Hiran (Somali: Hiiraan, Arabic: هيران) is an administrative region (gobol) in central Somalia and part of the Hirshabelle State.

Location of Hiiran
Location of Hiiran
Coordinates: 4°47′N 45°27′E / 4.783°N 45.450°E / 4.783; 45.450
Country Somalia
State Hirshabelle
 • TypeRegional Government
 • GovernorAli Jeyte Osman [1]
 • Total31,510 km2 (12,170 sq mi)
 • Total566,400
 • Density18/km2 (47/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Area code252
HDI (2021)0.291[3]
low · 16th of 18

Overview edit

Hiran is bordered by the Somali Region of Ethiopia (or the 1908 Convention Line)[4] to the northwest, the Somali provinces of Galgudud to the northeast, Middle Shebelle (Shabeellaha Dhexe) to the south, Lower Shebelle (Shabellaha Hoose) to the southwest, and Bay and Bakool to the west. It is approximately 31,510 km2.[5] The Shebelle River flows into Hiran from Ethiopia, coursing through the provincial capital of Beledweyne.

Districts edit

According to the Somalia government's classification, Hiran Region consists of three districts:[6]

  1. Beledweyne District
  2. Buloburde District
  3. Jalalaqsi District

In May 2012, Governor Hiran appointed new governors for Mahas and Mataban Districts.[7]

In August 2017, the Hirshabelle State, inaugurated the previous year, declared that where Hiran had previously had five districts, Beledweyne, Buloburde, Mahas, Jalalaqsi, and Mataban, it would now have three new districts, Halgan, El Ali, Far- Libaax, bringing the total number of districts to eight.[8]

Universities edit

Governor edit

Name Somali name Term of office
Took office Left office
Hassan Abdulle Khalad Xassan Cabdull Qalaad[9] 1991 2003
Abdi Farah Laqanyo Cabdi Faarax Laqanyo 2013?[10] Apr. 2014[11]
Abdifatah Hassan Aflax Cabdifataax Xasan Afrax Apr. 2014[11] Dec. 2015[12]
Yusuf Ahmed Hagar Dabageed Yuusuf Axmed Xagar Dabageed Dec. 2015[12] Oct. 2016[13]
Omar Aden Ibrahim Badiyow Cumar Aadan Ibraahim Baadiyoow Oct. 2016[13] Sep. 2017[13]
Ali Jeyte Osman Cali Jeyte Cismaan Sep. 2017[13] Apr. 2018[14]
Abdulahi Ahmed Malin (Sufurow) Cabdullaahi Axmed Maalin (Sufurow) Apr. 2018[14][15] Sep. 2018[15][16]
Yusuf Ahmed Hagar Dabageed Yuusuf Axmed Xagar Dabageed Sep. 2018[15][16] Jun. 2019[17]
Ali Mohamed Arale Jun. 2019[17][18] Mar. 2020[18]
Ali Jeyte Osman Mar. 2020[18] incumbent

Traditional Elder edit

Nabadoon Dacar Xirsi Nuur[12]

Recent history edit

Somalia became a civil war around 1990.

Since 1994, the Sharia law has been increasingly applied in Hiran.[19]: 20 

In June 1995, Mohamed Farrah Aidid declared himself president of Somalia and attempted to rule Hiran, but was ousted by local clans in late 1995.[19]: 8 

According to a 1998 report, Hiran is considered a relatively stable region within Somalia. However, banditry has flourished in the past. The governor lives in Beledweyne, and the use of militias has reduced the incidence of fighting, with the exception of Mataban District.[19]: 14 

In June 1999, flooding in south-central Somalia caused extensive damage in Hiran.[20]

In November 2001, the Quran School was attacked by an armed group, killing 18 students.[21]

In August 2006, the Xawaadle and Murusade clans, who had been fighting in the Maxaas of Hiran, reconciled.[22] However, the agreement was violated and the conflict resumed, so a peace conference was held again in October 2007.[23]

In November 2007, militants attacked government forces near Beledweyne in Hiran.[24] In January 2008, militants attacked an Ethiopian military base near Beledweyne.[25]

In September 2010, the establishment of a local government called Dooxada Shabeelle was proclaimed in Kalabayr, Hiran, led by C/fataax Xasan Afrax.[26]

In March 2011, a bombing by Al-Shabaab occurred in Beledweyne.[27]

In December 2011, Ethiopian troops and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a completely retook the city of Baladweyne from al-Shabaab.[28]

In May 2013, Governor Hiran decided to send deserter soldiers from al-Shabaab who are hiding, and asked the local population for help in sending them to rehabilitation facilities.[29]

In November 2013, a disease outbreak killed 40 people in Ceel-Cali, Hiran.[30]

In March 2014, Hiran's executive government asked foreign charities for help, saying that healthcare was in crisis after the withdrawal of a Swiss hospital last year.[31]

In October 2014, the AMISOM base in Hiran was attacked.[32]

In May 2015, at a meeting in Beledweyne, a proposal was made to divide Hiran into two regions.[33]

In December 2015, the Somali government replaced Governor Hiran for his involvement in the murders in Beledweyne.[34] In the same month, the Somali President visits Beledweyne.[35]

In January 2016, three people were killed in a clan war in Hiran.[36]

In August 2016, Somalia's interior minister rejected a local request to divide Hiran into two regions.[37]

In October 2016, Somali government and Ethiopian troops withdrew from the Halgan District of Hiran and were replaced by al-Shabaab.[38] The withdrawal of Ethiopian troops is reportedly related to a state of emergency declaration issued in response to anti-government protests in Ethiopia.[39]

In December 2016, Governor Hiran destroyed more than 50 charcoal burning facilities in Mataban District to prevent illegal logging and arrested more than 20 people.[40]

In November 2017, the Hiran government declared a halt to the use of Somali shillings because villages controlled by al-Shabaab refused to accept high denomination 1,000 Somali shilling bills and because of the influx of counterfeit bills from Puntland, which caused massive inflation. United States dollars were to be used for transactions.[41]

In October 2019, Beledweyne was severely damaged by the flooding of the Jubba and Shebelle Rivers.[42] In November 2019, the African Union Commission assisted flooded Beledweyne with $87,000 worth of relief supplies.[43]

In March 2020, President Mohamed Abdi Ware of Hirshabelle State dismisses Hiran Governor Ali Mohamed Arale and reappoints his predecessor Ali Jeyte Osman, but Arale refuses.[18]

In June 2022, a clan attacked the al-Shabaab base in Booco.[44]

References edit

  1. ^ "Hiiraan governor slams President Deni for divisive comments".
  2. ^ "Somalia: Subdivision and cities". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2024-02-14.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  4. ^ See Ciid page for sources)
  5. ^ "La Somalia: una storia tormentata, tra colonialismo e abbandono". totapulchra.news. 2020-05-27. Retrieved 2022-12-17.
  6. ^ "Hiran Region" (PDF). Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Golaha Deegaanka Magaalada Beledweyne oo doortay Duqa Degmada". hiiraan.com. 2012-05-07. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  8. ^ "Degmooyin cusub oo la magacaabay gobolka Hiiraan". hiiraan.com. 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  9. ^ "Taariikh nololeedka Xassan Qalaad". bbc.com. 2004-09-30. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  10. ^ "Ciidanka Itoobiya oo Masjid ku dhex dilay Masuul ka tirsanaa Dowllada Hoose ee Beledweyne". halgan.net. 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  11. ^ a b "Dowladda oo Gudoomiyaha cusub ee Gobolka Hiiraan u magacawday C/fataax Xasan Afrax". universaltvsomali.net. 2014-04-15. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  12. ^ a b c "Madaxweyne Xasan Sheekh Oo Ku Wajahan magaalada Baladweyne". goobjoog.com. 2015-12-21. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  13. ^ a b c d "Faah Faahin : Cali Jeyte Cismaan oo markii labaad noqonaya guddoomiyaha gobolka Hiiraan". hiiraan.com. 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  14. ^ a b "Cali Jeyte " Dhaqaalaha laga qaado gobolka Hiiraan shaqsiyaad gaar ah ayaa Akoonno ku shubta". hiiraan.com. 2018-04-16. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  15. ^ a b c "Yuusuf Daba-geed oo loo magacaabay guddoomiyaha gobolka Hiiraan". hiiraan.com. 2018-09-22. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  16. ^ a b "Yuusuf Daba-geed oo loo magacaabay guddoomiyaha cusub ee gobolka Hiiraan". bbc.com. 2018-09-23. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  17. ^ a b "Defiant ex-Hiiraan governor says still in office". goobjoog.com. 2019-06-13. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  18. ^ a b c d "Hiiraan Region Governor Arale dismisses Sacking as Jeyte Makes a Comeback". hiiraan.com. 2020-03-31. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  19. ^ a b c Ministry of Foreign Affairs (October 1998). "Situation in Somalia / October 1998" (PDF). Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  20. ^ "Les agences humanitaires au secours des victimes des inondations". thenewhumanitarian.org. 1999-06-15. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  21. ^ "Horn of Africa Review Nov/Dec 2001". reliefweb.int. 2001-12-21. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  22. ^ "Beelaha Xawaadle iyo Murusade oo ka heshiiyay Colaad dhexmartay kadib muddo 66 sano oo ay nabad ku wada noolaayeen". hiiraan.com. 2006-08-09. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  23. ^ "Shirkii Dib u heshiisiinta Beelaha Xawaadle iyo Murusade oo la soo gebagebeeyay". hiiraan.com. 2007-10-15. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  24. ^ "Weerar ka dhacay gobolka Hiiraan". bbc.com. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  25. ^ "Dagaal culus oo ka dhacay Hiiraan". bbc.com. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  26. ^ "voasomali.com". 2010-09-29. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  27. ^ "Beledweyne: Shabaab Miino la Qaraxday". www.voasomali.com. 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  28. ^ "Baladweyne oo laga caydhiyey Al-Shabaab iyo khasaaraha ka dhashay dagaalka". berberanews.net. 2011-12-31. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  29. ^ "Guddoomiyaha Gobolka Hiiraan oo sheegay inay qorshe u dajiyeen dhallinta kasoo goostay Xarakada Al-shabaab". www.hiiraan.com. 2013-05-04. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  30. ^ "Cudur Dad ku Laayey Gobolka Hiiraan". voasomali.com. 2013-11-26. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  31. ^ "Maamulka Gobolka Hiiraan oo baaq u jeediyay hay'adaha Samafalka". hiiraan.com. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  32. ^ "UN Special Representative for Somalia condemns attack on AMISOM troops in Hiiraan region". reliefweb.int. 2014-10-20. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  33. ^ "Xabeeb: Waxaan dooneynaa Hiiraan oo laba gobol ah". bbc.com. 2015-05-24. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  34. ^ "Gudoomiya loo soo magacaabay gobolka Hiiraan". garoweonline.com. 2015-12-20. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  35. ^ "Madaxweyne Xasan Oo Booqanaya Hiiraan". voasomali.com. 2015-12-21. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  36. ^ "Dagaal sanadka cusub ka dhacay gobolka Hiiraan". bbc.com. 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  37. ^ "Wasiir Odawaa: Gobolka Hiiraan labo Gobol lagama dhigi karo". universaltvsomali.net. 2016-08-07. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  38. ^ "Maleeshiyada Al-Shabaab oo la wareegay deegaanka Halgan ee gobolka Hiiraan kadib markii ay ka baxeen ciidamada Itoobiya". puntlandmirror.net. 2016-10-23. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  39. ^ "Maxay Ethiopia Uga Baxday Deegaano ka tirsan Hiiraan?". voasomali.com. 2016-10-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  40. ^ "Hiiraan: Dad loo xirxiray xaallufin". bbc.com. 2016-12-12. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  41. ^ "Deegaanno ka tirsan Hiiraan oo laga joojiyay isticmaalka shilin Soomaaliga". bbc.com. 2017-11-29. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  42. ^ "Floods Leave Hundreds of Thousands of Somalis Needing Aid". voanews.com. 2019-10-31. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  43. ^ "The AU Commission to support flood-hit Beledweyne with $87,000 worth of relief items". reliefweb.int. 2019-11-23. Retrieved 2023-01-29.
  44. ^ "Macawiisleyda Hiiraan: Qabiil weeraray saldhig Al-Shabaab si uu ugu aargudo nabaddoon laga dilay". bbc.com. 2022-01-01. Retrieved 2023-01-29.

External links edit