History of Japan–Korea relations

For over 15 centuries, the relationship between Japan and Korea was characterized by cultural exchanges, economic trade, political contact and military confrontations, all of which underlie their relations even today. During the ancient era, exchanges of cultures and ideas between Japan and mainland Asia were common through migration via the Korean Peninsula, and diplomatic contact and trade between the two.

Korea-Japan BFFS
Japan North Korea South Korea Locator.png
  North Korea
  South Korea

Since 1945, relations involve three states: North Korea, South Korea and Japan. Japan cut off Korea from Qing Chinese suzerainty and for Japan, a high priority in the late 19th century, fighting wars with those two countries on the issue. Japan took control of Korea with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1910. When Japan was defeated in World War II, Soviet forces took control of the North, and American forces took control of the South, with the 38th parallel as the agreed-upon dividing line. South Korea is independent as of August 15, 1945, and North Korea as of September 9, 1945. In June 1950, North Korea invaded and almost conquered South Korea, but was driven back by the United Nations command, leading South Korean, American, European and international forces. North Korea was nearly captured, with the United Nations intending to roll back Communism there.[1] However, China entered the war, pushed the UN forces out of North Korea, and a military stalemate resulted along the lines similar to the 38th parallel. An armistice was agreed on in 1953, which is still in effect, and the cease-fire line of that year remains the boundary between North and South.[2]

Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea were established in 1965. In the early 2000s, the Japanese–South Korean relationship soured when the Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visited the Yasukuni Shrine every year during his term. Furthermore, conflicts continue to exist over claims of the Liancourt Rocks (known in Korea as "Dokdo") – a group of small islets near the Korean island of Ulleungdo and the Oki Islands, which belong to Japan.

Bilaterally and through the Six-Party Talks, North Korea and Japan continue to discuss the case of Japanese citizens abducted by the North Korean government during the 1970s and 1980s, although there are no existent diplomatic relations between the two; Japan does not recognize North Korea as a sovereign state.

In recent decades, disputes over history and history textbooks have soured relations between Japan and the two Koreas. The debate has exacerbated nationalist pride and animosity, as teachers and professors become soldiers in an intellectual war over events more than a half-century old or even two millennia older. Efforts to reach compromise agreements have failed. Meanwhile, a much less controversial, less politicized and more study-oriented historiography has flourished in Western nations.[3][4] In 2013, polls reported that 94% of Koreans believe Japan "Feels no regret for its past wrongdoings," while 63% of Japanese state that Korean demands for Japanese apologies are "Incomprehensible".[5]

Ancient EraEdit

Relations between Korea and Japan go back at least two millennia. After the 3rd century BC, people from the Three Kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla) and Gaya in the Korean Peninsula, started to move southwards into the Kyushu region of Japan.[6] Knowledge of mainland Asia was transmitted via Korea to Japan. According to the description of the Book of Wei, Yamatai-Koku kingdom in Japan and Four Commanderies of Han had diplomatic exchanges around the 3rd century. There are indications of cross-border political influence, but with varying accounts as to in which direction the political influence flowed. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from this Korean monarchy.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] By the time of the Three Kingdoms period of Korea, Baekje and Silla sent their princes to the Yamato court in exchange for military support to continue their already-begun military campaigns around 400.[15][16]

Uija, the last king of Baekje (reigned 641–660), formed an alliance with Japan and made Prince Buyeo Pung and King Zenko stay there as their guests. In 660, Baekje fell when it was attacked by Silla, who was in alliance with Tang China. Former generals of Baekje, including Gwisil Boksin, asked Japan to return Prince Buyeo Pung and requested military aid. In 663, Japan, supporting Baekje, was defeated by the allied forces of Silla and Tang China in the Korean Peninsula (the Battle of Baekgang), and the restoration of Baekje ended up in failure. After the fall of Baekje, Japan took in many Baekje Korean refugees who were mainly craftspeople, architects and scholars who played a major role in the social development of Japan during that period. While at the same time hostility between Japan and Silla escalated. Empress Jitō honored King Zenko by giving him the hereditary title of Kudara no Konikishi and allowed him to pass on his royal lineage to future generations. According to the Shoku Nihongi (続日本紀), Takano no Niigasa came from a background of the naturalized clansmen Yamato-no-Fuhito (和史) and was a 10th-generation descendant of King Muryeong of Baekje. She was chosen as a wife for Emperor Kōnin and subsequently became the mother of Emperor Kanmu.[17][18]

Japan has had official contact with the Chinese since the 7th to 8th centuries. Chinese culture was introduced to Japan via the Korean Peninsula, but the Korean value slumped when Chinese culture was introduced directly via Japanese missions to Tang China. Emperor Kanmu severed diplomatic relations with Silla in 799.[19] From the early 9th–11th centuries, Japanese pirates plundered the southern region of Korean Peninsula and Korea-Japan relations deteriorated.[20][21]

During the middle Kamakura period, Japan suffered from the invasions of the Mongol Empire (Yuan dynasty), which was then dominant on the continent, and its partner kingdom, the Goryeo of Korea. The History of Yuan states that the Mongol invasions of Japan began with King Chungnyeol of Goryeo "persistently recommending an expedition to the east to Yuan's emperor in order to force Japan to become its vassal state."[22] In order to invade Japan, the Mongols ordered the Korean king to manufacture 1,000 warships.[23] The two Mongol – Korean fleets were destroyed by storms, giving rise to the myth of the Kamikaze, the divine winds that protected Japan. At the time of Mongol invasions of Japan, Japanese people were scared by the attacks of the Mongol and Goryeo army, saying, 'moko kokuri no oni ga kuru (the devils of the Mongol and Goryeo will come)', which phrase later came to represent something scary; thus a tradition spread to the whole country to scare children into obedience by saying 'mukuri kokuri, oni ga kuru'.

Early modern period (16th – 18th centuries)Edit

During the Muromachi and Sengoku periods in Japan, pirates sailing from Kyushu attacked ships along the coasts of Korea and China and were feared as Japanese pirates (called "wako" in Japanese).

Imjin War (1592–1598)Edit

Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who had unified Japan, ordered daimyōs (feudal lords) all over the nation to the conquest of Ming Dynasty China by way of Korea, after the latter's refusal to allow Japanese forces to march through, while King Seonjo alerted its Chinese counterpart regarding the Japanese threat. Japan completed the occupation of the Korean peninsula in three months. The Korean king Seonjo first relocated to Pyongyang, then Uiju. In 1593, The Ming Chinese emperor intervened by sending his army and recaptured the Korean peninsula. However, the Japanese military were able to gather in Seoul and successfully counterattacked China. Although during the war Korean land forces lost most of their land battles (with only a handful of notable exceptions), the Korean Navy won almost all the naval battles with decisive defeats of the Japanese fleet by Admiral Yi Sun-sin, cutting off Japanese supply lines and helping to stall the invading forces on the Korean peninsula. Amid the stagnation of the battle between the Ming army and the Japanese army, Hideyoshi died in September 1598. The Council of Five Elders ordered the remaining Japanese forces in Korea to retreat.

This image of a Joseon diplomatic procession through the streets of Edo in 1748 is entitled Chōsen-jin Uki-e by Hanegawa Tōei, c. 1748

After the war, Japan then initiated a series of policies called Sakoku to isolate itself from world affairs. It forbade Japanese to go abroad in ships, and initiated the death penalty for Japanese people returning to Japan from abroad. This ended Japanese piracy definitively. During the Japanese invasion, much of Korea's cultural heritage was destroyed and looted by the invading Japanese armies. Among the atrocities of Japanese soldiers was the practice of cutting off noses and ears of slain enemy soldiers, which evolved into cutting off those of the living and the civilians in order to fulfill the "kill quota" assigned to the troops. Hence the origin of the Korean saying to misbehaving children, "Ear and nose cutting devils are coming!".[24] After the wars, Korean missions were dispatched 11 times to the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan between 1607 and 1811.[25]

At the end of the 16th century, the Bunroku-Keicho War broke off the relationship between Korea and Japan. However, the Tokugawa shogunate started trading again with Korea by concluding the Treaty of Giyu with the Sō clan of Tsushima Island in 1609, establishing a relationship of near equality through mutual visits of Korean messengers. Tsushinshi were sent from Korea to pay homage to a new shogun or to celebrate the birth of an heir to a shogun. Korean envoys were provided with the same role as an envoy to bring tributes to a Chinese emperor or was used for showing the prestige of Tokugawa shogunate[citation needed] and vis versa.

19th centuryEdit

1873 rejected proposal to seize Korea: the SeikanronEdit

From the late 18th to late 19th centuries, Western governments sought to intercede in and influence the political and economic fortunes of Asian countries through the use of new approaches described by such terms as "protectorate", "sphere of influence", and "concession", which minimized the need for direct military conflict between competing European powers. The newly modernized government of Meiji Japan sought to join these colonizing efforts and the Seikanron ("advocacy of a punitive expedition to Korea") began in 1873. This effort was allegedly fueled by Saigō Takamori and his supporters, who insisted that Japan confront Korea's refusal to recognize the legitimacy of Emperor Meiji, and as it involves the authority of the emperor, and military intervention "could not be postponed".[26]

The debate concerned Korea, then in the sphere of influence of Qing China, which Samurai leaders sought to seize and make it a puppet state.[27] Those in favor also saw the issue as an opportunity to find meaningful employment for the thousands of out-of-work samurai, who had lost their tradition local governmental roles in the new Meiji political order. Further, the acquisition of Korea would provide both a foothold on the Asian continent for Japanese expansion and a rich source of raw materials for Japanese industry. Ōkubo Toshimichi attacked in his "7 Point Document", dated October 1873. The Iwakura Mission, a Japanese diplomatic voyage to the United States and Europe, had led Japanese military officials to conclude their armed forces were far too weak to engage in any conflict with the Western powers. An invasion of Korea would expose Japan to a devastating war and must the action against Korea was premature. Furthermore, the Japanese financial system was too underdeveloped to support a major war, and its munitions industry was unprepared to handle European technology. Okubo's views were supported by the antiwar faction, which mostly consisted of men who had been on the Iwakura Mission. Iwakura Tomomi, the diplomat who had led the mission, persuaded the emperor to reconsider, thus putting an end to the "Korean crisis" debate.[28]

With the rapid weakening erosion of the authority of the Qing dynasty in 1840s-1850s, Korea resisted traditional subservience to China. Japan was rapidly modernizing in the second half of the 19th century but worried that China or Russia would use Korea to threaten Japan. With the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, Japan decided the expansion of their settlement, the addition of the market and acquired an enclave in Busan. A severe conflict at court between Heungseon Daewongun, the biological father of Gojong (king of the Joseon Dynasty), and Gojong's wife Empress Myeongseong continued. In 1882, Daewongun was seized by the Qing military, and confined in Tianjin City (Jingo Incident). The Min clan including Queen Min assumed authority, but relations between Korea and Japan did not turn better, the Min clan changing their policies from being pro-Japanese to pro-Qing China. When Japan beat China in 1895 in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Treaty of Shimonoseki was concluded, and removed China's suzerainty over Korea.[29] Japan became alarmed when Russia enhanced its grip and influence over the Korean peninsula by acquiring vital state assets such as the mining rights in Chongsong and Gyeongwon sold off by Queen Min, such as timber rights in the north, and tariff rights, so it purchased back and restored many of these.[30] Japan's victory against China in the First Sino-Japanese War, released Korea from China's tributary system and the Treaty of Shimonoseki forced China to acknowledge Korea as an "independent" nation. Japan began the process of invading Korea; however, the Min clan, including the Queen Min, started attempts to protect Korea from the rise of Japanese power in Korea.[31] In 1895, Queen Min was gang raped, assassinated and then burned in public by Japan's military, in retaliation for her efforts to promote Russian influence and resist the Japanese invasion.[32] [33] The brutal assassination of the queen was a traumatic event, given Queen Min's popularity among the Korean people. The Gabo Reform and the assassination of Empress Myeongseong generated backlash against Japanese presence in Korea; it caused some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, to form over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom on the Korean peninsula.

In 1897, Joseon was renamed the Korean Empire (1897–1910), affirming its independence, but greatly gravitated closer to Russia, with the King ruling from the Russian legation, and then using Russian guards upon return to his palace.

Japanese protectorateEdit

Japan declared war on Russia to drive out Russian influence, while Korea declared to be neutral. Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War, the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905 was agreed in which Korea became a colony of Japan. Japanese officials increasingly controlled the national government but had little local presence, thereby allowing space for anti-Japanese activism by Korean nationalists. The new status failed because of a combination of diverse economic, historical, and emotional factors. Japan underestimated Korean nationalism and the hostility with which Koreans reacted against the modernizing programs which Japan was introducing.[34]

Emperor Gojong, who did not accept the conclusion of this Treaty, dispatched secret envoys to the second Hague Peace Conference in 1907 in order to denounce the conclusion of the treaty as compulsive and invalid, but no nation supported the envoys. In July, 1907, Japan imposed the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1907 to gain fuill control of domestic affairs in Korea. It disbanded the army of the Korean Empire. Itō Hirobumi took full control of Korea as Resident-General of Korea. In 1909, Ito Hirobumi was assassinated by An Jung-geun. The assassination of Prince Ito by Korean nationalists brought the protectorate to an end and led to outright annexation. On August 22, 1910, Japan officially annexed the Korean Empire by imposing the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. One result of the protectorate was to demonstrate to the world that Japan was the strongest single power in the Far East. There was no significant opposition by any of the major powers.[35][36][37]

20th centuryEdit

Korea under Japanese ruleEdit

During the colonial period, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Imperial Japanese Army. The service of these Korean men was forced upon them,[38]].[39] Approximately 200,000 Korean children (predominantly ages 12-17) were also sent forcefully as "comfort women" at the war frontlines to serve the Imperial Japanese Army as sex slaves.[40][41][42] The issue regarding "comfort women" has been the source of diplomatic tensions between Japan and Korea since the 1980s.

Kim Il-sung led a Korean independence movement, which was active in the border areas of China and Russia, particularly in areas with considerable ethnic Korean populations. Kim founded North Korea, and his descendants have still not signed a peace treaty with Japan. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, led by (later) South Korea's first president Syngman Rhee, moved from Shanghai to Chongqing. Lee lobbied in the United States and was recognized by the South Korean administrator by Douglas MacArthur.[43] Japanese control of Korea ended on September 9, 1945 when the Japanese Governor-General of Korea signed the surrender document of the United States in Seoul.

Post World War IIEdit

At the end of World War II, Korea regained its independence after 35 years of imperialist Japanese rule. Per the Yalta Conference agreements, Soviet forces accepted surrender of Japanese forces in northern Korea above the 38th parallel, and U.S. forces south of that line. Korea was then divided into Soviet (North Korean) and U.S. (South Korean) spheres. South Korea refused diplomatic and trade relations with Japan, using tensions with Japan to rally support for the South Korean government. The early ROK (Republic of Korea; South Korea) government derived its legitimacy from its opposition to Japan and North Korea, portraying South Korea as under threat from the North and South. The diplomatic relationship between Japan and South Korea was established in 1965, when the Treaty on Basic Relations was signed; Japan subsequently recognized the Republic of Korea (the official name of South Korea) as the only legitimate government on the Korean Peninsula. As such, North Korea does not have official diplomatic ties with Japan.

21st centuryEdit

In recent years, the two nations jointly hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and (South) Korean pop culture experienced major popularity in Japan, a phenomenon dubbed the "Korean Wave" (韓流) in Japan. The Korean Wave has sparked a fad for Korean movies, dramas and popular music in Japan. In return, certain Japanese pop culture productions like anime, manga and video games gained significant popularity in South Korea.

In 2015, relations between the two nations reached a high point when South Korea and Japan addressed the issue of comfort women, or sex slaves, used by Japanese military during World War II. Fumio Kishida, the Japanese Foreign Minister, pledged that the Japanese government would donate 1 billion yen (US$8.3 million, 2015) to help pay for the care of the surviving former sex slaves. Furthermore, Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzō Abe, made public apologies to the "women who underwent immeasurable and painful experiences and suffered incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women". The agreement was firstly welcomed by the majority of the former comfort women (36 out of 47 existed former comfort women at that time) and the payment was received by them.[44] However, Moon Jae-in utilized the criticism against the agreement for his presidential election supported by an activist group, the Korean Council for the Women Drafted for Military Sexual Slavery by Japan, which criticized the agreement and persuaded the women to deny the payment.

Moon and the activists argued that the former South Korean president, Park Geun-hye, without any communication with the alive “comfort women”, hailed this deal as a sign of positive progression in Japanese and South Korean relations.[45][46] At the time of this high point most of Japan's cabinet members visited the Yasukuni shrine, causing confusion in Korea about Japan's sincerity.

In 2019 Japan imposed controls on the export of semiconductor materials, restricting export to South Korea and removing the country from its "preferred trading nations" list. Experts have said the controls may be retaliation after South Korean courts ruled that Japanese companies pay restitution for Korean forced laborers during World War II.[47][48]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ James I. Matray, "Truman's Plan for Victory: National Self-Determination and the Thirty-Eighth Parallel Decision in Korea." Journal of American History 66.2 (1979): 314–333. in JSTOR
  2. ^ Steven Casey, ed. The Korean War at Sixty: New Approaches to the Study of the Korean War (Routledge, 2014).
  3. ^ J.J. Suh, "War-like history or diplomatic history? Contentions over the past and regional orders in Northeast Asia.", Australian Journal of International Affairs (2007) 61#3 pp 382–402.
  4. ^ Gi-Wook Shin, and Daniel C. Sneider, eds. History textbooks and the wars in Asia: divided memories (Routledge, 2011).
  5. ^ Ahn, Dong-hwan. "94% Koreans Say Japan Feels No Regret for Its Past Wrongdoings, 63% Japanese Find Korean Demand for Japanese Apology Incomprehensible,”." Seoul shinmun, January 4 (2013).
  6. ^ 강성현 (2005). 21세기 한반도와 주변 4강대국. 가람기획. p. 156. ISBN 89-8435-224-1. 김달수의 《일본 열도에 흐르는 한국 혼》에 의하면 고대 한반도의 고구려․백제․신라․가야국으로부터 일본 열도로의 이동이 시작된 것은 기원전 3세기, 일본의 이른바 야요이(彌生)시대부터였다고 한다.
  7. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art [1] Japan had no writing system until Baekje's scholar Wani introduced it to the archipelago. "Metallurgy was also introduced from the Korea during this time. Bronze and iron were used to make weapons, armor, tools and ritual implements such as bells (dotaku)"
  8. ^ Choson Sinbo "Kitora Tomb Originates in Koguryo Murals" By Chon Ho Chon "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-26. Retrieved 2012-09-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Yayoi Era". Archived from the original on 2005-11-11.
  10. ^ "Japanese history: Jomon, Yayoi, Kofun". Japan-guide.com. 2002-06-09. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  11. ^ "Asia Society: The Collection In Context". Asiasocietymuseum.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  12. ^ Pottery – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-29.
  13. ^ "Japanese Art and Its Korean Secret". .kenyon.edu. 2003-04-06. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  14. ^ "Japanese Royal Tomb Opened to Scholars for First Time". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
  15. ^ Korean History Record Samguk Sagi : 三國史記 新羅本紀 : 元年 三月 與倭國通好 以奈勿王子未斯欣爲質 [2]; King Asin of Baekje sent his son Jeonji in 397
  16. ^ Korean History Record Samguk Sagi : 三國史記 百済本紀 : 六年夏五月 王與倭國結好 以太子腆支爲質 秋七月大閱於漢水之南 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-05-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) :King Silseong of Silla sent his son Misaheun in 402.
  17. ^ Watts, Jonathan (Dec 28, 2001). "The Emperor's New Roots". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-06-11. "I, on my part, feel a certain kinship with Korea, given the fact that it is recorded in the Chronicles of Japan that the mother of Emperor Kanmu was of the line of King Muryong of Paekche," [Emperor Akihito] told reporters.
  18. ^ Fujiwara no Tsugutada; Sugano no Mamichi, eds. (797), 続日本紀 (Shoku Nihongi) (in Japanese), 40, archived from the original on 2012-07-02, retrieved 2012-06-11, 壬午。葬於大枝山陵。皇太后姓和氏。諱新笠。贈正一位乙継之女也。母贈正一位大枝朝臣真妹。后先出自百済武寧王之子純陀太子。皇后容徳淑茂。夙著声誉。天宗高紹天皇竜潜之日。娉而納焉。生今上。早良親王。能登内親王。宝亀年中。改姓為高野朝臣。今上即位。尊為皇太夫人。九年追上尊号。曰皇太后。其百済遠祖都慕王者。
  19. ^ Nihon Kōki (日本後紀) 延暦18年4月庚寅(16日)条(799)
  20. ^ Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (日本三代実録, "The True History of Three Reigns of Japan") Vol.16
  21. ^ Nihongiryaku (日本紀略) 弘仁四年
  22. ^ 『元史』 巻十二(History of Yuan Vol 12) 本紀第十二 世祖九 至元十九年七月壬戌(August 9, 1282)「高麗国王請、自造船百五十艘、助征日本。」
  23. ^ 『高麗史』巻一百ニ 列伝十五 李蔵用 元宗九年五月二十九日の条 (History of Goryeo Vol.102 May 29, 1268) 「又勑蔵用曰、爾還爾國、速奏軍額、爾將討之、爾等不知出軍將討何國、朕欲討宋與日本耳、今朕視爾國猶一家、爾國若有難、朕安敢不救乎、朕征不庭之國、爾國出師助戰亦其分也、爾歸語王、造戰艦一千艘、可載米三四千石者、蔵用對曰、敢不承命、但督之、則雖有船材、恐不及也」
  24. ^ "일본역사".
  25. ^ Sin, Hyŏng-sik. (2004). A Brief history of Korea, p. 90.
  26. ^ Keene, Donald (2002). Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 234–39. ISBN 978-0231123419. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  27. ^ Duus, Peter (1995). The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895–1910. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08614-2.
  28. ^ <Marlene J. Mayo, "The Korean crisis of 1873 and early Meiji foreign policy." //Journal of Asian Studies 31.4 (1972): 793-819. Online
  29. ^ see [https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Shimonoseki Treaty of Shimonoseki
  30. ^ Larsen, Kirk W. "Competing imperialisms in Korea." in Michael J Seth, ed. Routledge Handbook of Modern Korean History (Routledge, 2016) pp. 39-54. excerpt
  31. ^ Tatiana M. Simbirtseva, "Queen Min of Korea: Coming to Power." Queen Min sent a delegation that included her adopted nephew to the United States in 1883 in attempts to gain support for the resistance against a Japanese invasion. Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society–Korea Branch 71 (1996): 41–54. online
  32. ^ Bruce Cumings, Korea's Place in the Sun (1997) p 123.
  33. ^ Peter Duus, The Abacus and the Sword: The Japanese Penetration of Korea, 1895–1910 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995), p. 111.
  34. ^ C.I. Eugene Kim. "Japanese rule in Korea (1905-1910): A case study." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (1962): 53-59. online
  35. ^ Chong Ik Eugene Kim; Han-Kyo Kim (1967). Korea and the Politics of Imperialism, 1876–1910. p. 53.
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  37. ^ Andre Schmid, Korea between Empires, 1895-1919 (Columbia UP, 2002),
  38. ^ "Truth Commission on Forced Mobilization under the japanese Imperialism Republic of Korea". Archived from the original on February 14, 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
  39. ^ A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945. "While less than 100 Koreans in America enlisted in the US military during World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Japanese army as officers and soldiers. There were two Korean Lt. Generals in the Japanese Army: a Chosun prince, whose rank was honorary and who commanded no troops; and Lt. Gen. Hong Sa-Ik, who was a professional military man from the old Chosun army."
  40. ^ "従軍慰安婦の正体". Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  41. ^ Soh, C. Sarah (May 2001). "Japan's Responsibility Toward Comfort Women Survivors". San Francisco: Japan Policy Research Institute. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  42. ^ "WCCW's Mission". Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues. 2011. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2010.
  43. ^ Bruce Cummings (2010). "38 degrees of separation: a forgotten occupation". The Korean War: a History. Modern Library. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8129-7896-4.
  44. ^ "South Korea formally closes Japan-funded 'comfort women' foundation". July 5, 2019.
  45. ^ "Japan apologises for its wartime sex slaves". Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  46. ^ "South Korea, Japan reach agreement on 'comfort women'". 28 December 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  47. ^ Brazinsky, Gregg. "How Japan's failure to atone for past sins threatens the global economy". New York Times.
  48. ^ Deacon, Chris (2021-03-10). "(Re)producing the 'history problem': memory, identity and the Japan-South Korea trade dispute". The Pacific Review: 1–32. doi:10.1080/09512748.2021.1897652. ISSN 0951-2748.

Further readingEdit

  • Cha, Victor D. (1999). Alignment despite Antagonism: the US-Korea-Japan Security Triangle (Stanford University Press).
  • Conroy, Hilary. (1960) The Japanese seizure of Korea, 1868–1910: a study of realism and idealism in international relations (1960). online in Questia[dead link]
  • Cumings, Bruce. (2005) Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History (W W Norton).
  • Deacon, Chris (2021). (Re)producing the 'history problem': memory, identity and the Japan-South Korea trade dispute (The Pacific Review).
  • Dudden, Alexis (2008). Troubled Apologies Among Japan, Korea, and the United States (Columbia UP)
  • Hawley, Samuel. The Imjin War: Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China (2005). excerpt
  • Henry, Todd A. Assimilating Seoul: Japanese Rule and the Politics of Public Space in Colonial Korea, 1910-1945 (U of California Press, 2014) online[dead link]
  • Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict (Indiana UP, 2012) online[dead link]
  • Lee, Chong-Sik (1985). Japan and Korea: The Political Dimension (Stanford University Press).
  • Lee, Chong-Sik (1963). The Politics of Korean Nationalism (U of California Press), online
  • Lind, Jennifer (2008). Sorry States: Apologies in International Politics (Cornell University Press).
  • Meyers, Ramon Hawley, et al. (1984). The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895–1945 (Princeton University Press).
  • Morley, James (1965). Japan and Korea (New York: Walker, 1965).
  • Swope, Kenneth M. A Dragon's Head and a Serpent's Tail: Ming China and the First Great East Asian War, 15921598 (2009)
  • Turnbull, Stephen. Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War 1592 -1598 (2002).
  • Yoo, Theodore Jun. The Politics of Gender in Colonial Korea: Education, Labor, and Health, 1910-1945 (U of California Press, 2008) online[dead link]

External linksEdit