshire FB||Solihull formed own brigade 1964||Lost area to West Midlands FS|
|West Bromwich County Borough FB||Formed 1967 from the separation of Smethwick and West Bromwich Joint FB||West Midlands FS|
|West Ham County Borough FB||Absorbed by London FB 1965|
|West Hartlepool County Borough FB||Became part of Hartlepool County Borough FB 1967||Merged to form Teesside County Borough Fire Brigade in 1974 and later, Cleveland County Fire Brigade|
|West Riding of Yorkshire FB||Split into West Yorkshire FS and South Yorkshire FS with losses to Cumbria FS, Humberside FS and Lancashire County FS|
|West Sussex FB||Gained area from East Sussex|
|Westmorland FB||Merged to form Cumbria FS|
|Wigan County Borough FB||Merged to form Greater Manchester FS|
|Wiltshire FB||No change|
|Wolverhampton County Borough FB||Merged to form West Midlands FS|
|Worcester City and County FB||Combined brigade for county borough of Worcester and administrative county of Worcestershire||Merged to form Hereford and Worcester FS|
|City of York FB||Merged to form North Yorkshire FS|
From 1974, each of the new county councils and the Greater London Council (GLC) maintained a separate fire brigade. In 1986, the GLC and the six metropolitan county councils were abolished. This led to the establishment of fire and civil defence authorities which were joint boards of London and metropolitan borough councils. Local government reform in the 1990s created a number of unitary authorities, usually termed as district or borough councils but sometimes also county councils, and accordingly combined fire authorities constituted in a number of counties.
|Avon FS||Since 1996 administered by combined fire authority (CFA) of Bath and North East Somerset, Bristol City, North Somerset, and South Gloucestershire councils. Name changed to Avon Fire and Rescue Service in 2004.|
|Bedfordshire FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Bedfordshire County and Luton Borough councils. Bedfordshire has since been split up into unitary authorities, so this CFA now represents Luton Borough, Bedford Borough and Central Bedfordshire District councils. Name changed to Bedfordshire and Luton Fire and Rescue Service.|
|Royal Berkshire FS||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of six unitary authorities. Name changed to Royal Berkshire FRS.|
|Buckinghamshire FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Buckinghamshire County and Milton Keynes Borough Councils. Name changed to Buckinghamshire FRS.|
|Cambridgeshire FS||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of Cambridgeshire County and Peterborough City Councils. Name changed to Cambridgeshire FRS.|
|Cheshire FS||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of Cheshire, Halton and Warrington councils. Name changed to Cheshire FRS.|
|Cleveland FB||Since 1996 administered by a CFA of Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar and Cleveland.|
|Cornwall County FB||Name changed to Cornwall FRS|
|Cumbria FS||Name changed to Cumbria FRS.|
|Derbyshire FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Derby City and Derbyshire County councils. Name changed to Derbyshire FRS.|
|Devon FS||From 1998 administered by CFA of Devon County, Plymouth City and Torbay Borough councils. Merged into Devon and Somerset FRS in 2007.|
|Devon and Somerset FRS||Formed 2007 by merger of Devon and Somerset FBs. Administered by CFA of Devon County, Somerset County, Plymouth City and Torbay Borough Councils.|
|Dorset FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Dorset County and Bournemouth and Poole Borough Councils. Name changed to Dorset FRS.|
|Durham County FB||Renamed Durham County Fire Brigade in 1992. Then became County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Brigade in 1997 when administered by a Combined Fire Authority of Durham County Council and Darlington Borough Council. Name changed to County Durham and Darlington FRS in 2003.|
|East Sussex FB||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Brighton and Hove City and East Sussex County councils. Name changed to East Sussex FRS.|
|Essex FB||Since 1998 administered CFA of Essex County and Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock Borough councils. Name changed to Essex County FRS in 1985.|
|Gloucestershire FS||Name changed to Gloucestershire FRS.|
|Greater Manchester County FS||Was administered by Greater Manchester County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered by the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Authority. Name of the service itself changed to Greater Manchester FRS.|
|Hampshire FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Hampshire County and Portsmouth and Southampton city councils. Name changed to Hampshire FRS.|
|Hereford and Worcester FS||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of Herefordshire and Worcestershire county councils. Name changed to Hereford and Worcester FRS.|
|Hertfordshire FS||Name changed to Hertfordshire FRS.|
|Humberside FB||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of East Riding of Yorkshire, Hull City, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire councils. Name changed to Humberside FRS.|
|Isle of Wight FS||Name changed to Isle of Wight FRS.|
|Kent FB||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of Kent County and Medway Borough councils. Name changed to Kent FRS.|
|Lancashire FS||Since 1998 administered by CFA of Lancashire County and Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool borough councils. Name changed to Lancashire FRS.|
|Leicestershire FS||Since 1997 administered by a CFA of Rutland, Leicestershire County and Leicester City councils. Name changed to Leicestershire FRS.|
|Lincolnshire FS||Name changed to Lincolnshire FRS.|
|London FB||Was not affected by 1974 reorganisations; administered by the Greater London Council until its abolition in 1986, the London Fire and Civil Defence Authority 1986 - 2000 and by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority since 2000.|
|Merseyside County FB||Was administered by Merseyside County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered by the Merseyside Fire and Civil Defence Authority, which was renamed South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority. Name of the service itself changed to Merseyside FRS.|
|Norfolk FS||Name changed to Norfolk FRS.|
|North Yorkshire FS||Since 1996 administered by a CFA of North Yorkshire County and York City councils. Name changed to North Yorkshire FRS.|
|Northamptonshire FB||Name changed to Northamptonshire FRS.|
|Northumberland FB||Name changed to Northumberland FRS.|
|Nottinghamshire FS||Since 1998 administered by a CFA of Nottingham City and Nottinghamshire County councils. Name changed to Nottinghamshire FRS.|
|Oxfordshire FS||Name changed to Oxfordshire FRS.|
|Salop FS||Renamed Shropshire FS 1980, since 1998 administered by Shropshire and Wrekin Fire and Rescue Authority. Later renamed Shropshire FRS.|
|Somerset FB||Merged into Devon and Somerset FRS in 2007.|
|Staffordshire FS||Administered by Stoke-on-Trent and Staffordshire Fire Authority since 1997. Name changed to Staffordshire FRS.|
|South Yorkshire FS||Was administered by South Yorkshire County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered by the South Yorkshire Fire and Civil Defence Authority, which was renamed South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority in 2004. Name of the service itself changed to South Yorkshire FRS.|
|Suffolk FS||Name changed to Suffolk FRS.|
|Surrey FS||Name changed to Surrey FRS.|
|Tyne and Wear Metropolitan FB||Was administered by Tyne and Wear County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered by Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority. Name of the service itself was changed to Tyne and Wear FRS.|
|Warwickshire FS||Name changed to Warwickshire FRS.|
|West Midlands FS||Was administered by the West Midlands County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered West Midlands Fire and Rescue Authority.|
|West Yorkshire FS||Was administered by the West Yorkshire County Council until its abolition in 1986, afterwards administered by the West Yorkshire Fire and Civil Defence Authority, which was renamed West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Authority in 2005. Name of the service itself was changed to West Yorkshire FRS.|
|West Sussex FB||Name changed to West Sussex FRS.|
|Wiltshire FS||Since 1998 administered by Wiltshire and Swindon Fire Authority. Name changed to Wiltshire FRS.|
Fire brigades in WalesEdit
|Brigade||Notes||Fate in the 1974 reorganisation|
|Anglesey FB||Merged to form part of Gwynedd FS|
|Breconshire and Radnorshire FB||Combined brigade for two administrative counties||Split between Gwent FS and Powys FS,|
|Caernarvonshire FB||Formed part of Gwynedd FS|
|City of Cardiff FB||Formed part of South Glamorgan FS|
|Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire FB||Combined brigade for two administrative counties||Formed part of Dyfed FS|
|Denbighshire and Montgomeryshire FB||Combined brigade for two administrative counties||Split between Clwyd FS and Gwynedd FS|
|Flintshire FB||Formed part of Clwyd FS|
|Glamorgan FB||Split between Mid, South and West Glamorgan FS's|
|Merionethshire FB||Formed part of Gwynedd FS|
|Merthyr Tydfil County Borough FB||Formed part of Mid Glamorgan FS|
|Monmouthshire FB||Formed part of Gwent FS|
|Newport County Borough FB||Formed part of Gwent FS|
|Pembrokeshire FB||Formed part of Dyfed FS|
|Swansea County Borough FB||Formed part of West Glamorgan FS|
From 1974 each of the new county councils maintained a separate fire brigade.
|Clwyd FS||Part of North Wales FRS|
|Dyfed FB||Mid and West Wales FS|
|Gwent FB||South Wales FS|
|Gwynedd FS||North Wales FS|
|Mid Glamorgan FS||South Wales FS|
|South Glamorgan FS||South Wales FS|
|West Glamorgan FB||Mid and West Wales FS|
The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 replaced the eight counties with unitary authorities. The authorities are grouped into three areas for the provision of fire and rescue services. Fire services are administered by fire and rescue authorities consisting of councillors from each of the councils in the area.
|North Wales FS,
renamed North Wales FRS
|Anglesey, Conwy, Denbighshire, Flintshire, Gwynedd and Wrexham|
|Mid and West Wales FB,
renamed Mid and West Wales FRS in 2003
|Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Neath Port Talbot, Pembrokeshire, Powys and Swansea|
|South Wales FS
renamed South Wales FRS 2004
|Blaenau Gwent, Bridgend, Caerphilly, Cardiff, Merthyr Tydfil, Monmouthshire, Newport, Rhondda Cynon Taff, Torfaen and Vale of Glamorgan|
Fire brigades in ScotlandEdit
The first public fire service in the UK was founded in Edinburgh in 1824. Central government responsibility for fire brigades was handed to the Scottish Office and the Secretary of State for Scotland upon their creation in 1885. The 1947 Act also reorganised fire services in Scotland. Section 36 obliged county councils, corporations of counties of cities and town councils of large burghs to form combined fire brigades. Schedule 4 set the combined areas of the new brigades.
|Name of Combined Area||Counties and burghs covered and represented in the CFA|
|Lanark||The county of Lanark and the burghs of Airdrie, Coatbridge, Hamilton, Motherwell and Wishaw, and Rutherglen.|
|Central||The counties of Clackmannan, Dunbarton and Stirling, and the burghs of Clydebank, Dumbarton, Falkirk and Stirling.|
|Western||The counties of Argyll, Bute and Renfrew, and the burghs of Greenock, Paisley and Port Glasgow.|
|South Western||The counties of Ayr, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown, and the burghs of Ayr, Dumfries and Kilmarnock.|
|South Eastern||The counties of Berwick, East Lothian, Midlothian, Peebles, Roxburgh, Selkirk and West Lothian, and the county of the city of Edinburgh.|
|Fife||The county of Fife and the burghs of Dunfermline and Kirkcaldy.|
|Perth and Kinross||The joint county of Perth and Kinross, and the burgh of Perth.|
|Angus||The county of Angus, the burgh of Arbroath and the county of the city of Dundee.|
|North Eastern||The counties of Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine, and the joint county of Moray and Nairn, and the county of the city of Aberdeen.|
|Northern||The counties of Caithness, Inverness, Orkney, Ross and Cromarty, Sutherland and Zetland, and the burgh of Inverness.|
The County of the City of Glasgow continued to maintain its own fire brigade, so that there were 11 brigades in all.
The Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 reorganised local government from 1975. County councils and town councils were abolished, making regional or islands area councils the new fire authorities, except where a combined fire authority was present. Some of the new administrative areas were grouped, and eight brigades were formed in all. Minor name changes took place throughout the life of these brigades; "Northern" was changed to "Highlands and Islands" in 1983, "Central Region" became "Central Scotland" when local government was again reformed in 1996, and all brigades except Tayside and the Highlands and Islands eventually adopted the name "Fire and Rescue Service".
|Brigade formed in 1975||Pre-1975 brigades||1975-1996 local government regions||1996-2013 local council areas|
|Central Region FB
Renamed Central Scotland FB in 1996
|Part of Central Area FB,
part of Perth and Kinross FB,
Bo'ness from South Eastern Area FB
|Central Region||Stirling, Falkirk, Clackmannanshire|
|Dumfries and Galloway FB||Most of South Western Area FB||Dumfries and Galloway||Dumfries and Galloway|
|Fife FB||Identical to Fife Area FB||Fife||Fife|
|Grampian Region FB||Most of North Eastern Area FB||Grampian||Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, Moray|
|Lothians and Borders FB||South Eastern Area FB (less Bo'ness)||Lothian, Scottish Borders||Edinburgh, West Lothian, Midlothian, East Lothian, Scottish Borders|
Renamed Highland and Islands FB 1983 Changed to Highlands and Islands late 1990s.
|Northern Area FB, part of North Eastern Area FB||Highland, Orkney, Shetland, Western Isles||Highland, Orkney, Shetland, Western Isles|
|Strathclyde FB||City of Glasgow, Lanark Area FB, part of Central Area FB,
part of South Western Area FB, part of Western Area FB
|Strathclyde||Argyll and Bute, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow, Inverclyde, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, West Dunbartonshire|
|Tayside FB||Angus Area FB, most of Perth and Kinross FB||Tayside||Perth and Kinross, Dundee, Angus|
Under the terms of the Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012, the eight regional services were replaced by a single Scottish Fire and Rescue Service for the whole of Scotland, with effect from 1 April 2013. The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service has its headquarters in Cambuslang (having initially been based in Perth).
Fire brigades in Northern IrelandEdit
As in Great Britain, there were numerous local authority fire brigades in Northern Ireland until the Second World War. On 1 March 1942 all brigades were nationalised by the Fire Services (Emergency Provisions) (NI) Act 1942 as the National Fire Service (Northern Ireland).
On 1 January 1948, the Fire Services Act (Northern Ireland) 1947 came into effect. This provided for the establishment of four brigades in the province:
- Belfast Fire Brigade
- Northern Fire Authority, based in Ballymena
- Southern Fire Authority, based in Portadown
- Western Fire Authority, based in Derry
Northern Ireland Fire Brigade 1950–2006Edit
The three regional brigades were short-lived and on 1 January 1950 they were amalgamated into the Northern Ireland Fire Authority.
In 1973, the Belfast Fire Brigade and NIFA were amalgamated into a single Fire Authority for Northern Ireland.
Northern Ireland Fire and Rescue ServiceEdit
On 1 July 2006, the fire authority was replaced with a Northern Ireland Fire and Rescue Service Board, with the brigade adopting the title Northern Ireland Fire and Rescue Service.
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